ID Class 1: Intro.

Report
Introduction to
Instructional Design
EDU 553 – Principles of
Instructional Design
Dr. Steve Broskoske
Outline
• Introductions
• Intro. to the course
• What is Instructional Design?
(Intro. to the field)
• A Closer look:
The ADDIE Model
• Course planning
• Remote assignments
Introductions
Meet the Course Instructor
Dr. Steve Broskoske
Assoc. Professor of Education
Specialty: Educational Technology
PA Certification: K-12
• Educational Technology
• Undergrad Teacher Ed. classes
• Secondary Education classes
• Graduate Teacher Ed. Director
Introduction to Course Web Site
Course Web Site
Mark down this Web site:
www.misericordia.edu/academics/education/drsteve
• Everything you need to complete the course can
be found on this course Web page, and on the
course Blackboard site on e-MU.
Explore Course Web Site
Explore Course
Web Site
Introduction to the Course
Course Catalog Description
• This course reviews models of teaching and
training which might be used in
professional development activities (e.g., inservice programs, college teaching, training
activities, etc.) to determine whether and
how they can be improved by applications
of educational technology.
Course Objectives
As a result of this course, students will be able to...
1. Define instructional design and describe its role
in developing computer-based instructional
products or instructor-led instruction.
2. Using the systematic steps involved in
instructional design, based on current research of
how students learn, coupled with an analysis of
appropriate media, design a computer-based,
stand alone instructional module.
Course Objectives
3. Explain and demonstrate use of the following
sequence of steps involved in the systematic
development of computer-based training:
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Needs assessment.
Task analysis.
Learner analysis.
Objective formulation.
Method and activity selection.
Evaluation.
Evaluation Plans
1. Active participation in the in-class and online
research and hands-on activities: 30%
2. Final project:
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High-level design for an instructional model: 20%
Development of a computer-based, stand-alone
training module designed for use in training or the K12 classroom: 50%
PROPOSED
SCHEDULE OF TOPICS
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Introduction to Instructional Design.
Current brain research: how students learn.
Instructional design models.
Front end analysis.
Media analysis.
Survey of CBT platforms.
Using PowerPoint as a Platform to Deliver
CBT.
PROPOSED
SCHEDULE OF TOPICS
• Instructional design models, including:
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ASSURE
ADDIE
Dick & Carey’s Instructional Design Model
Gagne’s Nine Significant Events Model of Instruction
• Historically proven design practices:
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Needs assessment
Task analysis
Learner analysis
Objective formulation
Assessment
PROPOSED
SCHEDULE OF TOPICS
• Exploring media choices:
– Podcasts
– Discovery learning / simulations
– Virtual Reality (VR online experiences, virtual
fieldtrips)
– Blogs
– Web pages
– Wiki
– Other emerging technologies
PROPOSED
SCHEDULE OF TOPICS
• Development of a high-level design
document.
• Development of an instructional module
(prototype of design document).
What is Instructional Design?
(Intro. to the Field)
What is Instructional Design?
• The process of analyzing students’ needs
and learning goals, designing and
developing instructional materials (Univ. of
Texas).
What is Instructional Design?
• The systematic process of creating or adapting
instruction, including at least these steps: defining
the problem or knowledge gap that the instruction
is meant to address; defining the audience that the
instruction is meant to serve; developing
objectives and assessment strategies; selecting and
sequencing content and learning activities;
evaluating the instruction; revision (Distance
Learning Resource Network).
What is Instructional Design?
• Instructional Design is the practice of arranging
media (communication technology) and content to
help learners and teachers transfer knowledge
most effectively. The process consists broadly of
determining the current state of learner
understanding, defining the end goal of
instruction, and creating some media-based
“intervention” to assist in the transition
(Wikipedia).
Elements that Led to
Instructional Design
Military need to train
large numbers of
soldiers with
proficiency during
WWII.
B.F. Skinner’s ideas on
Behaviorism.
Bloom’s taxonomy of
learning.
Gagne’s conditions of
learning.
Dick & Carey’s model.
Advent and evolution
of computers.
Timeline
What Is Instructional Design?
• How does instructional design differ from
what teachers do every day?
Instructional Design Definitions
Instructional Design vs.
Usual Design of Instruction
• Design Process:
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Analyze
Design
Build
Test
• Usual design of
instruction:
– Design
– Build
Training vs. Education
• Training: Acquisition of knowledge, skills, and
competencies as a result of the teaching of
vocational or practical skills and knowledge that
relate to specific useful competencies (Wikipedia).
• Education: Act or process of imparting or
acquiring general knowledge, developing the
powers of reasoning and judgment, and generally
of preparing intellectually for mature life
(Dictionary.com).
ILT vs. CBT
• Instructor-led teaching
(ILT)
• Computer-based
training (CBT)
Major Components of
Instructional Design
task
needs assessment
task analysis
learner analysis
description
What is the instruction intended to
accomplish?
What are the parts of the task or content to be
learned, and how do those parts relate to one
another and to accomplishing the instructional
goal?
For whom is the program being developed,
and what are their characteristics?
objective formulation
Specifically what should the learners be able
to do when they complete the instruction?
method, activity, & media
selection
What are the most effective methods and
media for delivering the instruction?
evaluation
How will you determine how effectively the
content is learned?
Front-end Analysis
• “At the heart of Instructional Design is the
analysis phase. After you thoroughly
conduct the analysis, you can then choose a
model based on your findings. That is the
area where most people get snagged: they
simply do not do a thorough enough
analysis” (Wikipedia).
Is Everything
Instructionally Effective?
• “Instructional” multimedia opportunities
abound in today’s world, but is it really
instructionally effective?
Merrill’s Comments on the
Evolution of Instructional Design
Instructional Design Process
• Planning:
– Perform front-end analysis: leads to
development of a high-level design document.
• Implementation:
– Develop an effective instructional module,
basing methodology, media, and other
decisions on data gathered in the planning
stage.
Many Models of
Instructional Design
• ADDIE Model
• Dick & Carey model
• Nine Significant Events model (Gagne)
Some Models of
Instructional Design
Instructional Design Application
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CD-ROM based instruction.
CBT (computer-based training).
Corporate training.
Classroom use.
Implications for all educational/
instructional situations.
I.D. Professional Staff
• Instructional designer
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Project manager
Instructional Designer
Programmer
Graphics
• Instructor
• Subject Matter Expert
• Evaluator
Instructional Design Organizations
General Benefits of Instructional
Systematic Design
• Facilitates standardized training.
– In business, often have multiple trainers at
multiple sites.
– Replaces possibly different “sections” of
instruction with a sound instructional product.
• Better ensures accomplishment of
instructional objectives.
– Better chance of success with tested
instructional modules.
• Provides empirical evidence of success.
Benefits of Instructional
Systematic Design TO YOU
• Can use the elements and techniques of
design in day-to-day planning for traditional
classes.
• Causes you to re-think just about every
lesson you will write after this course!
– Build lessons based on skill steps rather than
using the “textbook” order of topics.
• Provides an effective way to use computers
already in your classroom.
A Closer Look:
The ADDIE Model
A Closer Look: ADDIE
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Analysis
Design
Development
Implementation
Evaluation
A Closer Look: ADDIE
Analysis
– Needs Analysis – problem and proposed solution
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Standard state benchmarks
Professional exam requirements
Problems with performance in a workplace
Pre-test
– Content Analysis – what to teach
– Learner Analysis
– Environment
A Closer Look: ADDIE
Design
– Write objectives
– Create practice and assessment (notice how
early the test gets written)
– Organize lesson units
– Determine delivery method
A Closer Look: ADDIE
Development
– Produce Media Resources
– Create Instructor materials (for multiple
instructor situations)
– Prepare participant materials
– Rehearse the presentation
A Closer Look: ADDIE
Implementation
– Schedule
– Establish student communications (e-mail,
meetings)
– Present the lessons
A Closer Look: ADDIE
Evaluation
– Content evaluation (by Subject Matter expert)
– Prototype evaluation (1-to-1 testing)
– Learner evaluation (small group and full class
implementation)
Notice that evaluation is an integral part of the
process, and not just a test given at the end.
Course Planning
Course Planning
• Theoretical/planning:
– Perform front-end analysis.
– Develop a high-level design document.
• Hands-on:
– Using presentation software as a medium for
delivering computer-based training.
– Exploring media selection.
Summary
• Introduction to Instructional Design.
– Origins.
– Basic components.
– Benefits to you as a teacher/trainer.
• A Closer Look: The ADDIE Model.
Remote Class Activities
1. Briefly analyze an instructional design
model.
– With a partner, analyze one instructional design
model.
– Briefly summarize the model online.
– Hold an online discussion to synthesize
information.
Remote Class Activities
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ADDIE
ASSURE
Dick & Carey model
Gerlach-Ely model
Hannafin & Peck model
Kemp model
Gagne’s Nine Significant Events model
Remote Class Activities
2. Outside readings.
– Read articles that will be posted online and
participate in online discussion and/or written
follow-up activities.
Next In-person Session
• Current brain research: How do people
learn?
• Instructional design models.

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