AFRICA 1600- 1750 Economic, Political & Social Changes Central Question How did slavery influence Africa? ECOMONIC CHANGES Africa Economy Silver & sugar Participated in world economy through slave trade Slave trade traced back to 15th century, rose in 17th and 18th centuries Grafted onto existing system of slave commerce 2 Africans for every 1 European essential to prosperity of American colonies Economy Merchants shipped slaves around Indian Ocean More slaves sent to Americas once plantation agriculture began to spread W. flow=12 million survived forcible enslavement/ shipment to Atlantic ports 1440s-1867 Merchant capitalists prospered slave trade rose Economy Commercial fortune depended on alliances with African trading & Political networks African partners/ commercial networks left to capture slaves High morality = losses of profits Merchants-active role in supplying slaves for transatlantic shipment Shift=Households that commanded large animal herds or land urban merchants and warrior elites SOCIAL CHANGES Africa Religion Asante (Ashanti) Universal god – Onyame Kingdom of the Dead – Samande Ancestor Worship Benin Polytheistic Power of witches Mostly Christian About ¼ Islam; Vudun or “voodoo” Language Misconception: there was no written language until recently Asante Decedents of Akan Tribes Various forms of Twi; tone language Benin Learned written and spoken language from the Portuguese Native Language Kwa Dress&Customs Women Influence Ashanti Weaving (only men) Different patterns Matrilineal Gold Benin Bronze art Funerals = Important part of someone’s history Drummers and dancers perform at funerals POLITICAL CHANGES Africa Political Dutch armada of 21 ships Captured Luanda, Benguela, and Sao Tome from Portuguese 1623, Portuguese signed a treaty with Ndongo Political 1624, Nzinga became Queen of Ndongo Conquered kingdom of Matamba in war with Portuguese Made alliance with Dutch Dutch sent her soldiers Queen Nzinga Political Portuguese gained strength back Portuguese drove Dutch out of Luanda in 1648 Dutch no longer helped Nzinga could fight Portuguese anymore Signed treaty giving Portuguese access to Matamba’s markets Video: Verbalizm: David J Primary Source Those sold by the Blacks are for the most part prisoners of war, taken either in fight, or pursuit, or in the incursions they make into their enemies territories; others stolen away by their own countrymen; and some there are, who will sell their own children, kindred, or neighbors. This has been often seen, and to compass it, they desire the person they intend to sell, to help them in carrying something to the factory by way of trade, and when there, the person so deluded, not understanding the language, is old and deliver'd up as a slave, notwithstanding all his resistance, and exclaiming against the treachery.... Written by John Barbot (an agent for the French Royal African Company) in 1678 Questions 1. 2. 1. Based on this passage what do you think about the family bonds in Africa? Do you think anybody make alliances with the Dutch after they let Queen Nzinga down? How do you think the shift of wealth to urban merchants and warrior elites effected the rest of society? WORKS CITED “Ancient Africa for Kids .” MrDonn. N.p., n.d. Web. 20 Oct. 2010. <http://africa.mrdonn.org/benin.html>. “Ancient Clothing .” History for Kids . N.p., n.d. Web. 18 Oct. 2010. <http://www.historyforkids.org/learn/clothing/ >. “Ashanti .” Ashanti . Jay INC , n.d. Web. 20 Oct. 2010. <http://www.ashanti.com.au/pb/wp_8078438f.html>. “Benin Religion Benin Beliefs.” Over Landing Africa . N.p., 2009 . Web. 20 Oct. 2010. <http://www.overlandingafrica.com/benin/religion/>. Blauer, Ettagale, V L Giddings, and Dorothy and Thomas Hoobler. “Clothing of African Cultures.” Fashion Encyclopedia. N.p., 1999. Web. 18 Oct. 2010. <http://www.fashionencyclopedia.com/fashion_costume_culture/Early-Cultures-African/Clothing-of-African-Cultures.html >. “West Africa .” The Islamic World to 1600 . The University of Calgary, 1998. Web. 18 Oct. 2010. <http://www.ucalgary.ca/applied_history/tutor/islam/fractured/westAfrica.html>. Zahid, Ishaq. “Five Pillars of Islam .” Islam 101. N.p., n.d. Web. 18 Oct. 2010. <http://www.islam101.com/dawah/pillars.html >. “Languages of Africa .” Wikipedia . N.p., 9 Oct. 2010. Web. 18 Oct. 2010. <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Languages_of_Africa>. Matt. “Africa Religions .” Slide Share. N.p., 2008. Web. 14 Oct. 2010. <http://www.slideshare.net/matt/africa-religions-presentation >. Scribner, Charles. “Christianity in Africa .” Novel Guide . N.p., 2002 . Web. 18 Oct. 2010. <http://www.novelguide.com/a/discover/aes_01/aes_01_00085.html>. “Trade and the Spread of Islam In Africa .” Met Museum . Department of Arts of Africa, Oceania, and the Americas , Oct. 2001. Web. 18 Oct. 2010. <http://www.metmuseum.org/toah/hd/tsis/hd_tsis.htm >. West, April. “Ashanti Culture .” MNSU. N.p., n.d. Web. 20 Oct. 2010. <http://www.mnsu.edu/emuseum/cultural/oldworld/africa/ashanti_culture.html>. Tignor, Robert, et al. Worlds Together Worlds Apart. New York City: W.W. Norton & Company, 2008. Print. John Barbot, "A Description of the Coasts of North and South Guinea," in Thomas Astley and John Churchill, eds., Collection of Voyages and Travels (London, 1732). Smitha, Frank Eugene. "Queen Nzinga." Marohistory and World Report. N.p., 17 Oct. 2001. Web. 21 Oct. 2010. <http://www.fsmitha.com/h3/h28af3-3.htm>.