Russian contribution to the ExoMars project

Report
Russian contribution to
ExoMars and the outline of
further Mars Exploration
programme
NPOL TEAM
IKI TEAMS
COORDINATOR
DANIIL RODIONOV
<[email protected]>
3MS33, 11.10.2012
Scientific and technical goals of the
ExoMars project
Completion of previously planned scientific missions:
Investigation of the Mars structure and climate at the surface (Mars-96 
Mars-Net).
Atmosphere investigation, search for methane, climate monitoring from the
orbit (Phobos-Grunt).
New scientific goals:
Subsurface water mapping with high resolution.
Exploration of Mars habitability.
Volcanism (search for volcanic gases).
Development of a joint (ESA-Roscosmos) ground segment for
interplanetary missions management.
Integration of Russian and European experience in technology
development for interplanetary missions and in quality control.
Preparation for the next steps in Mars exploration:
Landing sites investigation, subsurface water.
Dosimetry. Monitoring of radiation situation.
EXOMARS: Participation in ESA-led
mission
1. Proton launch of 2016 composite
–
–
–
RTG and Russian instruments on EDM
Russian instruments on TGO
Joint science programme
Cancelled on 8 June
2. Proton launch of 2018 probe
–
–
–
Roscosmos-led Descent Module using experience of EDM and lunar descents
ESA-supplied s/systems for the DM
Roscosmos-led fixed long-living platform (target science payload 50 kg)
ExoMars: Project configuration
2016
TGO: Trace Gas Orbiter
Russian participation
ACS: 3 spectrometers and electronic block
FREND: Collimated neutron spectrometer +
dosimeter
EDM: Entry, Descent & Landing
Demonstrator Module
ExoMars: Project configuration
2016
TGO: Trace Gas Orbiter
EDM: Entry, Descent & Landing
Demonstrator Module
Russian participation
ACS: 3 spectrometers and electronic block
FREND: Collimated neutron spectrometer +
dosimeter
PanCam
Lidar
Adron
Dust Sensor
ExoMars: Trace Gas Orbiter
Russian contribution: ACS
Atmospheric Chemistry Suite (ACS) – Three spectrometers for the study of atmospheric chemistry and
climate. Total mass: 33.3 kg (with electronic block).
Name
Description
Echelle-AOTF (Near IR: 0.7-1.7 μm,
R~20000).
Monitoring and profiling of CO, H O, O2.
ACS-NIR Dayglow O emission, sensitive 2search
2
for nightglows.
Mass: 3.5 kg. Power: 15 W.
ACSMIR
ACS-TIR
Prototype
ISS
Echelle spectrometer (Middle IR: 2.2-4.5
μm, R>50000).
Profiles of CH4 , H2O, СО, isotopic ratios
HDO/H2O.
Search
for
undetected
species.
Mass: 12 kg. Power: 20 W.
Phobos-Grunt
Fourier-spectrometer (2-25 μm, 0.2 cm-1).
Monitoring of thermal state, aerosols,
minor constituents in nadir. Detection in
occultation.
Mass: 12 kg. Power: 20 W.
Phobos-Grunt
FREND: Fine Resolution Epithermal Neutrons Detector
FREND is a neutron detector with a collimator and dosimeter module. Measurements are performed in a narrow
field of view of about 10°, allowing to estimate the presence of water in the Martian surface with approx 40 km
resolution. This is 10 times better than the resolution of currently exiting HEND/Odyssey map:
Poly
HEND/Odyssey data,
~400 km resolution
10B
400 km
pixel
3He
Gale Crater
40 km
pixel
Simulation of FREND/TGO
data, ~40 km resolution
Martian neutron energy ranges:
Epithermal (3He counters):
0.4 eV – 500 keV
Fast (Stylbene Scintillator):
0.5 – 10 MeV
Spatial resolution:
~ 40 km at 400 km orbit
Scint
Preliminary design
FREND Collimator
Dosimeter module
Silicon based semi-conductor detector
Resolution: < 100 keV for 100 keV – 10 MeV
range; < 350 keV for 10 MeV – 80 MeV range
Measured values:
Absorbed dose: 10-5 – 101 Gy
Absorbed dose rate: 10-6 – 10-1 Gy/h
Flux of particles: 1 – 1000 particles·cm2/s
Time resolution of absorbed dose and flux: 1 min
Time resolution of ionization losses spectr: 1 hr
FREND is practically identical to LEND instrument onboard Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter, which is orbiting the
Moon since 2009 and proved it’s efficiency in both design and neutrons collimation concept that allows high
resolution orbital mapping of neutron fluxes.
Instrument PI: Igor Mitrofanov, Scientist: Anton Sanin, Manager: Alexey Malakhov, Space Research Institute (IKI)
ExoMars: Project configuration
2018
Exomars Rover with Pasteur payload
Landing Platform
Russian contribution:
Two instruments onboard of the rover: Infrared spectrometer (ISEM) on the mast and neutron
detector Adron-RM.
Scientific payload of the landing platform.
ExoMars: Rover 2018
Russian Instruments
Name
Description
Prototype
ISEM
Infrared spectrometer located on the rover mast. Mineralogical
analysis of surface targets. Sample selection for the rover payload.
Mass:1.2 kg.
MEX/Luna-Resurs
PanCam
HRC
OB ISEM
Search for subsurface water along rover traverse. Coordinated
Adron-RM operation with WISDOM radar.
Mass: 1.7 kg
MSL
EXOMARS 2018: Descent Scenario
EXOMARS 2018: landing module integrated
with braking stage
Exhaust parachute
Main parachute
Parachute container
Trail cover
Trail cover
Petals
Breaking thruster
Aux thruster
Descent module
Feet
Aerodynamic shield
Descent platform
tanks
Doppler radar
Aerodynamic shield
EXOMARS 2018: landing module in surface configuration
Rover
Solar panels
Feet
Exomars: landing platform
Preliminary instrument selection
Target mass of the science payload for the landing platform is ~50 kg. European contribution will be discussed once the level of
resources available is confirmed. Preliminary list of scientific instruments:
Instrument
Mass
Description
Robotic arm w sampling device
3
Sampling for GCMS, close-up camera, Mossbauer
Meteopackage
3
PTW-Hum measurements
Moessbauer spectrometer
0.5
Iron mineralogy (Germany)
PanCam
0.4
Surface panorama, atmosphere
Methane detector (F-P spectrometer)
2.3
Methane, minor gases.
GSMS Gas chromotographer
10
Composition, reactivity
Seismometer
9.1
Seismometry (France)
STEM (contact sensors)
0.8
Temperature, conductivity, etc
Lidar
1
Aerosol up to 5-10 km
Fourier-spectrometer
3.8
Minor constituents, boundary layer (2.5- 25 μm)
M-TDLAS (laser spectrometer)
0.5
Minor constituents, isotopic ratios locally
MARSES-MAIGRET (low-frequency radar, magnetometer
4
Water contents down to 100s of m, manetotelluric, etc
Neutron spectrometer
7.7
Subsurface water
MANAGA-TOF (atmospheric MS)
3.8
Atmosphere composition
Dust complex
4,5
Dust dynamics near the surface
Possible further steps of a joint RoscosmosESA Mars Exploration programme
ExoMars. 2016-2018.
Phobos-2 2020-2022.
Mars-Grunt. 2022-2024.
Phobos investigation
Joint project proposal
There is an ESA proposed
project for Phobos sample
return (PHOOTPRINT) with a
launch in 2022 and sample
return in 2025.
Given high scientific value of Mars satellites exploration, existing Russian developments in
a field of sample return from the surface of Phobos and ESA interest to such a project, it is
suggested to study (can be done by existing working group) feasibility of a joint ESARoscosmos project on Phobos Exploration.
2020-2022 гг. – launch of a mission for landing on Phobos, in situ investigation of Phobos
surface and sample return to the Earth.
Mars-SR 2022-2024
The main scientific objective of Mars-Grunt
project (which can be launched after 2022)
is to provide science community with the
samples from the Martian surface.
The sample return from the Mars is being
discussed by leading space agencies.
Taking into account the technological
complexity of such a mission and the high
value of scientific output, it’s realization is
more probable as a part of international
cooperation.
Another important outcome of this project
will be a development of sample return
technologies, which can be used during
preparation of manned Mars exploration.
Technological steps :
Exomars Landing platform (2018)
Moon sample return (2019-2020)
Phobos sample return (2020-2022)

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