Chapter 8 Rise of Islam

Report
Chapter 8 Rise of Islam
600-1200
The Origins of Islam
• The Arabian Peninsula Before
Muhammad
• Muhammad in Mecca
• The Formation of the Umma
The Arabian Peninsula Before
Muhammad
• The Arabs in 600 CE lived usually in the
Arabian Peninsula, Syria, Jordan, and
Iraq
• It was in these Arab lands that Islam
took its shape
• Nomads in these lands gained income
from providing camels, guides, and safe
passage through their land
The Ka’ba
• A shrine, the Ka’ba, contained idols
• Killing was prohibited
• Some people who lived in Mecca
affiliated the shrine with stories of the
Christians and Jews
• They believed Abraham was the man
who built the Ka’ba
Muhammad in Mecca
• Born in Mecca in 570
• One night, while meditating,
Muhammad was spoken to by the angel
Gabriel who told him revelations about
their Lord
• He shared his revelations at first only
with close friends and family
• He claimed to hear the words of God
The Formation of the Umma
• Muhammad- threat to leaders
• Muhammad and his followers fled to Medina
in 622; this marks the beginning of the
Muslim calendar
• The Meccan migrants in Medina bound
themselves into a Umma
• Umma: a community defined solely by
acceptance of Islam and of Muhammad as
the “messenger of God.”
5 Pillars of Islam
-Belief in one God
-Prayer 5 times a day
-Paying alms,
-Fasting
-One pilgrimage to Mecca in a lifetime
Qu’ran
Civil War
• Umma disagreed regarding the
succession to the Caliphate
• After the assassination of the 3rd caliph,
civil war struck
• Rebels from the army nominated Ali to
be the new caliph
The Umayyad Caliphate
• The Umayyad Caliphate started when
Mu’awiya chose his son to succeed him
• The Shi’ites believed Ali was the rightful
successor and that Ali’s descendants should
succeed him
• The Sunnis considered the caliphs to be
cover ups
• They revolved into Kharijite sects who
claimed honor for themselves alone
The Fall of the Umayyad
Caliphate/ Start of Abbasid
• The family of Abbas, an uncle of
Muhammad, took over and established
the Abbasid Caliphate
• The Abbasid Caliphate held power until
1258
Political Fragmentation
• The Abbasid Decline became apparent in the
middle of the 9th century as the conversion to
Islam increased
• Keeping up with a vast empire wasn’t easy
• The empire was so big that they couldn’t
control the people or get word across to other
parts of their empire without difficulty
Arab Forces
• During expansion, Arab forces were
organized into regular, paid armies
• Kept military camps and military towns
so they didn’t overrun the countryside
• Arab Muslims became minority-rulers
• Didn’t try to convert conquered people
Literature and Learning
• Thrived under the Abbasids
• Translated the Greek texts and secular
Arab poetry
• Baghdad was the center of the Abbasid
culture
• Acceleration of the rate of conversion of
non-Muslim subjects to Islam at this
time
Decline of Abbasid Power
• 2nd half of the 9th century as the
caliphs found it nearly impossible to
maintain control over their vast empire
• Factors:
- difficulty of transportation and
communication
-dissatisfaction of non-Muslim
populations
Result of Decline
• 9th century local results carved the
Abbasid realm into smaller Muslims
states
Baghdad
• Caliphs in Baghdad relied on Turkish
slave troops called Mamluks
• Later in the 9th century, Mamluks were
not paid properly
The Fall of the Abbasid
Caliphate
• 945- Caliphate under control of Iranian
Shi’ite people
• Abbasid Caliphate declined
• Various provincial regimes rose to
power
-Samanids in Bukhara
-Fatimids in Egypt
Political Diversity
• Underlying the political diversity of the
fragmented Muslim world was a strong
sense of religious identity preserved by
the religious scholars: The Ulama
Assault from Within and
Without
• In Central Asia and the Middle East, a
nomad group called the Seljuk Turks
took advantage of the decline of the
Abbasids to establish the Suljik
Sultanate
• They ruled a territory that stretched from
Afghanistan to Baghdad
Collapse of Baghdad
• Their collapse was caused by:
-Substantial urbanization
-Introduction of citrus crops
-Diverse irrigated agricultural sector
Crusades
• The Crusades put some pressure on
the Islamic lands
• There were further invations by:
-Turkish in 1250
-Mongols in 13th century
Islamic Civilization
• Law and Dogma
Hadith
• Most important source of law was the
traditions of the Prophet (Sunna) as
revealed in the reports (hadith) about
his words and deeds
• Islamic specialists on law reviewed tens
of thousands of hadith
Converts and Cities
• During early expansion converts to
Islam needed to learn about their new
religion
Urban Life
• Variation in urban social and religious
life was due to no central authority to
prescribe religious dogma
Academic Advances
• Significant advances in medicine and
astronomy
Islam and Women
• Muslim women were veiled and
secluded
• They could be influential in the family,
but only slave women could have public
appearance
• Muslim men feared women committing
sexual infidelity or meddling in politics
Rights of Muslim Women
•
•
•
•
•
Right to own property
Retain property in marriage
Right to divorce and remarry
Right to testify in court
Right to go on pilgrimage
Islam and Slaves
• Muslims were not permitted to enslave
their fellow Muslims, Jews, Christians,
or Zoroastrians. (exception: only when
taken as prisoners of war)
• Muslims could and did hold non-Muslim
slaves, but the status of slaves was not
hereditary
Recentering of Islam
• Decline of Caliphate= no Islam religious
center
• During the 12th and 13th centuries, two
sources of religious authority
developed:
– Madrasas (religious colleges)
– Sufi brotherhoods
Activity
• Directions: Match the number and letter
that go together.
• For example, if #1 is letter C, you would
write:
1.) C
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
1. Abbasid Caliphate
2. Umayyad Caliphate
3. Mecca
4. Abraham
5. Ka’ba
A. a shrine containing idols
B. started when Mu’awiya chose his son to
succeed him
• C. believed to be the man who built the Ka’ba
• D. where an uncle of Muhammad, took over
and established this Caliphate
• E. the city where Muhammad was born

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