PM2.5 Airborne Particulates Near Frac Sand Operations Kristen Walters, Advisor: Dr. Crispin Pierce, University of Wisconsin-Eau Claire. Environmental Public Health, University of Wisconsin-Eau Claire Introduction Results o Hydraulic fracturing, or fracking, is a popular method for extracting natural gas from shale deposits below the earth’s crust. (7,8,9) o The geology of Wisconsin has optimal sand deposits for the process. (7,9) o The number of frac sand mines in WI has greatly increased in recent years. (see figure 7) o Over 140 permitted frac sand mines & processing plants are located in Wisconsin. (See figure 1) (3,7) o Frac sand is used during extraction as a proppant to hold open the fractured shale during removal of natural gas (3). o Crystalline silica & other small particulate matter have been shown to be a concern for health. (1,4,5) o “Freshly-fractured” silica appears to be 2 to 5 times more reactive with animal lung tissue than “weathered” silica, though weathering occurs within several days & with exposure to water. (5) o Numerous reports of dust accumulation at people’s homes & businesses have led to an increased need to investigating air quality surrounding those frac sand facilities. (3) o PM2.5 levels during the five sampling events ranged from 5.82–50.8 µg/m3. (see figure 2) o Monitoring of PM2.5 conducted in a controlled environment with multiple devices showed results of between 5-17.74 µg/m3. (see figure 3) o Monitors from the Minnesota Pollution Control Agency (MPCA) in Winona, MN showed similar results to our data. (see figure 4 & 5) o Levels of PM2.5 affected by precipitation, wind speed, & degree of frac sand facility activity. Figure 7: The increase in frac sand production in WI from 1975-2011. (6) Average PM2.5 Concentration in HSS 218 Lab Conclusions & Recommendations 20 17.74 18 PM2.5 Concentration ug/m3 16 14 o Elevated levels of PM2.5 during active frac sand mining & processing operations. (see figure 3) 13.7 14 12 10 o consistent with our findings using a TSI DustTrak™ 8520 aerosol monitor (a battery-operated, portable light-scattering laser photometer) used extensively in particulate measurement. 8 6 5 4 2 0 Air Sampling Instruments DustTrak II DustTrak I SKC DPS Dichot Sampler Figure 3: A calculated average of PM2.5 concentrations were taken in a controlled environment in HSS 218 Research Lab at UW- Eau Claire. Standard deviations (S.D.) were not used for instruments DustTrak I and II. DPS displayed a S.D. of +/- 3.74 and Dichot displayed a S.D. of +/- 1.23. (3) 60 50 Concentration (ug/m3) o Future research with federal-reference Andersen dichotomous sampler & direct reading instruments o Provide testing options for local health departments using less expensive instruments. Measured 24-Hour PM2.5 Levels Purpose Figure 6: Photo of Superior Silica Sand mine in Bloomer, WI on November 5, 2011. (2) US EPA annual PM2.5 standard of 12 µg/m3 40 30 o Health departments & elected officials face questions about health risks associated with frac sand mining. o More research needed to make informed decisions regarding policy making & when creating regulations. 20 10 Figure 1: WI map of frac sand site. (6) 0 Bridge Creek o Quantitatively characterize the PM2.5 & PM10 particulate concentrations in the air around frac sand facilities & evaluate the risk as compared to national standards. Arcadia New Auburn New Auburn Winona Figure 2: Locations & Measured PM2.5 concentrations near frac sand mining & processing sites. Results with S.D. were calculated as: Bridge Creek 13.8+/- 6.79 µg/m3,Arcadia 13.8+/- 6.79 µg/m3, New Auburn 50.8+/-9.48 µg/m3, New Auburn 23.6+/-3.16 µg/m3, Winona 19.6+/-1.74 µg/m3. (3) Figure 8: Jennifer Scmidtz, Jon Jilek, Alayna Spangler, & Kristen Walters; part of the current research team testing our new Andersen dichotomous samplers & the DPS. Site 1 Winona Hourly PM2.5 Samples 12 Concentration (ug/m3) o 24-Hour ambient air samples were collected with an SKC DPS sampler using the PM2.5 sampling head. o Sampling was conducted near mining sites using the DPS, TSI DustTrak™ I 8520, and the TSI DustTrak™ II 8530 and compared to local monitors, if available. o Sampling was conducted on the top of the research building and in the lab using the Andersen dichotomous sampler, DPS, TSI DustTrak™ I 8520, and the TSI DustTrak™ II 8530. o PVC filters were weighed pre- & post-exposure 6 times using a Mettler Toledo AT261 DeltaRange® balance for the DPS and the Andersen sampler. o The PM2.5 sample inlet was mounted 2 m high, away from buildings & trees, as described in EPA sampling protocol. o Temperature, humidity, wind speed, wind direction, & GPS coordinates were also recorded at each site. 8 US EPA annual PM2.5 standard of 12 µg/m3 6 4 2 0 Air Sampling Instruments MPCA DustTrak I DustTrak II Figure 4: A calculated average of PM2.5 concentrations were taken near an active frac sand site in Winona, MN. Data from the DustTrack I and DustTrack II compared to data from the Minnesota Pollution Control Agency. monitor located in Winona, MN (MPCA). MPCA reported 5 µg/m3, DustTrack I displayed 9.8±0.84 µg/m3, DustTrack II displayed 4.6±0.55. (3) Site 3 Winona 22-Hour PM2.5 Sample US EPA annual PM2.5 standard of 12 µg/m3 20 Concentration (ug/m3) Methods 10 15 10 References 1. Health effects of occupational exposure to respirable crystalline silica. (April 2002). Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Retrieved from http://www.cdc.gov/niosh/docs/2002-129/ 2. Kenosian, M. (2014) Photo Board, University of Wisconsin-Eau Claire Environmental Public health. Retrieved from http://www.uwec.edu/Watershed/enph/silica/PhotoGallery.htm 3. Pierce, C. (April 2014). PM2.5 Airborne Particulates near Frac Sand Operations. [Word Document]. 4. Pope, C.A., Burnett, R.T., Thun, M.J., Calle, E.E., Krewski, D., Ito, K., & Thurston, G.D. (2002). Lung cancer, cardiopulmonary mortality, and long-term exposure to fine particulate air pollution. The Journal of the American Medical Association, 287, 1132-1141. doi:10.1001/jama.287.9.1132. 5. Vallyathan, V., Castranova, V., Pack, D., Leonard, S., Shumaker, J., Hubbs, A.F., Shoemaker, D.A., Ramsey, D.M., Pretty, J.R., McLaurin, J.L., et al. (1995). Freshly fractured quartz inhalation leads to enhanced injury and inflammation. Potential role of freeradicals. American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, 152(3), 10039. 6. Wisconsin Center for Investigative Journalism. (2013). Frac sand mines and plants, October 2013 update [Data file]. Retrieved from http://www.wisconsinwatch.org/wi-frac-sand/ 7. Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources. (2011). Report to the Natural Resources Board: Silica Study, August 2011, AM-407. Retrieved from http://dnr.wi.gov/files/pdf/pubs/am/am407.pdf. 8. Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources. (2012). Silica sand mining in Wisconsin. Retrieved from http://dnr.wi.gov/topic/Mines/documents/SilicaSandMiningFinal.pdf 9. Wisconsin Geological and Natural History Survey, University of Wisconsin–Extension. (2013). Frac sand in Wisconsin. Retrieved from http://wisconsingeologicalsurvey.org/pdfs/frac-sand-factsheet.pdf Acknowledgments 5 0 MPCA DPS Filter Figure 5: A calculated average of PM2.5 concentrations were taken near an active frac sand site in Winona, MN. Data from the DPS compared to data from the Minnesota Pollution Control Agency monitor located in Winona, MN (MPCA).The MPCA reported 13.4±4.0 µg/m3 . The DPS displayed 19.7±1.7 µg/m3.(3) Thank you to the UW-Eau Claire Office of Research & Sponsored Programs for funding this project & the office of Learning & Technology Services for printing this poster. Also, the University of WisconsinStout, the University of Iowa-Environmental Health Sciences and Research Center, & RJ Lee Group, our partners in this research.