Chapter 8 Bleeding Bleeding • Rapid blood loss can lead to shock or death. • Loss of 1 quart in adult • Loss of 1 pint in child • Hemorrhaging • Loss of a large quantity of blood in a short amount of time Types of External Bleeding • Arterial (spurting) • Venous (flowing) • Capillary (oozing) Body’s Response to Bleeding • Body responds naturally to bleeding: • Blood vessel spasm • Severed blood vessels draw back and constrict. • Clotting • Platelets form clot. • Serves as a protective covering for wound Care for External Bleeding (1 of 4) • Wear gloves. • If no gloves, improvise with other materials. • Expose wound. Care for External Bleeding (2 of 4) • Apply pressure. • Place sterile gauze pad or clean cloth over wound. • Hold direct pressure for at least 5 minutes. • Do not remove dressings. Care for External Bleeding (3 of 4) • Use a pressure bandage. • Wrap roller gauze tightly over dressing. • Do not cut off circulation. Care for External Bleeding (4 of 4) • Do not apply direct pressure to: • Protruding bone fracture • Skull fracture • Embedded object • Instead, use a ring pad. • Form a loop by wrapping bandage around four fingers. • Pass other end of bandage through loop. • Wrap entire bandage around and around. Internal Bleeding • Skin is intact and blood is not seen. • Can be life-threatening • Causes: • • • • Bleeding stomach ulcers Lacerated liver Ruptured spleen Broken bones Recognizing Internal Bleeding (1 of 2) • • • • Bright red blood from mouth or rectum Blood in urine Vaginal bleeding (nonmenstrual) Vomiting blood • Bright red, dark red, or coffee grounds • Stools are black, tarry, foul-smelling. Recognizing Internal Bleeding (2 of 2) • Pain, tenderness, bruising, or swelling • Broken ribs, bruises over lower chest • Rigid abdomen Care for Severe Internal Bleeding • Monitor breathing. • Have victim lie on left side. • Prevents aspiration of vomit • Treat for shock. • Keep warm with coat or blanket. • For internal bleeding in an extremity, apply a splint. • Seek immediate medical care. Bruises • • • • A form of internal bleeding Not life-threatening Apply ice pack for 20 minutes. Apply elastic bandage for compression to extremity.