Energy Surety and the Smart Grid

Report
Energy Surety and the Smart Grid:
Approaches and Benefits with Microgrids
Mike Hightower
Energy Surety Engineering and Analysis Department
Sandia National Laboratories
Albuquerque, NM
Phone: 505-844-5499
Cell phone: 505-850-8630
Email: [email protected]
Sandia is a multiprogram laboratory operated by Sandia Corporation, a Lockheed Martin Company,
for the United States Department of Energy’s National Nuclear Security Administration
under contract DE-AC04-94AL85000.
•
Energy System Reliability and
Vulnerability Issues
Southwest Army base
served by two feeders
• May 2002 forest fire took out
both feeders
• Base down for 16 hours
– Est. cost $3M
– Loss of mission
capability
• During hurricanes in 2005
base power outages of 3
weeks
• Southwest semiconductor
plant served by two feeders
• Forest fire 2005 takes out
both feeders
• Chip fab shuts down for 3
months
• High-value customers
cancel orders due to delay
• Economic loss forces plant
to shut down permanently
• Competitor with on-site
generation and storage was
down less than one day
Energy Surety Microgrid
With distributed generation and
storage, electric power can be
provided when the grid is down
X
Substation
Transmission
Loads
Distribution
Generator
Storage and generation on load
side sized to match electric
power performance needs
Enabling the 21st Century Grid with
Enhanced Reliability and Security
• Major Issues and Challenges
– Future electric grid incorporating extensive distributed
generation will require more complex system control
and integration to ensure energy safety, security, and
reliability including:
• Real-time or near real-time assessment, control, and optimization of
extensive distributed generation resources while maintaining power
quantity and quality
• Significantly improved control system cyber security
• Improved intermediate and large-scale energy storage technologies
to maintain renewable energy delivery reliability
• Bidirectional power flow requires new advanced safety standards for
distributed generation connection and operation in grid-tied and
islanded modes
• System control and hardware design and operational standards
scalable for micro, intermediate, and utility-scale grid applications
• Extensive testing and monitoring of control and operations
approaches to verify cost and performance to reduce operational
and safety risks to utilities and the public
Energy Surety Concept
Improving Energy Safety, Security, Reliability
Energy Surety Elements
Safety Safely supplies energy to end user
Security Maintains power in a malevolent environment
Reliability Maintains power when and where needed
Sustainability It can be maintained for mission duration
Cost Effectiveness Produces energy at lowest predictable cost
Distributed Infrastructures (like the Energy Infrastructure) are Hard to Protect
Risk-based Assessment Approach
for Energy Systems
Characterize
Facilities
Risk = PA x (1-PE) x C
Define P
A
Threats
Compare to System
Determine C
Protection and
Consequences
Performance Goals
Identify
P
Safeguards E
Analyze
Risk
R
System
Sufficient Y
Protection
?
End Until Change
Make Changes & Reassess
N
MicrogridTest and Validation
Grid
Center for
Control System
Security
Sandia Distributed Energy
Technology Laboratory
480V Microgrid
Other Remote
DER sites
Various Loads
Distributed Energy Resources
Renewable and Distributed System
Integration and Microgrids for DOE
Objective
To address current shortcomings of power reliability
and security, Sandia is investigating advanced
microgrid approaches to locate more secure and
robust distributed energy generation and storage
sources near loads as a way to better manage power
generation and to improve overall power reliability
and security. Microgrids are equally applicable to
military, industrial, and utility distribution applications.
Life-cycle Funding
Summary ($K)
FY 09 to
FY 11
FY12,
authorized
FY13,
requested
Out-year(s)
~$2000K
$870K
$1000K
$1000K
Technical Scope
Sandia’s microgrid research utilizes smart grid
technologies to enable distributed energy
generation and storage to be operated in both
‘grid-tied and ‘islanded’ modes. This enables
energy demand/response management, increased
use of distributed and renewable energy
technologies, and improved cost-effectiveness,
and reliability. The program leverages DoD, DOE,
and industry funding to develop and evaluate
smart grid technologies at DoD and other sites
December 2008
and testbeds.
8
Significance and Impact
115 kV System Utility
Studio
Substation
Studio 14 Feeder
(12.47 kV)
Other Load
And PV
PNM Project
• Large-scale PV (500 kW)
• Large-scale Storage
250 kW 4 hr. energy battery
500 kW, 40 min power battery
• Smart Grid / SCADA integration
Residential
(under
construction)
NEDO Project
• Energy storage (small)
• Gas Engine (240 kW)
• Fuel Cell (80 kW)
• PV (50 kW)
• Demand response?
100 kW Dummy load
Electric Chiller/Thermal storage
• MicroGrid
Helping to accelerate Commercial Smart Grid Testing
9
December 2008
Significance and Impact
 Consequence
modeling shows that significant reliability and
security improvements available with advanced microgrids
•
•
Automated microgrids show great flexibility - control, safety, and cyber
security issues are not insurmountable
Can improve energy reliability in remote areas and on congested feeders
 Advanced microgrids able
to operate “islanded” and “grid –
tied” can greatly improve the ROI of distributed energy
•
•
Demand/response and ancillary services opportunities can be significant
Combined cooling, heat, and power (CCHP) have large potential
 Multiple
microgrids are often the best energy reliability
approach at bases (coupling/networking can be even more
beneficial and cost effective)
December 2008
10
Technical Approach & Transformational R&D
TRANSITION
CAMP SMITH
ENERGY ISLAND
FT CARSON
ADVANCED
MICROGRID
PEARL HARBOR /
HICKAM AFB
CIRCUIT LEVEL
DEMONSTRATION
• Renewables (20% PV)
• Storage – Flow
battery
• Energy Management
• Peak Shaving
• 1 MW
• Demo Dec 2012
• Large Scale PV
(50% )
• Vehicle-to-Grid
• Only Critical
Assets
• CONUS Homeland
Defense Demo
• 3MW
• Demo May 2013
• Entire Installation
Smart Microgrid
• Islanded
Installation
• High Penetration of
Renewables
• Demand-Side
Management
• Redundant Backup
Power
• Makana Pahili
Hurricane Exercise
• 4 MW
• Demo Mar 2014
• Template for DoDwide
implementation
• CONOPS
• TTPs
• Training Plans
• DoD Adds Specs
to GSA Schedule
• Transition to
Commercial
Sector
• Transition CyberSecurity to
Federal Sector
and Utilities
CYBER-SECURITY
December 2008
Technical Accomplishments
 From Miloitary Base
Evaluations
•
Advanced microgrid Concept of Operations (CONOPS) developed for
broad range of microgrid sizes (FY09-FY12)
•
Defined approaches and costs for addressing critical mission, priority,
and non-priority loads (FY09-FY12)
•
Developing training manuals and guidance on advanced microgrids
evaluation and conceptual design with West Point (9/12)
 From Microgrid Testing
and SPIDERS program
•
Four final designs to assess if major improvements in conceptual designs
are needed (FY12) and assess operational issues (10/12-FY14)
•
Developed microgrid cyber security strategy (FY11)

DoD compliant, working on CyberCOM and NSA approval
•
Evaluating protective relaying design for safety (5/12)
•
Integrated Dynamic Simulation Consequence modeling to enable
December 2008
stakeholder input for critical and priority load shedding issues (FY11)
12
Energy Surety Microgid Summary
• Energy Surety Microgrids are an example of energy risk
management - matching energy supply reliability and security
within a community energy assurance context
• Consequence analysis and assessment can illustrate the effect
of energy improvements on critical mission capability
– Different from stating 9’s of reliability – which does not factor in
the erosion of critical energy needs for extended outages
• Supports energy assurance for extended operations as needed
during either loss of utility power or as a stand alone small
distributed energy grid
• Permits integration of renewables and storage into power
supply infrastructure for ‘islanded’ and ‘grid-tied’ operations to
increase electric power system safety and reliability to meet
community critical energy needs

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