*Teacher, but why?* Helping answer sticky questions

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Omar Zejli, ALC Fez [email protected]
Nicholas Lock, ALC Fez [email protected]
Marrakech, February 5-8, 2012
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For example:
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I have bought a car since last June.
He has died since yesterday.
I have left my family since last month.
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Note the different tenses used:
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He was working there for two years.
He worked there for two years.
He has been working there for two years.
He has worked there for two years.
He will work there for two years.
He will have been working there for 30 years by the time he
will retire.
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1. They a) have been working b) have worked in the garage, that's why their clothes are greasy.
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2. She a) had met b) had been meeting John before he came to work here.
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3. By the time the letter arrives, a) I will have left b) I will have been leaving.
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4. When Karen telephoned, they a) had been studying b) had studied for two hours.
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5. I'm tired. I a) have just finished b) have just been finishing my homework.
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6. Peter a) has been reading b) has read 3 books by Hemingway.
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7. By the time we finish, we a) will have painted b) will have been painting for 4 hours.
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8. I made sure that I a) had learned b) had been learning Italian well before I left for Rome.
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9. She a) has known b) has been knowing John for 10 years.
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10. They a) have thought of you b) have been thinking of you a lot recently.
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Past indefinite. The time is not specified. What was done may have occurred at any time until now.
I have often met Mr. Jones.
I have never met that musician.
Tom has read a lot of detective stories.
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Past in the present. The action, or number of actions, is past, but the period of time is not yet past.
I have seen Bill twice this week.
I have not seen Mary this year.
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Immediate, unspecified past. Frequently used with the word ‘just’
Ann has just had a long talk with me.
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Past to present: the action began in the past and lasts until the present. Chiefly with verbs that
do not use continuous tenses
They have been here for twenty years.
We have known the Smiths for several years.
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Action completed before, and linked with, a present habit action.
When I have said my prayers, I go to bed.
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Action completed before, and linked with, a future action.
After Ali has passed his examination, he will go abroad.
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Past to present: the action began in the past and lasts until the present.
Our firm has been making that model since 1992
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Add liveliness to one’s speech.
What have you been doing lately?
You’ve been ringing her up a lot recently, haven’t you?
I’ve been bathing.
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Underline the phrase which is appropriate to the rest of the
sentence.
◦ 1-I ……my family since last March.
 a)left
b)have left
2-My friend ….the science club since last year.
a)has joined
b)was a member of
3-Richard ………for two days now.
a)went
b)has gone
3-Tom ……….the Army since 2006.
a)has been in
b)has joined
4-I …..that car since last June.
a)have bought
b)have had
5-School……..for more than two weeks now.
a)began
b)has started
6-How long……….?
a)is the man dead b)has the man died
7-How long……..?
a)has Mary married b)has Mary been married
8-Mary……a cold for some time now
a)has caught
b)has had
c)have been away from
c)has been a member of
c)has been gone
c)was in
c)bought
c)has been in session
c)has the man been dead
c)did Mary get married
c)has been having
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How can one explain why the following sentences are
non-English; that is, they seem strange to native
speakers of English:
◦ *I have left my family since last March.
◦ *Mary has caught a cold for some time now.
◦ *I have met Jack for two years.
The answer lies in the concept of punctual vs. durative.
Punctual refers to a point of time represented by such
expressions as two days ago, in 1999, last year, etc. The
expressions expressed by these verbs occurred at a point
of time. The events reported are short-lived: they are
begun and terminated (relatively) quickly.
Durative Time
There are a number of verbs and verb expressions that refer
to events or states that last for a relatively longer period:
they are stretched out.
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Select the phrase that fits the time expression given.
1-…………………….for the past three days.
◦ a)Nancy has had a cold
b)Nancy has caught a cold
2-…………………….since last month.
a)I have had that book
b)I have borrowed that book
3-…………………….for two days now.
a)Tom has broken his leg
b)Tom’s leg has been broken
4-……………………..since 2006.
a)Mary has been a graduate
b)Mary has graduated
5-This deer …………for about six hours.
a)has been killed
b)has been dead
6-How long …………………here?
a)have you arrived
b)have you been
7-How long ………………..Maria?
a)have you known
b)have you met
8-…………………………..for two weeks now.
a)The semester has ended
b)has been over
1- This bicycle (be) ...................... in our family for fourteen years. My father (use) ............... it
for the first five, my brother (ride) ..................it for the next five, and I (have) ..................for
the last four.
2- Ann (go) .............. to Canada six months ago. She (work) ................ there for a while and then
(go) ................. to the U.S.A.
3- Mary (be) ............... in Japan for two years. She is working there and likes it very much.
4- When I (buy) .................my new house, I (ask) ................. for a telephone. The Post Office
(tell)............. me to wait, but I (wait) ................ a year now and my phone (not come)
....................
5- A: (You, like) .................... your last job?
B: Yes, I (like) .................. it at first, but then I (quarrel) ...................... with my employer, and
he (dismiss) ....... me.
A: How long (you, be) ..................... there?
B: I (be) ................ there for two weeks.
6- When I first (come) .............. to this house, it (be) ............... a very quiet area. But since then a
lot of houses (be) .................. built and it (become) ..................... very noisy.
7- The police (not find) ................. the murderer yet, but the dead man’s brother (be) ..............
in the station all day. The police say that he (help) ................ them with their enquiries.
8- Someone (ring) ............. up an hour ago and (say) ............... that there (be) ............... a time
bomb in the plane. Since then the crew (look) .................... for it, but they (not find)
................... it. This is the third bomb they (have) ...................... this week.
9- A : He (lose)…………his job last month and since then he (be)………..out of work
B : Why he (lose)…………his job ?
A : He (be)…………rude to his boss.
10- I (just, meet) …………..the new student. I (speak)………….to him ten minutes ago. He
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(study)……………….English for many years.
11- I (not wear)……………….my new coat. I only (buy)…………..it yesterday.
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1) When I (arrive)…………………., Ann (wait)…………….for me. She was really
annoyed with me because I (be) ……………late, and she (wait)…………….for a long
time.
2) We (walk) ……………….along the road for about twenty minutes when a car
(stop)………… and (offer)………….us a ride.
3) I (have)………….nothing to eat all day, so I was hungry.
4) He (give)…………….me back the book, (thank)……………me for lending it to him
and (say) …………that he (enjoy)…………..it very much; but I (know)………….that
he (not read)…..…..it because most of the pages (be) ………….still uncut.
5) I (think)…………..my train (leave)………..at 4:30 and (be) ………….very
disappointed when I (arrive)…………at 4:25 and (learn)…………..that it (just,
leave)……………….. I (find) ……later that I (use)………….an out-of-date timetable.
6) The train (be) ………….in the station at least five minutes before I
(recognize)………….my friend in the crowd.
7) Mr. Brown (drive)……………….halfway to the party when his wife
(remember)……………that she (leave)……………..her handbag at home.
8) None of his teachers (understand)…………..how he (manage)…………….to pass
the exam.
9) The results last term (be) …………better than anyone (expect……………
10) (You, ever, speak)…………………to him before that day?
11) Almost all the guests (leave)…………….by the time we (arrive)………….
12) No sooner (he, doze)………………off than the phone (ring)…………..
13) I (call)…………..at his office but (discover)………………I (just, miss)…………..him.
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1- Ann and Andy got married on June 1st. Today is June 14th. Ann and Andy (be) ................
married for two weeks. By June 7th, they (be) ................... married for one week. By June 28th,
they (be) ................. married for four weeks.
2- This traffic is terrible. We’re going to be late. By the time we (get) .................. to the airport,
Bob’s plane (already, arrive) ...................., and he’ll be wondering where we are.
3- The traffic was very heavy. By the time we (get) ................. to the airport, Bob’s plane (already,
arrive) ......................
4- This morning I came to class at 9:00, and I’m still in class. I (sit) ................. at this desk for an
hour. By 9:30, I (sit) .............. here for half an hour. By 11:00, I (sit) ...................... here for two
hours.
5- I’m getting tired of sitting in the car. Do you realize that by the time we (arrive)……………. in
Agadir, we (drive) ..................... for ten straight hours.
6- Go ahead and leave on your vacation. Don’t worry about this work. By the time you (get)
.............. back, we (take) .................. care of everything.
7- What? He got married again? At this rate, he (have) ...................... a dozen wives by the time he
(die) ......................
8- We have been married for a long time. By our next anniversary, we (be) ...................... married
for 43 years.
9- By the time I (complete) ................... my studies, I (live) .................. in London for nearly a
year; I (not think) .................. I (stay) .................. any longer than that.
10- By the end of last year he (read) .................... four Shakespeare plays, and by next year he
(read) .................. two more. I (not see) ………..him since last Monday, but I (believe) he (write)
.................... an essay on Hamlet at present.
11- In a few minutes’ time, when the clock (strike) ................ six, I (wait) .................... here three
quarters of an hour.
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My students, who love grammar, will pass the exam.
A. All the students will pass the exam.
B. Only some of the students will pass the exam.
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My students who love grammar will pass the exam.
A. All the students will pass the exam.
B. Only some of the students will pass the exam.
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The teacher pointed to the flowers which were at the back.
A. All the flowers are at the back.
B. Only some of the flowers are at the back.
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The teacher pointed to the flowers, which were at the back.
A. All the flowers are at the back.
B. Only some of the flowers are at the back.
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Her cousins who live in Rabat are very friendly.
A. All her cousins live in Rabat.
B. Only some of her cousins live in Rabat.
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Her cousins, who live in Rabat, are very friendly.
A. All her cousins live in Rabat.
B. Only some of her cousins live in Rabat.
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Discuss the differences in meaning in these pairs of sentences.
1_ a)My sister who lives in Rabat had a baby last night.
b)My sister, who lives in Rabat, had a baby last night.
2_ a)In southern regions where rainfall is very slight the farmers must rely on irrigation.
b)In southern regions, where rainfall is very slight, the farmers must rely on irrigation.
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3 _ a) The students who finished their work early were allowed to go home.
b) The students, who finished their work early, were allowed to go home.
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4_ a) He reached into the basket and took out the bread that was old.
b) He reached into the basket and took out the bread, which was old.
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5_ a) Sarah was delighted to receive the present from her parents.
b) Sarah was delighted to receive the present, which was from her parents.
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6_ a)The professor praised the students, who had travelled all the way from Leeds.
b) The professor praised the students who had travelled all the way from Leeds.
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One of a kind
Proper nouns
Demonstratives
General sense
Identified by context
Sentence modifier
Expressions of number and/or quantity
Subject
Object
Possessive
For people
WHO/THAT
WHOM/THAT/
NO PRONOUN
WHOSE
For things
WHICH/THAT
WHICH/THAT/
NO PRONOUN
WHOSE*
Subject
Object
Possessive
For people
WHO
WHOM
WHOSE
For things
WHICH
WHICH
WHOSE*
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Regular sentences that contain an error (?)
1. It’s me who is to blame.
2. All what I want is a little tenderness.
3. All which you need to do is contact the police, that will come immediately.
4. Someone that I really admire Is Jim Brown, that spends all his time raising
money for charities, which care for children.
5. Last night I went to a party that was unusual for me because I don’t usually
go to them. I met Alison, who I work with, and she introduced me to her
husband that I had never met before.
6.That is one of the best films that has appeared in a long time.
7.That is the only one of the films that have pleased me.
8.The boy’s mother who loves him very much has made many sacrifices for
his happiness.
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1)The unfortunate man committed suicide. The unfortunate man married your aunt Mary.
2)The woman left the party early. The woman’s husband is very jealous.
3)My friend Tom will arrive here tomorrow. I haven’t seen Tom for years.
4)That new student was looking for you. I have forgotten his name.
5)Mary inherited a large sum of money. Mary’s father died last year.
6)There was a wonderful view from the hilltop. The hikers had stopped there to have lunch.
7)Most students look forward to the Christmas holidays. At this time they can relax after months of hard work.
8)A new research centre will be completed next year. The government is funding the new research centre.
9)The man went to a farmhouse to ask for a telephone. The man’s car broke down.
10)The coat is very pretty. Mary bought it in a downtown store.
11)The judge asked for more police protection. The judge’s life had been threatened.
12)My mother’s dining-room table is still in perfect condition. She polishes the dining-room table once every
week.
13)In 1790, The United States was not considered a world power. The U.S. had little interest in foreign affairs at
that time.
14)His books describe the effects of the war. Many of his books are now out of print.
15)He is one of the students. The students have failed the final examination.
16)She hurried home to feed her cats. One of them had just had kittens.
17)The storekeepers in the neighborhood asked for more police protection. Several of them had already been
robbed.
18)Shakespeare was born in 1564 and died in April 1616. His name is universally known but most of his life is
lost in obscurity. Cervantes, Spain’s greatest literary figure, also died in April 1616
19)His fist speech was better than his second. The first speech was broadcast. He gave the second before an
audience.
20)Very few people understood his lecture. The subject of his lecture was very obscure.
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1- The advantage of a supermarket is that you can buy what you want at a place ...... you
can park your car. Besides, it’s open after six o’clock, ..... other shops are shut. It’s also
at a supermarket .... you get the best value for money.
2- Mary, ......works for that firm of architects .......... I was telling you about the other day
was there too.
3- Sheila is one of the few teachers ..... I know ..... can control their classes without ever
raising their voices, ........ is an ability ......... children appreciate highly.
4- The blond fellow ..... you saw her talking to was Ken, ........ I must have mentioned
before in connection with our athletic club.
5- What surprises me most about Helen, ......... was also at the party, is that she does not
seem to worry at all about what others may think of her.
6- The first country on my itinerary is India, ........ High Commission in London has given
me a list of those people ....... would be most interested in my line of business, .....is
refrigeration equipment.
7- How lucky you are! India is what I’ve always wanted to go on that dream holiday ..... I’ve
always been promising myself but ........ I’ve never been able to afford.
8- I’m told I could renew my passport, ....... is out of date, at the nearest consulate, .........
address I could get from the embassy.
9- It is three years ago today ....... I first met my wife and so yesterday, ........... I had little
to do at the office, I left early to buy something ....... I thought would please her.
10- I bought what I wanted and hurried home, ....... I found the decorators ........ I hadn’t
expected until the following week. These men had not only convinced my wife that it
was I ....... had mistaken the date but had reduced the apartment to chaos.
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