Pennsylvanian Period

Report
Pennsylvanian Period
Relation To The State
?
• The period is related to the state of
Pennsylvania
• It is named after the coal deposits in
Pennsylvania that formed during the period
Date of Pennsylvanian Period
• 318 MYA-299 MYA
• Late part of Carboniferous Period (359 MYA
– 299 MYA)
Continental Position/Activity
• Laurussia (North America and Europe) and Siberia formed
Laurasia
• Parts of Gondwana (southern supercontinent) drifted north
• Pangaea (single supercontinent) was starting to form at the
end of Pennsylvanian Period (299 MYA)
Climate and Vegetation
• Ice covered most of Southern Hemisphere
(Gondwana) from Karoo Ice Age (360 MYA –
260 MYA)
• Large tropical swamps formed near equator
• The organic matter from these swamps
formed the period’s well-known coal
deposits over millions of years
Atmosphere
• The large tropical swamps created a surplus
of oxygen (from photosynthesis – taking in
carbon dioxide and returning oxygen)
• Atmospheric oxygen levels reached 35%
(some of the highest in all of history)
Immense Insects
• The astronomical atmospheric oxygen levels
of the period created some of the largest
insects in history
Meganeura
Arthropleura
Immense Insects (continued)
Meganeura
Arthropleura
• Massive insect resembling a dragonfly
• Massive arthropod resembling a millipede
• Could have wingspan of 70 cm (27.56 in)
• Carnivores (ate insects)
• Could be 2 meters in length (80 in.)
• Herbivores (had mouthparts for eating
and chewing plants)
Reptiles
• The first reptiles
appeared during the
Pennsylvanian
Period
Hylonomus lyelli
• One of the first
• The earliest known reptile
reptiles was the
• Lizard-like
• Carnivores (feed on millipedes and insects)
hylonomus lyelli
• 20 cm (8 in.) long including tail
•
Citations
"Arthropleura". N.p., n.d. Web. <http://1.bp.blogspot.com/--
bASlxnvsqk/TeK_6zjlFAI/AAAAAAAAACw/zHNBMWFkL8k/s1600/arthropleura1.jpg>.
•
"Carboniferous Period". N.p., n.d. Web.
<http://ichef.bbci.co.uk/naturelibrary/images/ic/credit/640x395/c/ca/carboniferous/carboniferous_1.jpg>
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"Carboniferous Period". N.p., n.d. Web. <http://images.nationalgeographic.com/wpf/medialive/photos/000/008/cache/carboniferous-landscape_869_600x450.jpg>.
"Carboniferous Period Article, Carboniferous Information, Prehistoric Facts." National Geographic.
N.p., n.d. Web. 8 Mar. 2014. <http://science.nationalgeographic.com/science/prehistoricworld/carboniferous/>.
"HowStuffWorks "Pennsylvanian Period"." HowStuffWorks. N.p., n.d. Web. 8 Mar. 2014.
<http://science.howstuffworks.com/environmental/earth/geology/pennsylvanian-period-info.htm>.
•
"Hylonomous Lyelli". N.p., n.d. Web. <http://0.tqn.com/d/dinosaurs/1/0/y/1/-/-/hylonomus.jpg>.
•
"Hylonomus: The Earliest Reptile: Natural History Notebooks." Canadian Museum of Nature –
Musée canadien de la nature. N.p., n.d. Web. 8 Mar. 2014.
<http://nature.ca/notebooks/english/coalrep.htm>.
"Late Carboniferous." Home Page. N.p., n.d. Web. 8 Mar. 2014.
<http://www.scotese.com/late.htm>.
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"Late Carboniferous". N.p., n.d. Web. <http://www.scotese.com/images/306.jpg>.
"Meganeura". N.p., n.d. Web. <http://25.media.tumblr.com/tumblr_lyqg5e2q3W1r4zy85o3_500.jpg>.
"Oxygen Symbol". N.p., n.d. Web. <http://tinyurl.com/mu3spks>.
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"Pennsylvanian : Overview." Paleobiology Home. N.p., n.d. Web. 8 Mar. 2014.
<http://paleobiology.si.edu/geotime/main/htmlversion/pennsylvanian1.html>.
"Pennsylvanian : Pennsylvanian Animal Life." Paleobiology Home. N.p., n.d. Web. 8 Mar. 2014.
<http://paleobiology.si.edu/geotime/main/htmlversion/pennsylvanian2.html>.
"Pennsylvanian : Pennsylvanian Climate and Tectonics." Paleobiology Home. N.p., n.d. Web.
8 Mar. 2014. <http://paleobiology.si.edu/geotime/main/htmlversion/pennsylvanian4.html>.
"Pennsylvanian : Plant Life and the Coal Forests." Paleobiology Home. N.p., n.d. Web. 8 Mar. 2014.
<http://paleobiology.si.edu/geotime/main/htmlversion/pennsylvanian3.html>.
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"Pennsylvanian State Outline". N.p., n.d. Web.
<http://www.worldatlas.com/webimage/countrys/namerica/usstates/outline/pa.gif>.

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