Sudden Cardiac Death in Structurally Normal Heart Brian D. Le, MD Presbyterian Hospital CIVA Presentation – HPI-35 yo WM s PMH presents with exertional syncope h/o PAF since 18 yrs of age Holter- monomorphic isolated PVC’s Echo- structurally normal heart – Meds- no OTC or herbal – Social- occ. Etoh, no IVDA – Family History Sister (31) - dizziness and palpitations Sister’s son (6) - cardiac arrest at 8 mo old after a loud noise with successful DCCV Gaita et al. Circulation. 2003; 108 A- 35 yo WM c syncope B- 31 yo sister, dizziness and palpitations C- 6 yo son, SCD Sudden Cardiac Death “Unexpected death from cardiac cause within a short time (~1 hour of sx) in a person without prior conditions that would appear fatal.” 300-400,000 deaths annually (U.S.). VT/VF account for 80%. 20% have structurally normal hearts. Wever E, et al. JACC. Vol 43, 2004. Sudden Cardiac Death Normal hearts, < 40 years old < 30% successful resuscitation reaching hospital Risk of life-threatening events in cardiac arrest survivors is 25-40% at two years Wever E, et al. JACC. Vol 43, 2004. Primary Electrophysiologic Abnormalities WPW: anterograde BPT ERP <250ms. Brugada: RBBB w/ST elevation V1-V3 Catecholamine Polymorphic VT: hRyR2. Long QT: QTc (>440ms), TdP w/long coupled PVC (600-800ms). Short-coupled TdP: normal QTc, PVC w/short coupling (200-300ms). Short QT syndrome Idiopathic VF Brugada’s Catecholaminergic Polymorphic VT Idiopathic VF A- 35 yo WM c syncope B- 31 yo sister, dizziness and palpitations C- 6 yo son, SCD Evaluation Physical Exam Serial ECG’s Holter Heart rate variability QT dispersion Signal-averaged ECG Echocardiogram Cardiac MRI Electrophysiological Study QT Interval Represents ventricular repolarization. Normal QTc upper limit: 440ms. Bazett’s formula: QTc = QT/ RR Rautaharju formula (14,379 pts): – QTp (ms)= 656/ (1+HR/100) – QT/QTp x 100% = % QTpredicted. – 88% of QTp = 2 SD below mean – Lower limit of nl QT int. = 88% of QTp QT Interval and SCD Algra et al. Br.Ht.J. 1993;70:43-8. – Nested cohort 6693 consecutive pts w/24 ECG. – F/U 2.5 years in 99.5% of pts. – End point: QTc correlation w/SCD (104 pts). – Results: QTc >= 440ms 2.3 RR of SCD. QTc < 400ms 2.4 RR of SCD. Familial Short QT Gussak et al. Cardiology 2000;94:99102. – 3 members of one family; age 17-51 yo. – Palpitations, sx PAF, syncopeSCD – All w/ structurally normal hearts. – All w/ S-QT (260-280ms); QT interval <80% predicted by Rautaharju method. Factors That Shorten QT Increase in heart rate Hyperthermia Hypercalcemia Hyperkalemia Acidosis Changes in autonomic tone Genetic Basis of Short QT Brugada, Antzelevitch, et al. Circ. 2004;109:30-5. – Different missense mutations in same residue codon 588 of KCNH2 (HERG [IKr]). – Mutations only seen in sQT, and not in normal relatives. – Patch clamp models Heterogeneity of Short QT Genetic Studies- KCNQ1 gene mutation G for C, subs. valine for leucine (IKs) Mutations negative in 200 unrelated controlled individuals Loss of function leadsLQT1 Bellocq et al. Circulation. 109; 2004 KCNJ2, encoding for inwardly rectifying K channel Kir2.1 Rapid repolarization SQT3 Loss of function results in LQT7 (Anderson’s disease) Priori et al. Circ. Res. 2005; 96 Ion Channel Mutations Loss of Function Gain of Function – SCN5A Brugada – IKs LQT1 – IKr LQT2 1 2 – SCN5A LQT3 – IKs Fam. A. Fib., Short QT – IKr Short QT Ca > Na 0 Na 4 IKr & IKs 3 Short QT Syndrome Rx Gaita et al. JACC. 2004;43:1494-9. – 6 pts. from 2 different families. – Drugs: Flecainide (IV or oral), Sotalol, Ibutilide, and Hydroquinidine. Short QT Rx Results Flecainide: slight inc. QT due to QRS prolongation. Ibutilide & Sotalol: no change in QT Hydroquinidine: – 5/6 pts- QTc normalized (290405ms) – EPS 5/5 pts- inc. VERP, no VF/VT – F/U 11 mos- 4/6 on hydroquinidine w/o sx or arrhythmias detected by ICD. Ventricular ERP Quinidine VW Class: Ia (sodium channel blocker) Blocks: INa, IKr, IKs, Ito, L-type Ca2+, IK1(in.rect.), & IKATP QT increase. Adverse effects: diarrhea, SLE, thrombocytopenia, hepatitis, cinchonism (tinnitus/HA), TdP, many drug interactions 2/2 block of CYP2D6. ICD First line therapy Risk of inappropriate shock deliveryTw oversensing (Schimpf et al. JCE. 14: Dec 2003) - Ventricular ERP- <150ms - induction of VF - Atrial ERP- 120ms Circulation. 2003; 108 Family Tree 49 yo 39 yo 39 yo 8 mo Circulation. 2003; 108 Schimpf, et al. Heart Rhythm. 2004;2 Summary Short QT Syndrome Significantly short QTc <= 300ms. Tall & peaked T-waves. Clinical: palpitations, syncope, SCD. Significant FHX of SCD. Atrial and ventricular arrhythmias. Structurally normal hearts. Treatment: ICD and/or Quinidine.