Chapter 8 - Houston County Schools

Report
Chapter
8
Hypothesis Testing
with Two Samples
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All rights reserved.
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Chapter Outline
• 8.1 Testing the Difference Between Means (Large
Independent Samples)
• 8.2 Testing the Difference Between Means (Small
Independent Samples)
• 8.3 Testing the Difference Between Means
(Dependent Samples)
• 8.4 Testing the Difference Between Proportions
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Section 8.1
Testing the Difference Between
Means (Large Independent Samples)
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Section 8.1 Objectives
• Determine whether two samples are independent or
dependent
• Perform a two-sample z-test for the difference
between two means μ1 and μ2 using large independent
samples
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Two Sample Hypothesis Test
•
•
Compares two parameters from two populations.
Sampling methods:
 Independent Samples
• The sample selected from one population is not
related to the sample selected from the second
population.
 Dependent Samples (paired or matched samples)
• Each member of one sample corresponds to a
member of the other sample.
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Independent and Dependent Samples
Independent Samples
Dependent Samples
Sample 1
Sample 1
Sample 2
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Sample 2
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Example: Independent and Dependent
Samples
Classify the pair of samples as independent or
dependent.
• Sample 1: Weights of 65 college students before their
freshman year begins.
• Sample 2: Weights of the same 65 college students
after their freshmen year.
Solution:
Dependent Samples (The samples can be paired with
respect to each student)
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Example: Independent and Dependent
Samples
Classify the pair of samples as independent or dependent.
• Sample 1: Scores for 38 adults males on a psychological screening test for attention-deficit hyperactivity
disorder.
• Sample 2: Scores for 50 adult females on a psychological screening test for attention-deficit hyperactivity
disorder.
Solution:
Independent Samples (Not possible to form a pairing
between the members of the samples; the sample sizes
are different, and the data represent scores for different
individuals.)
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Two Sample Hypothesis Test with
Independent Samples
1. Null hypothesis H0
 A statistical hypothesis that usually states there is
no difference between the parameters of two
populations.
 Always contains the symbol ≤, =, or ≥.
2. Alternative hypothesis Ha
 A statistical hypothesis that is true when H0 is
false.
 Always contains the symbol >, ≠, or <.
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Two Sample Hypothesis Test with
Independent Samples
H0: μ1 = μ2
Ha: μ1 ≠ μ2
H0: μ1 ≤ μ2
Ha: μ1 > μ2
H0: μ1 ≥ μ2
Ha: μ1 < μ2
Regardless of which hypotheses you use, you
always assume there is no difference between the
population means, or μ1 = μ2.
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Two Sample z-Test for the Difference
Between Means
Three conditions are necessary to perform a z-test for
the difference between two population means μ1 and μ2.
1. The samples must be randomly selected.
2. The samples must be independent.
3. Each sample size must be at least 30, or, if not, each
population must have a normal distribution with a
known standard deviation.
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Two Sample z-Test for the Difference
Between Means
If these requirements are met, the sampling distribution
for x1  x 2 (the difference of the sample means) is a
normal distribution with
Mean:  x  x   x   x   1   2
1
2
1
2
1
2
Standard error:
 x x 
1
2
x x 
2
2
1
2
n1
2
2

n2
Sampling distribution
for x1  x 2 :
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σ x  x
1
1   2
2
σ x x
1
x1  x 2
2
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Two Sample z-Test for the Difference
Between Means
• Test statistic is x1  x 2.
• The standardized test statistic is
z
 x1  x 2     1   2 
 x x
1
2
w here  x  x 
1
2
1
2
n1
2
2

n2
.
• When the samples are large, you can use s1 and s2 in place
of σ1 and σ2. If the samples are not large, you can still use
a two-sample z-test, provided the populations are
normally distributed and the population standard
deviations are known.
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Using a Two-Sample z-Test for the
Difference Between Means (Large
Independent Samples)
In Words
1. State the claim mathematically
and verbally. Identify the null
and alternative hypotheses.
In Symbols
State H0 and Ha.
2. Specify the level of significance.
Identify α.
3. Determine the critical value(s).
Use Table 4 in
Appendix B.
4. Determine the rejection region(s).
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Using a Two-Sample z-Test for the
Difference Between Means (Large
Independent Samples)
In Words
5. Find the standardized test
statistic and sketch the
sampling distribution.
6. Make a decision to reject or
fail to reject the null
hypothesis.
In Symbols
z
 x1  x 2     1   2 
 x x
1
2
If z is in the rejection
region, reject H0.
Otherwise, fail to
reject H0.
7. Interpret the decision in the
context of the original claim.
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Example: Two-Sample z-Test for the
Difference Between Means
A credit card watchdog group claims that there is a
difference in the mean credit card debts of households
in New York and Texas. The results of a random survey
of 250 households from each state are shown below.
The two samples are independent. Do the results
support the group’s claim? Use α = 0.05. (Adapted from
PlasticRewards.com)
New York
Texas
x1  $4446.25
x 2  $4567.24
s1 = $1045.70
n1 = 250
s2 = $1361.95
n2 = 250
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Solution: Two-Sample z-Test for the
Difference Between Means
•
•
•
•
•
H0: μ 1 = μ 2
Ha: μ1 ≠ μ2 (claim)
  0.05
n1= 250 , n2 = 250
Rejection Region:
z = –1.11
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• Test Statistic:
z
(4446.25  4567.24)  0
  1.11
108.5983
• Decision: Fail to Reject H0.
At the 5% level of significance,
there is not enough evidence to
support the group’s claim that
there is a difference in the mean
credit card debts of households
in New York and Texas.
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Example: Using Technology to Perform a
Two-Sample z-Test
A travel agency claims that the average daily cost of meals
and lodging for vacationing in Texas is less than the same
average costs for vacationing in Virginia. The table shows
the results of a random survey of vacationers in each state.
The two samples are independent. At α = 0.01, is there
enough evidence to support the claim? (Adapted from
American Automobile Association)
Texas (1)
Virginia (2)
x1  $216
x 2  $222
s1 = $18
n1 = 50
s2 = $24
n2 = 35
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Solution: Using Technology to Perform a
Two-Sample z-Test
TI-83/84 setup:
• H0: μ 1 ≥ μ 2
• Ha : μ 1 < μ 2
(claim)
Calculate:
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Draw:
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Solution: Using Technology to Perform a
Two-Sample z-Test
• Rejection Region:
0.01
–2.33
0
z
• Decision: Fail to Reject H0 .
At the 1% level of
significance, there is not
enough evidence to support
the travel agency’s claim.
–1.25
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Section 8.1 Summary
• Determined whether two samples are independent or
dependent
• Performed a two-sample z-test for the difference
between two means μ1 and μ2 using large independent
samples
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Assignment
• Page 434 5-20, 22-32 even
Larson/Farber 5th ed
22
Chapter 8 Quiz 1
• Do problem 23 on page 436
• Answer part a), part c), part d), and part e)
• 20 points -5 points each answer
Larson/Farber 5th ed
23
Section 8.2
Testing the Difference Between
Means (Small Independent Samples)
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Section 8.2 Objectives
• Perform a t-test for the difference between two
population means μ1 and μ2 using small independent
samples
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Two Sample t-Test for the Difference
Between Means
• If samples of size less than 30 are taken from normallydistributed populations, a t-test may be used to test the
difference between the population means μ1 and μ2.
• Three conditions are necessary to use a t-test for small
independent samples.
1. The samples must be randomly selected.
2. The samples must be independent.
3. Each population must have a normal distribution.
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Two Sample t-Test for the Difference
Between Means
• The test statistic is x1  x 2 .
• The standardized test statistic is
t
 x1  x 2     1   2 
sx  x
1
.
2
• The standard error and the degrees of freedom of the
sampling distribution depend on whether the
population variances  12 and  22 are equal.
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Two Sample t-Test for the Difference
Between Means
• Variances are equal
 Information from the two samples is combined to
calculate a pooled estimate of the standard deviation
ˆ .
 n1  1 s12   n 2  1 s 22
ˆ 
n1  n 2  2
 The standard error for the sampling distribution of
x1  x 2 is
s x  x  ˆ 
1
2
1
1

n1 n 2
 d.f.= n1 + n2 – 2
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Two Sample t-Test for the Difference
Between Means
• Variances are not equal
 If the population variances are not equal, then the
standard error is
sx  x 
1
2
2
s1
n1

2
s2
n2
.
 d.f = smaller of n1 – 1 and n2 – 1
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Normal or t-Distribution?
Are both sample sizes
at least 30?
Yes
Use the z-test.
No
Are both populations
normally distributed?
No
You cannot use the
z-test or the t-test.
Use the t-test
with
Yes
Are both population
standard deviations
known?
No
Yes
Use the z-test.
Are the population
variances equal?
1
2
1
1

n1 n 2
d.f = n1 + n2 – 2.
No
Use the t-test with
2
sx  x 
1
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s x  x  ˆ
Yes
2
s1
n1
2

s2
n2
d.f = smaller of n1 – 1 or n2 – 1.
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Two-Sample t-Test for the Difference
Between Means (Small Independent
Samples)
In Words
1. State the claim mathematically
and verbally. Identify the null
and alternative hypotheses.
2. Specify the level of significance.
3. Determine the degrees of
freedom.
4. Determine the critical value(s).
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In Symbols
State H0 and Ha.
Identify α.
d.f. = n1+ n2 – 2 or
d.f. = smaller of
n1 – 1 or n2 – 1.
Use Table 5 in
Appendix B.
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Two-Sample t-Test for the Difference
Between Means (Small Independent
Samples)
In Words
In Symbols
5. Determine the rejection region(s).
6. Find the standardized test statistic
and sketch the sampling
distribution.
x1  x 2    1   2 

t
7. Make a decision to reject or fail
to reject the null hypothesis.
If t is in the rejection
region, reject H0.
Otherwise, fail to
reject H0.
8. Interpret the decision in the
context of the original claim.
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sx  x
1
2
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Example: Two-Sample t-Test for the
Difference Between Means
The results of a state mathematics test for random samples
of students taught by two different teachers at the same
school are shown below. Can you conclude that there is a
difference in the mean mathematics test scores for the
students of the two teachers? Use α = 0.01. Assume the
populations are normally distributed and the population
variances are not equal.
Teacher 1
Teacher 2
x1  473
x 2  459
s1 = 39.7
s2 = 24.5
n1 = 8
n2 = 18
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Solution: Two-Sample t-Test for the
Difference Between Means
•
•
•
•
•
H0: μ 1 = μ 2
Ha: μ1 ≠ μ2 (claim)
α  0.10
d.f. = 8 – 1 = 7
Rejection Region:
t ≈ 0.922
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• Test Statistic:
t 
(4 7 3  4 5 9 )  0
3 9 .7
8
2

2 4 .5
 0 .9 2 2
2
18
• Decision: Fail to Reject H0 .
At the 10% level of significance,
there is not enough evidence to
support the claim that the mean
mathematics test scores for the
students of the two teachers are
different.
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On the Calculator
•
•
•
•
Use Stats Test  2-SampTTest
Enter data
When it asks “Pooled” choose no
Compare the p-value to the alpha
Larson/Farber 5th ed
36
Example: Two-Sample t-Test for the
Difference Between Means
A manufacturer claims that the mean calling range (in feet) of
its 2.4-GHz cordless telephone is greater than that of its
leading competitor. You perform a study using 14 randomly
selected phones from the manufacturer and 16 randomly
selected similar phones from its competitor. The results are
shown below. At α = 0.05, can you support the manufacturer’s
claim? Assume the populations are normally distributed and
the population variances are equal.
Manufacturer
Competitor
x1  1275 ft
x 2  1250 ft
s1 = 45 ft
s2 = 30 ft
n1 = 14
n2 = 16
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Solution: Two-Sample t-Test for the
Difference Between Means
•
•
•
•
•
H0: μ 1 ≤ μ 2
Ha: μ1 > μ2 (claim)
α = 0.05
d.f. = 14 + 16 – 2 = 28
Rejection Region:
0.05
0
1.701
t
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Solution: Two-Sample t-Test for the
Difference Between Means
• Test Statistic:
s x1  x2 

t 
 n1  1 s12   n2  1 s2 2
n1  n2  2
14  1 45 
2

1
n1
 16  1 30 
14  16  2
 x1  x 2     1   2 
s x1  x 2
© 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.

1
n2
2

1
14


1
 13.8018
16
1275  1250   0
 1.811
13.8018
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Solution: Two-Sample t-Test for the
Difference Between Means
•
•
•
•
•
H0: μ 1 ≤ μ 2
Ha: μ1 > μ2 (claim)
α = 0.05
d.f. = 14 + 16 – 2 = 28
Rejection Region:
0.05
0
1.701
t
1.811
© 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
• Test Statistic:
t  1 .8 1 1
• Decision: Reject H0 .
At the 5% level of significance,
there is enough evidence to
support the manufacturer’s
claim that its phone has a
greater calling range than its
competitors.
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On the Calculator
• Use same steps as previously except choose yes when
it asks “pooled?”
• This is because it tells us to assume the population
variances are the same
• Therefore you add both “n” values, and the D.F. is
n+n-2
Larson/Farber 5th ed
41
Section 8.2 Summary
• Performed a t-test for the difference between two
means μ1 and μ2 using small independent samples
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42 of 70
Assignment
• Page 446 3-18
Larson/Farber 5th ed
43
Chapter 8 Quiz 2
• Problem 20 on page 448
1. Ho= and Ha= (and identify claim)
2. T =
3. P = _____. Compare to Alpha. Reject or FTR?
4. Claim is ____________
Larson/Farber 5th ed
44
Section 8.3
Testing the Difference Between
Means (Dependent Samples)
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Section 8.3 Objectives
• Perform a t-test to test the mean of the differences for
a population of paired data
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t-Test for the Difference Between Means
• To perform a two-sample hypothesis test with
dependent samples, the difference between each data
pair is first found:
 d = x1 – x2 Difference between entries for a data pair
• The test statistic is the mean d of these differences.
 d   d Mean of the differences between paired
n
data entries in the dependent samples
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t-Test for the Difference Between Means
Three conditions are required to conduct the test.
1. The samples must be randomly selected.
2. The samples must be dependent (paired).
3. Both populations must be normally distributed.
If these requirements are met, then the sampling
distribution for d is approximated by a t-distribution
with n – 1 degrees of freedom, where n is the number
of data pairs.
-t0
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μd
d
t0
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Symbols used for the t-Test for μd
Symbol
Description
n
The number of pairs of data
d
The difference between entries for a data pair,
d = x1 – x2
d
The hypothesized mean of the differences of
paired data in the population
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Symbols used for the t-Test for μd
Symbol
d
Description
The mean of the differences between the paired
data entries in the dependent samples
d 
sd
d
n
The standard deviation of the differences between
the paired data entries in the dependent samples
 (d  d )

n 1
2
sd 
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( d )
2
d 
n
n 1
2
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t-Test for the Difference Between Means
• The test statistic is
d 
d
.
n
• The standardized test statistic is
t 
d  d
sd
.
n
• The degrees of freedom are
d.f. = n – 1.
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t-Test for the Difference Between Means
(Dependent Samples)
In Words
1. State the claim mathematically
and verbally. Identify the null
and alternative hypotheses.
In Symbols
State H0 and Ha.
2. Specify the level of significance.
Identify α.
3. Determine the degrees of
freedom.
d.f. = n – 1
4. Determine the critical value(s).
© 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
Use Table 5 in
Appendix B if n > 29
use the last row (∞) .
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t-Test for the Difference Between Means
(Dependent Samples)
In Words
In Symbols
5. Determine the rejection
region(s).
d
d 
n
6. Calculate d and s d .
( d )
d 
n
n 1
 (d  d )

n 1
2
sd 
5. Find the standardized test
statistic.
© 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
t
2
2
d  d
sd
n
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t-Test for the Difference Between Means
(Dependent Samples)
In Words
8. Make a decision to reject or
fail to reject the null
hypothesis.
In Symbols
If t is in the rejection
region, reject H0.
Otherwise, fail to
reject H0.
9. Interpret the decision in the
context of the original
claim.
© 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
54 of 70
Example: t-Test for the Difference
Between Means
A shoe manufacturer claims that athletes can increase their
vertical jump heights using the manufacturer’s new Strength
Shoes®. The vertical jump heights of eight randomly selected
athletes are measured. After the athletes have used the
Strength Shoes® for 8 months, their vertical jump heights are
measured again. The vertical jump heights (in inches) for
each athlete are shown in the table. Assuming the vertical
jump heights are normally distributed, is there enough
evidence to support the manufacturer’s claim at α = 0.10?
(Adapted from Coaches Sports Publishing)
Athletes
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
Height (old)
24
22
25
28
35
32
30
27
Height (new)
26
25
25
29
33
34
35
30
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How to write the H0: / Ha:
• The claim is always the alternate
• You compare the sample mean to what you want
• For example, these shoes are claimed to increase
height. Therefore your current height is too low
• μd < 0 (claim)
• The “0” is the 0 used to represent population mean on
a standardized normal graph (a z score of zero is the
mean)
• So the mean difference is less than the expected
population mean
Larson/Farber 5th ed
56
Solution: Two-Sample t-Test for the
Difference Between Means
d = (jump height before shoes) – (jump height after shoes)
•
•
•
•
•
H0: μ d ≥ 0
Ha: μd < 0 (claim)
α = 0.10
d.f. = 8 – 1 = 7
Rejection Region:
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Solution: Two-Sample t-Test for the
Difference Between Means
d = (jump height before shoes) – (jump height after shoes)
Before
24
22
After
26
25
d
–2
–3
d2
4
9
25
28
35
25
29
33
0
–1
2
0
1
4
32
30
34
35
27
30
–2
–5
4
25
–3
9
Σ = –14 Σ = 56
© 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
 d  14
d 

  1.75
n
8
sd 

( d )
2
d 
n
n 1
(  1 4)
8
8 1
2
2
56 
 2 .1 2 1 3
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Solution: Two-Sample t-Test for the
Difference Between Means
d = (jump height before shoes) – (jump height after shoes)
• Test Statistic:
• H0: µd ≥ 0
• Ha: μd < 0 (claim)
d  d
 1.75  0
t

  2.333
• α = 0.10
sd
n 2.1213 8
• d.f. = 8 – 1 = 7
• Decision: Reject H0.
• Rejection Region:
At the 10% level of significance,
there is enough evidence to
support the shoe manufacturer’s
claim that athletes can increase
their vertical jump heights using
t ≈ –2.333
the new Strength Shoes®.
© 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
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On the Calculator
• What you are really testing is the difference between the
means
• Enter the “before” data in List 1
• Enter the “after” data in List 2
• Go to the header of List 3, and enter List 1 minus List 2
• Now you have the difference between the means
• Go to stats  test  t-test
Do “Try It
• Run program using data from List 3 Yourself 2 on
• Enter “0” for the population mean µ page 455
• Test the Alternate Hypothesis
Larson/Farber 5th ed
60
Section 8.3 Summary
• Performed a t-test to test the mean of the difference
for a population of paired data
© 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
61 of 70
Assignment
• Page 456 9-20
Larson/Farber 5th ed
62
Chapter 8 Quiz 3
• Problem 20 on page 459. Use an alpha of .05
1. Ho= and Ha= (and identify claim)
2. T =
3. P = _____. Compare to Alpha. Reject or FTR?
4. Claim is ____________
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63
Section 8.4
Testing the Difference Between
Proportions
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Section 8.4 Objectives
• Perform a z-test for the difference between two
population proportions p1 and p2
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Two-Sample z-Test for Proportions
• Used to test the difference between two population
proportions, p1 and p2.
• Three conditions are required to conduct the test.
1. The samples must be randomly selected.
2. The samples must be independent.
3. The samples must be large enough to use a
normal sampling distribution. That is,
n1p1 ≥ 5, n1q1 ≥ 5, and n2p2 ≥ 5, n2q2 ≥ 5.
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Two-Sample z-Test for the Difference
Between Proportions
• If these conditions are met, then the sampling
distribution for pˆ 1  pˆ 2 is a normal distribution.
• Mean:  pˆ  pˆ  p1  p 2
• A weighted estimate of p1 and p2 can be found by
using
x1  x 2
1
p 
2
n1  n 2
, w here x1  n1 pˆ 1 and x 2  n 2 pˆ 2
• Standard error:

pˆ  pˆ
1

2
1
1
pq    , w here q  1  p.
 n1 n 2 
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Two-Sample z-Test for the Difference
Between Proportions
• The test statistic is pˆ 1  pˆ 2 .
• The standardized test statistic is
z
( pˆ 1  pˆ 2 )  ( p1  p 2 )
1
1
pq   
 n1 n 2 
where
x1  x 2
p 
and q  1  p .
n1  n 2
N ote: n1 p , n1q , n 2 p , and n 2 q m ust be at least 5.
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Two-Sample z-Test for the Difference
Between Proportions
In Words
In Symbols
1. State the claim. Identify the null
and alternative hypotheses.
State H0 and Ha.
2. Specify the level of significance.
Identify α.
3. Determine the critical value(s).
4. Determine the rejection region(s).
5. Find the weighted estimate of p1
and p2. Verify that n1 p, n1q , n 2 p,
Use Table 4 in
Appendix B.
x1  x 2
p 
n1  n 2
and n 2 q are at least 5.
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Two-Sample z-Test for the Difference
Between Proportions
In Words
6. Find the standardized test
statistic and sketch the
sampling distribution.
7. Make a decision to reject or
fail to reject the null
hypothesis.
In Symbols
z
( pˆ 1  pˆ 2 )  ( p1  p 2 )
1
1
pq   
 n1 n 2 
If z is in the rejection
region, reject H0.
Otherwise, fail to
reject H0.
8. Interpret the decision in the
context of the original claim.
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Example: Two-Sample z-Test for the
Difference Between Proportions
In a study of 150 randomly selected occupants in
passenger cars and 200 randomly selected occupants in
pickup trucks, 86% of occupants in passenger cars and
74% of occupants in pickup trucks wear seat belts. At
α = 0.10 can you reject the claim that the proportion of
occupants who wear seat belts is the same for passenger
cars and pickup trucks? (Adapted from National Highway
Traffic Safety Administration)
Solution:
1 = Passenger cars
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2 = Pickup trucks
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Solution: Two-Sample z-Test for the
Difference Between Means
•
•
•
•
•
H0: p1 = p2 (claim)
Ha : p 1 ≠ p 2
α = 0.10
n1= 150 , n2 = 200
Rejection Region:
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Solution: Two-Sample z-Test for the
Difference Between Means
x 2  n 2 pˆ 2  148
x1  n1 pˆ 1  129
p
x1  x2
n1  n2

129  148
150  200
 0.7914
q  1  p  1  0.7914  0 .2086
N ote:
n1 p  200(0.2086)  5
n1q  200(0.6556)  5
n 2 p  200(0.2086)  5
n 2 q  200(0.6556)  5
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Solution: Two-Sample z-Test for the
Difference Between Means
z
 pˆ1  pˆ 2    p1  p2 
 1
1 
pq 


n
n
2 
 1

 0.86  0.74    0 
1 
 1

 0.7914    0.2086   

150
200


 2.73
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Solution: Two-Sample z-Test for the
Difference Between Means
•
•
•
•
•
H0: p 1 = p 2
Ha : p 1 ≠ p 2
α  0.10
n1= 150 , n2 = 200
Rejection Region:
© 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
• Test Statistic:
z  2 .7 3
• Decision: Reject H0
At the 10% level of
significance, there is enough
evidence to reject the claim that
the proportion of occupants
who wear seat belts is the same
for passenger cars and pickup
trucks.
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On the Calculator
•
•
•
•
First remember to check np>5 and nq>5
Go to Stats Calc2-PropZTest
To enter xbar 1, enter this: x1  n1 pˆ 1  129 x 2  n 2 pˆ 2
You can enter .86 x 150 and .74 x 200 and let it
calculate for you
• In this case, test that the proportions are not equal
Larson/Farber 5th ed
 148
76
Example: Two-Sample z-Test for the
Difference Between Proportions
A medical research team conducted a study to test the effect
of a cholesterol-reducing medication. At the end of the
study, the researchers found that of the 4700 randomly
selected subjects who took the medication, 301 died of
heart disease. Of the 4300 randomly selected subjects who
took a placebo, 357 died of heart disease. At α = 0.01 can
you conclude that the death rate due to heart disease is
lower for those who took the medication than for those who
took the placebo? (Adapted from New England Journal of
Medicine)
Solution:
1 = Medication
2 = Placebo
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Solution: Two-Sample z-Test for the
Difference Between Means
•
•
•
•
•
H0: p 1 ≥ p 2
Ha: p1 < p2 (claim)
α  0.01
n1= 4700, n2 = 4300
Rejection Region:
0.01
–2.33
0
z
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Solution: Two-Sample z-Test for the
Difference Between Means
pˆ 1 
x1

n1
301
 0.064
470 0
p 
x1  x2
n1  n2

pˆ 2 
x2

n2
301  357
4700  4300
357
 0.083
430 0
 0.0731
q  1  p  1  0.0731  0 .9269
N ote:
n1 p  4700(0.0731)  5
n1q  4700(0.9269)  5
n 2 p  4300(0.0731)  5
n 2 q  4300(0.926 9)  5
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Solution: Two-Sample z-Test for the
Difference Between Means
z
 pˆ1 
ˆ 2    p1  p2 
p

 1
1 
pq  


n
n
2 
 1
 0.064  0.083    0 
1 
 1

 0.0731   0.9269   

4700
4300


 3.46
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Solution: Two-Sample z-Test for the
Difference Between Means
•
•
•
•
•
H0: p 1 ≥ p 2
Ha: p1 < p2 (claim)
α  0.01
n1= 4700 , n2 = 4300
Rejection Region:
0.01
–2.33
0
z
–3.46
© 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
• Test Statistic:
z   3 .4 6
• Decision: Reject H0
At the 1% level of significance,
there is enough evidence to
conclude that the death rate due
to heart disease is lower for
those who took the medication
than for those who took the
placebo.
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Section 8.4 Summary
• Performed a z-test for the difference between two
population proportions p1 and p2
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Assignment
• Page 465 3-18
Larson/Farber 5th ed
83

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