Chapter 8 Rise of Islam

Chapter 8 Rise of Islam
The Origins of Islam
• The Arabian Peninsula Before
• Muhammad in Mecca
• The Formation of the Umma
The Arabian Peninsula Before
• The Arabs in 600 CE lived usually in the
Arabian Peninsula, Syria, Jordan, and
• It was in these Arab lands that Islam
took its shape
• Nomads in these lands gained income
from providing camels, guides, and safe
passage through their land
The Ka’ba
• A shrine, the Ka’ba, contained idols
• Killing was prohibited
• Some people who lived in Mecca
affiliated the shrine with stories of the
Christians and Jews
• They believed Abraham was the man
who built the Ka’ba
Muhammad in Mecca
• Born in Mecca in 570
• One night, while meditating,
Muhammad was spoken to by the angel
Gabriel who told him revelations about
their Lord
• He shared his revelations at first only
with close friends and family
• He claimed to hear the words of God
The Formation of the Umma
• Muhammad- threat to leaders
• Muhammad and his followers fled to Medina
in 622; this marks the beginning of the
Muslim calendar
• The Meccan migrants in Medina bound
themselves into a Umma
• Umma: a community defined solely by
acceptance of Islam and of Muhammad as
the “messenger of God.”
5 Pillars of Islam
-Belief in one God
-Prayer 5 times a day
-Paying alms,
-One pilgrimage to Mecca in a lifetime
Civil War
• Umma disagreed regarding the
succession to the Caliphate
• After the assassination of the 3rd caliph,
civil war struck
• Rebels from the army nominated Ali to
be the new caliph
The Umayyad Caliphate
• The Umayyad Caliphate started when
Mu’awiya chose his son to succeed him
• The Shi’ites believed Ali was the rightful
successor and that Ali’s descendants should
succeed him
• The Sunnis considered the caliphs to be
cover ups
• They revolved into Kharijite sects who
claimed honor for themselves alone
The Fall of the Umayyad
Caliphate/ Start of Abbasid
• The family of Abbas, an uncle of
Muhammad, took over and established
the Abbasid Caliphate
• The Abbasid Caliphate held power until
Political Fragmentation
• The Abbasid Decline became apparent in the
middle of the 9th century as the conversion to
Islam increased
• Keeping up with a vast empire wasn’t easy
• The empire was so big that they couldn’t
control the people or get word across to other
parts of their empire without difficulty
Arab Forces
• During expansion, Arab forces were
organized into regular, paid armies
• Kept military camps and military towns
so they didn’t overrun the countryside
• Arab Muslims became minority-rulers
• Didn’t try to convert conquered people
Literature and Learning
• Thrived under the Abbasids
• Translated the Greek texts and secular
Arab poetry
• Baghdad was the center of the Abbasid
• Acceleration of the rate of conversion of
non-Muslim subjects to Islam at this
Decline of Abbasid Power
• 2nd half of the 9th century as the
caliphs found it nearly impossible to
maintain control over their vast empire
• Factors:
- difficulty of transportation and
-dissatisfaction of non-Muslim
Result of Decline
• 9th century local results carved the
Abbasid realm into smaller Muslims
• Caliphs in Baghdad relied on Turkish
slave troops called Mamluks
• Later in the 9th century, Mamluks were
not paid properly
The Fall of the Abbasid
• 945- Caliphate under control of Iranian
Shi’ite people
• Abbasid Caliphate declined
• Various provincial regimes rose to
-Samanids in Bukhara
-Fatimids in Egypt
Political Diversity
• Underlying the political diversity of the
fragmented Muslim world was a strong
sense of religious identity preserved by
the religious scholars: The Ulama
Assault from Within and
• In Central Asia and the Middle East, a
nomad group called the Seljuk Turks
took advantage of the decline of the
Abbasids to establish the Suljik
• They ruled a territory that stretched from
Afghanistan to Baghdad
Collapse of Baghdad
• Their collapse was caused by:
-Substantial urbanization
-Introduction of citrus crops
-Diverse irrigated agricultural sector
• The Crusades put some pressure on
the Islamic lands
• There were further invations by:
-Turkish in 1250
-Mongols in 13th century
Islamic Civilization
• Law and Dogma
• Most important source of law was the
traditions of the Prophet (Sunna) as
revealed in the reports (hadith) about
his words and deeds
• Islamic specialists on law reviewed tens
of thousands of hadith
Converts and Cities
• During early expansion converts to
Islam needed to learn about their new
Urban Life
• Variation in urban social and religious
life was due to no central authority to
prescribe religious dogma
Academic Advances
• Significant advances in medicine and
Islam and Women
• Muslim women were veiled and
• They could be influential in the family,
but only slave women could have public
• Muslim men feared women committing
sexual infidelity or meddling in politics
Rights of Muslim Women
Right to own property
Retain property in marriage
Right to divorce and remarry
Right to testify in court
Right to go on pilgrimage
Islam and Slaves
• Muslims were not permitted to enslave
their fellow Muslims, Jews, Christians,
or Zoroastrians. (exception: only when
taken as prisoners of war)
• Muslims could and did hold non-Muslim
slaves, but the status of slaves was not
Recentering of Islam
• Decline of Caliphate= no Islam religious
• During the 12th and 13th centuries, two
sources of religious authority
– Madrasas (religious colleges)
– Sufi brotherhoods
• Directions: Match the number and letter
that go together.
• For example, if #1 is letter C, you would
1.) C
1. Abbasid Caliphate
2. Umayyad Caliphate
3. Mecca
4. Abraham
5. Ka’ba
A. a shrine containing idols
B. started when Mu’awiya chose his son to
succeed him
• C. believed to be the man who built the Ka’ba
• D. where an uncle of Muhammad, took over
and established this Caliphate
• E. the city where Muhammad was born

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