UNIT 3 Theoretical Perspective of Human Development (Mid-twentieth Century Theories) OVERVIEW Psychoanalytic Perspective Psychosexual Psychosocial Mechanistic Perspective Behaviorism Social Learning Organismic Perspective Cognitive Development Humanistic Perspective Self Actualization PSYCHOANALYTIC PERSPECTIVE Explains personality, motivation, and psychological disorders by focusing on: the influence of early childhood experiences unconscious motives and conflicts methods people use to cope with their sexual and aggressive impulses Freud’s determinism PSYCHOANALYTIC PERSPECTIVE Psychoanalytic theory suggests that unconscious forces act to determine personality and behavior. The unconscious is a part of the personality about which a person is unaware. It contains infantile wishes, desires, demands and needs that are hidden, because of their disturbing nature, from conscious awareness. The unconscious is responsible for a good part of our everyday behavior. Our personality has three aspects: the id, the ego and the superego. THE PSYCHOANALYTIC PERSPECTIVE Freud’s Structural Model of Personality Id - Operates on the pleasure principle - Demands immediate fulfillment Superego - Internalized ideals - Develops from parents/ early childhood experiences THE PSYCHOANALYTIC PERSPECTIVE Freud’s Structural Model of Personality Ego - Largely conscious - Mediates demands of id and ego - Reality principle Satisfy id in realistic ways that bring pleasure and not pain FREUD’S STRUCTURAL MODEL OF PERSONALITY Id (Pleasure Principle) We are born with our Id, which is an important part of our personality. Id allows to get our basic needs meet. Id is based on our pleasure principle. In other words, the id wants whatever feels good at the time, with no consideration for the reality of the situation. When a child is hungry, the id wants food, and therefore the child cries. When the child needs to be changed, the id cries. When the child is uncomfortable, in pain, too hot, too cold, or just wants attention, the id speaks up until his or her needs are met. The id doesn't care about reality, about the needs of anyone else, only its own satisfaction. FREUD’S STRUCTURAL MODEL OF PERSONALITY Ego (Reality Principle) Within the next three years, as the child interacts more and more with the world, the second part of the personality begins to develop, the Ego. The ego is based on the reality principle. The ego understands that other people have needs and desires and that sometimes being impulsive or selfish can hurt us in the long run. It’s the ego's job to meet the needs of the id, while taking into consideration the reality of the situation FREUD’S STRUCTURAL MODEL OF PERSONALITY Superego (Moral Principle) By the age of five, or the end of the phallic stage of development, the Superego develops. The Superego is the moral part of us and develops due to the moral and ethical restraints placed on us by our caregivers. Many equate the superego with the conscience as it dictates our belief of right and wrong. FREUD’S STRUCTURAL MODEL OF PERSONALITY In a healthy person, according to Freud, the ego is the strongest so that it can satisfy the needs of the id, not upset the superego, and still take into consideration the reality of every situation. Not an easy job by any means, but if the id gets too strong, impulses and self satisfaction take over the person's life. If the superego becomes to strong, the person would be driven by rigid morals, would be judgmental and unbending in his or her interactions with the world. THE PSYCHOANALYTIC PERSPECTIVE PSYCHOSEXUAL THEORY: BASIC ASSUMPTION The basic assumption is that human beings are powerful innate forces known as instincts or drives. Instincts or drives energizes and direct all human psychic and physical activities. Libido is physiological and emotional energy associated with the sex drive. The concept was originated by Sigmund Freud, who saw the libido as linked not only with sexual desire but with all constructive human activity. He believed that psychiatric illnesses were the result of misdirecting or suppressing the libido. LIBIDO AND THE PSYCHO-SEXUAL THEORY Psychosexual developmental theory places great emphasis on the psychology of sexual development. Freud believed that sexual development was more psychological in nature than it was biological. Our sex drive (libido) causes us to seek pleasure in erogenous zones (mouth, the genitals, & the anus) during the different stages of psychosexual development. FREUD PSYCHO-SEXUAL THEORY Libido means sex drive FREUDIAN DEVELOPMENTAL PROCESS Biological and psychological instincts and drives are present at birth in the form of hunger and discomfort and these drives are housed in Id. The Id operates on the ‘pleasure principle’ (gain pleasure and avoid displeasure) Id seeks instant gratification of its drives or needs. Ego develops some 6-8 months after birth (Reality Principle) Superego develops (between 3-5 years) and becomes the articulated moral principle. Id, Ego, and Superego constitute Freudian personality structure with amazing dynamics. FREUD PSYCHO-SEXUAL THEORY ORAL Stage This occurs from birth to about 1 year, and the libido is focused on the mouth. The individual may be frustrated by having to wait on another person, being dependent on another person. Being fixated at this stage may mean an excessive use of oral stimulation, such as cigarettes, drinking or eating. ORAL FIXATION FREUD PSYCHO-SEXUAL THEORY ANAL Stage This period occurs about age 2 and 3 yrs. Here individuals have their first encounter with rules and regulations, as they have to learn to be toilet trained. This encounter with rules and regulations will dictate the later behavior with rules and regulations. FREUD PSYCHO-SEXUAL THEORY ANAL STAGE (CONTINUE……) These things are not just related to toilet training but also the baby must learn to control urges and behaviors. What goes wrong here is either parents being too controlling or not controlling enough. Anally retentive person is rigid, overly organized, subservient to authority vs. anally expulsive person is little self-control, disorganized, defiant, hostile. ANAL STAGE (CONTINUED) ANAL RETENTIVE VS. ANAL EXPULSION FREUD PSYCHO-SEXUAL THEORY PHALLIC Stage This period starts about age 4-5 years. The libidinal energy shifts from the anal region to the genital region. Some critical episodes for development occur during this stage, but these episodes occur differently for boys and girls. Oedipus conflict or Electra complex develop in boys and girls. The boy begins to fall in love with his mother, and sees his father as a rival for her affections. Similarly, girls become nearer to father. But she is not against her mother. The boy will adopt his father’s beliefs and ideals as his own and move on to the latency stage. Whereas girls will develop the moral character of mother. OEDIPUS OR ELECTRA COMPLEX IN BOYS AND GIRLS IDENTIFY WITH FATHER IDENTIFY WITH MOTHER FREUD PSYCHO-SEXUAL THEORY LATENCY Stage The Latency period begins sometimes around the age of six and ends when puberty starts to begin. In this phase, the Oedipus conflict was dissolved and set free, resulting in a relatively conflict-free period of development. The child begins to make connections to siblings, other children , and adults. FREUD PSYCHO-SEXUAL THEORY GENITAL Stage The genital stage begins at age twelve or thirteen and continues throughout adulthood. Involves the development of the genitals, and libido begins to be used in its sexual role, and the individual starts to become conscious of sex and their sexual desires towards members of the opposite sex. To have a fully functional adulthood, and to accomplish ‘appropriate’ heterosexual maturity, the previous stages need to be fully resolved. GENITAL STAGE FIXATION OF LIBIDO Freud believed that sexual development could be negatively affected if there was too much excitement or inhibition associated with a particular psychosexual stage. The result of either too much excitement or inhibition would result in a “fixation of libido”, which would cause the libido to become “stuck” in one particular erogenous zone. This could cause a person to develop various problems later in life, such as overeating, constipation, alcoholism, fetishism, erectile dysfunction and an inability to enjoy sex or a lack of sexual desire. FREUD’S PSYCHOSEXUAL STAGES Stage Age Range Erogenous Zone (s) Oral 0 – 18 months Mouth Orally Aggressive: Involves sucking, biting, chewing gum or ends of pen Orally Passive: Involves smoking/eating/kissing/fellatio (the sexual stimulation of a man's genitals using the tongue and lips) / cunnilingus (sexual stimulation of a woman's genitals using the tongue and lips) Anal 18 – 36 months Anal retentive: Obsession with organization or excessive neatness Anal- expulsive: Reckless, careless, defiant, disorganized Bowel and Bladder elimination Consequences of Fixation FREUD’S PSYCHOSEXUAL STAGES Stage Age Range Erogenous Zone (s) Consequences of Fixation Phallic 3 – 6 years Genitals Oedipus Conflict Electra complex Latency 6 years – Puberty Dormant (hidden) sexual feelings People do not tend to fixate at this stage, but if they do, they tend to be extremely sexually unfulfilled) Genital Puberty and beyond Maturation of sexual interests Frigidity (coldness), impotence (incapacity), Unsatisfactory relationship CRITICISMS OF FREUD’S PSYCHOSEXUAL THEORY Emphasis on biological factors Too great an emphasis on the early years as determinants of adult adjustment Generalization for study of abnormal Forgotten cultural consideration CRITICISMS OF FREUD’S PSYCHOSEXUAL THEORY Many people do not agree with Freud’s theory, and suggest that his views on sexual development were a result of the era in which he was brought up in. Freud lived during the Victorian era, a time in which the display of sexual desires and sexuality was generally discouraged. As a result, this may have heavily influenced Freud’s views and the theory on sexual development he ultimately came up with. CRITICISMS OF FREUD’S PSYCHOSEXUAL THEORY Many people today may view Freud’s theory with disgust, especially his belief that the child possessed a sexual desire for their parent. It could be the case, as some people would say, that the child did not have a sexual interest in their parent, but rather was jealous of the power they had within that family. As a result the child wishes to take the place of their parent, but despite their desire to do so they cannot. It is also important to remember that for any theory there is a tendency for the theorist to project their own views, and possibly their own experiences in life onto that theory. So what may be true (and therefore apply to) one person, may not be true (and apply) to another.