5-1 Powerpoint - McCook Public Schools

1500s-1600s, Europe started to look at the world
1700s, scientists expanded European knowledge.
› Joseph Jenner and Antoine Lavoisier built the framework for
› Edward Jenner developed vaccine for smallpox.
Used reason to discover natural laws. (laws that govern
This Scientific Revolution led to what is known as the
human nature)
› Enlightenment thinkers thought that through reason people &
governments could solve every social, political, and economic
Thomas Hobbes
› Expressed his ideas in a work called Leviathan.
 In it he argued that people are naturally cruel, greedy, and
 Without control they would fight, rob and oppress each other.
 Life without laws would be solitary, poor, nasty, and brutish.
› To escape this “brutish life” people entered into a
social contract (agreement).
In which they gave up the “state of nature” for an organized
› Believed only powerful governments could ensure
orderly society.
 He wanted an absolute monarchy.
John Locke
› Believed people were reasonable and moral.
› Thought people have natural rights (rights that belong to all humans
at birth).
 Included Life, Liberty, and the Property.
› In Two Treaties of Government, Locke argued that people formed
governments to protect their natural rights. (He preferred limited
power forms of government).
› He said the government has an obligation to the people it
 If government fails its obligations then people have the right to overthrow it.
› These ideas later spread across the world.
1700s France
› An influential thinker was Baron de Montesquieu.
 Studied governments of Europe.
 Studied European, Chinese and Native American
› He criticized absolute monarchy.
› In 1748, he published The Spirit of the Laws.
 In it he wrote about governments throughout history.
 Wrote admiringly about Britain's limited monarchy.
 Liked the idea of separation of power in
 Also liked “checks and balances”.
Separation of power, shares the power between
different areas or branches of government.
› The power of one branch can always be challenged by
another branch.
› This way each branch has an effect on the others.
› No one branch of government can get to much power.
Using the checks and balances system helps to
balance the power of the government.
 In
France, Philosophes applied methods of
science to better understand and improve
› Thought use of reason could lead to reforms of
government, law, and society.
 Their
ideas spread across Europe and to
other continents.
One famous philosophe was Francois-Marie
› He later took the name Voltaire.
› He said, “My trade is to say what I think.”
› Used his intelligence to expose the abuses of his
 He liked to target corrupt officials and idle aristocrats
 He detested the slave trade and deplored religious
› Voltaire’s outspoken attacks offended the French
government and the Catholic Church.
 He was later imprisoned and then exiled.
 Always continued to defend “Freedom of Speech”.
Denis Diderot
› Produced a 28-volume encyclopedia.
› His purpose was to change the general way of
 In it he denounced slavery, praised freedom of expression, and
encouraged education.
 Attacked divine right and traditional religions.
› Pope threatened to excommunicate all those who
bought or read any of the encyclopedia volumes.
› Between 1751 and 1789, 20,000 copies were printed.
› Helped spread Enlightenment throughout Europe and
to the Americas.
Jean-Jacques Rousseau was a philosophe.
› He believed people were naturally good.
› Felt like this “good” was corrupted by society.
› In 1762, set forth his ideas in “The Social Contract”.
› He put his faith in “general will” or the best
conscience of the people.
› Felt like the individual should be subordinate to the
› His work has influenced people for over 200 years.
Women didn’t have as much freedom as men.
Did have natural rights, but were limited to areas of
the home and family.
Mid-1700s, some women began to protest this.
› They questioned the notion that women were by nature
inferior to men.
Mary Wollstonecraft
› She accepted that women’s first duty was to be a mother.
› Felt like women should be able to decide what is in her own
interest and have some independence.
› Published “A Vindication of the Rights of Woman”.
 In it she called for equal education for men and women.
Physiocrats focused on economic reforms.
› They rejected mercantilism which required
government regulation of the economy.
Laissez Faire was a policy that allowed businesses
to operate with little government involvement.
› Physiocrats approved of this policy.
Mercantilists believed in in acquiring gold and
silver wealth through trade.
 Physiocrats believed that real wealth came from
making the land more productive.
British economist that greatly admired physiocrats.
In his work, The Wealth of Nations, he said free
market should be allowed to regulate business
He also believed in supply and demand methods.
He strongly approved and supported Laissez Faire.
› Still thought the government had a duty to protect society,
administer justice, and provide public service.
Smith’s ideas would greatly influence and help
shape the productive economies in the 1800s and
Mary Shelley, the author of Frankenstein, was the daughter of what
enlightened thinker, that worked for women’s rights during the
› Mary Wollstonecraft
Who believed that the purpose of separation of powers was to
protect the liberty of the people?
Baron de Montesquieu
Who wrote and was the editor of the controversial Encyclopedia?
› Denis Diderot
Which philosopher believed that people were basically good?
› Jean-Jacques Rousseau
What author wrote Leviathan, and believed in social contract, but
once entered into that contract was absolute?
› Thomas Hobbes
Who wrote Two Treatises of Government, and believed in social
contract, but that contract could be broken?
› John Locke
Frenchman Francois-Marie Arouet, who exposed abuses
of government and detested the slave trade, was better
known as:
› Voltaire
Who was the British woman that thought women should
be free to choose and that girls and boys should be
› Mary Wollstonecraft
What book did Adam Smith write that said a free market
should be allowed to regulate business?
› The Wealth of Nations
Hands Off, or a policy that allows businesses to operate
without government interference is called:
› Laissez Faire
When people agree to give up their natural state for an
organized government, they are said to have entered
into a what?
› Social Contract
What were “Lovers of Wisdom” called that used reason
to lead to reforms of government, law, and society?
› Philosophes
A what believed that natural laws could be used to
define economic systems?
› Physiocrats
Life, liberty, and property are examples of what?
› Natural Rights
According to Hobbes and Locke, human nature was
governed by what?
› Natural laws
This person wrote Spirit of Law and came up with the
idea of three branches of government:
› Baron de Montesquieu

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