Introduction to Instructional Design EDU 553 – Principles of Instructional Design Dr. Steve Broskoske Outline • Introductions • Intro. to the course • What is Instructional Design? (Intro. to the field) • A Closer look: The ADDIE Model • Course planning • Remote assignments Introductions Meet the Course Instructor Dr. Steve Broskoske Assoc. Professor of Education Specialty: Educational Technology PA Certification: K-12 • Educational Technology • Undergrad Teacher Ed. classes • Secondary Education classes • Graduate Teacher Ed. Director Introduction to Course Web Site Course Web Site Mark down this Web site: www.misericordia.edu/academics/education/drsteve • Everything you need to complete the course can be found on this course Web page, and on the course Blackboard site on e-MU. Explore Course Web Site Explore Course Web Site Introduction to the Course Course Catalog Description • This course reviews models of teaching and training which might be used in professional development activities (e.g., inservice programs, college teaching, training activities, etc.) to determine whether and how they can be improved by applications of educational technology. Course Objectives As a result of this course, students will be able to... 1. Define instructional design and describe its role in developing computer-based instructional products or instructor-led instruction. 2. Using the systematic steps involved in instructional design, based on current research of how students learn, coupled with an analysis of appropriate media, design a computer-based, stand alone instructional module. Course Objectives 3. Explain and demonstrate use of the following sequence of steps involved in the systematic development of computer-based training: – – – – – – Needs assessment. Task analysis. Learner analysis. Objective formulation. Method and activity selection. Evaluation. Evaluation Plans 1. Active participation in the in-class and online research and hands-on activities: 30% 2. Final project: – – High-level design for an instructional model: 20% Development of a computer-based, stand-alone training module designed for use in training or the K12 classroom: 50% PROPOSED SCHEDULE OF TOPICS • • • • • • • Introduction to Instructional Design. Current brain research: how students learn. Instructional design models. Front end analysis. Media analysis. Survey of CBT platforms. Using PowerPoint as a Platform to Deliver CBT. PROPOSED SCHEDULE OF TOPICS • Instructional design models, including: – – – – ASSURE ADDIE Dick & Carey’s Instructional Design Model Gagne’s Nine Significant Events Model of Instruction • Historically proven design practices: – – – – – Needs assessment Task analysis Learner analysis Objective formulation Assessment PROPOSED SCHEDULE OF TOPICS • Exploring media choices: – Podcasts – Discovery learning / simulations – Virtual Reality (VR online experiences, virtual fieldtrips) – Blogs – Web pages – Wiki – Other emerging technologies PROPOSED SCHEDULE OF TOPICS • Development of a high-level design document. • Development of an instructional module (prototype of design document). What is Instructional Design? (Intro. to the Field) What is Instructional Design? • The process of analyzing students’ needs and learning goals, designing and developing instructional materials (Univ. of Texas). What is Instructional Design? • The systematic process of creating or adapting instruction, including at least these steps: defining the problem or knowledge gap that the instruction is meant to address; defining the audience that the instruction is meant to serve; developing objectives and assessment strategies; selecting and sequencing content and learning activities; evaluating the instruction; revision (Distance Learning Resource Network). What is Instructional Design? • Instructional Design is the practice of arranging media (communication technology) and content to help learners and teachers transfer knowledge most effectively. The process consists broadly of determining the current state of learner understanding, defining the end goal of instruction, and creating some media-based “intervention” to assist in the transition (Wikipedia). Elements that Led to Instructional Design Military need to train large numbers of soldiers with proficiency during WWII. B.F. Skinner’s ideas on Behaviorism. Bloom’s taxonomy of learning. Gagne’s conditions of learning. Dick & Carey’s model. Advent and evolution of computers. Timeline What Is Instructional Design? • How does instructional design differ from what teachers do every day? Instructional Design Definitions Instructional Design vs. Usual Design of Instruction • Design Process: – – – – Analyze Design Build Test • Usual design of instruction: – Design – Build Training vs. Education • Training: Acquisition of knowledge, skills, and competencies as a result of the teaching of vocational or practical skills and knowledge that relate to specific useful competencies (Wikipedia). • Education: Act or process of imparting or acquiring general knowledge, developing the powers of reasoning and judgment, and generally of preparing intellectually for mature life (Dictionary.com). ILT vs. CBT • Instructor-led teaching (ILT) • Computer-based training (CBT) Major Components of Instructional Design task needs assessment task analysis learner analysis description What is the instruction intended to accomplish? What are the parts of the task or content to be learned, and how do those parts relate to one another and to accomplishing the instructional goal? For whom is the program being developed, and what are their characteristics? objective formulation Specifically what should the learners be able to do when they complete the instruction? method, activity, & media selection What are the most effective methods and media for delivering the instruction? evaluation How will you determine how effectively the content is learned? Front-end Analysis • “At the heart of Instructional Design is the analysis phase. After you thoroughly conduct the analysis, you can then choose a model based on your findings. That is the area where most people get snagged: they simply do not do a thorough enough analysis” (Wikipedia). Is Everything Instructionally Effective? • “Instructional” multimedia opportunities abound in today’s world, but is it really instructionally effective? Merrill’s Comments on the Evolution of Instructional Design Instructional Design Process • Planning: – Perform front-end analysis: leads to development of a high-level design document. • Implementation: – Develop an effective instructional module, basing methodology, media, and other decisions on data gathered in the planning stage. Many Models of Instructional Design • ADDIE Model • Dick & Carey model • Nine Significant Events model (Gagne) Some Models of Instructional Design Instructional Design Application • • • • • CD-ROM based instruction. CBT (computer-based training). Corporate training. Classroom use. Implications for all educational/ instructional situations. I.D. Professional Staff • Instructional designer – – – – Project manager Instructional Designer Programmer Graphics • Instructor • Subject Matter Expert • Evaluator Instructional Design Organizations General Benefits of Instructional Systematic Design • Facilitates standardized training. – In business, often have multiple trainers at multiple sites. – Replaces possibly different “sections” of instruction with a sound instructional product. • Better ensures accomplishment of instructional objectives. – Better chance of success with tested instructional modules. • Provides empirical evidence of success. Benefits of Instructional Systematic Design TO YOU • Can use the elements and techniques of design in day-to-day planning for traditional classes. • Causes you to re-think just about every lesson you will write after this course! – Build lessons based on skill steps rather than using the “textbook” order of topics. • Provides an effective way to use computers already in your classroom. A Closer Look: The ADDIE Model A Closer Look: ADDIE – – – – – Analysis Design Development Implementation Evaluation A Closer Look: ADDIE Analysis – Needs Analysis – problem and proposed solution • • • • Standard state benchmarks Professional exam requirements Problems with performance in a workplace Pre-test – Content Analysis – what to teach – Learner Analysis – Environment A Closer Look: ADDIE Design – Write objectives – Create practice and assessment (notice how early the test gets written) – Organize lesson units – Determine delivery method A Closer Look: ADDIE Development – Produce Media Resources – Create Instructor materials (for multiple instructor situations) – Prepare participant materials – Rehearse the presentation A Closer Look: ADDIE Implementation – Schedule – Establish student communications (e-mail, meetings) – Present the lessons A Closer Look: ADDIE Evaluation – Content evaluation (by Subject Matter expert) – Prototype evaluation (1-to-1 testing) – Learner evaluation (small group and full class implementation) Notice that evaluation is an integral part of the process, and not just a test given at the end. Course Planning Course Planning • Theoretical/planning: – Perform front-end analysis. – Develop a high-level design document. • Hands-on: – Using presentation software as a medium for delivering computer-based training. – Exploring media selection. Summary • Introduction to Instructional Design. – Origins. – Basic components. – Benefits to you as a teacher/trainer. • A Closer Look: The ADDIE Model. Remote Class Activities 1. Briefly analyze an instructional design model. – With a partner, analyze one instructional design model. – Briefly summarize the model online. – Hold an online discussion to synthesize information. Remote Class Activities • • • • • • • ADDIE ASSURE Dick & Carey model Gerlach-Ely model Hannafin & Peck model Kemp model Gagne’s Nine Significant Events model Remote Class Activities 2. Outside readings. – Read articles that will be posted online and participate in online discussion and/or written follow-up activities. Next In-person Session • Current brain research: How do people learn? • Instructional design models.