Fig. 8-0

Report
Fig. 8-0
Fig. 8-0a
Fig. 8-0b
Fig. 8-0c
Fig. 8-1a
Fig. 8-1b
Fig. 8-3a-1
Plasma
membrane
Prokaryotic
chromosome
Cell wall
1
Duplication of chromosome
and separation of copies
Fig. 8-3a-2
Plasma
membrane
Prokaryotic
chromosome
Cell wall
1
Duplication of chromosome
and separation of copies
2
Continued elongation of the
cell and movement of copies
Fig. 8-3a-3
Plasma
membrane
Prokaryotic
chromosome
Cell wall
3
1
Duplication of chromosome
and separation of copies
2
Continued elongation of the
cell and movement of copies
Division into
two daughter cells
Fig. 8-3b
Prokaryotic chromosomes
Fig. 8-4a
Fig. 8-4bc
Sister chromatids
Chromosome
duplication
Centromere
Sister
chromatids
Chromosome
distribution
to
daughter
cells
Fig. 8-5
INTERPHASE
S
(DNA synthesis)
G1
G2
Fig. 8-6a
INTERPHASE
Chromatin
Centrosomes
(with centriole pairs)
PROPHASE
Early mitotic Centrosome
spindle
PROMETAPHASE
Fragments
of nuclear
envelope
Centromere
Plasma
Nuclear
envelope membrane Chromosome, consisting
of two sister chromatids
Nucleolus
Kinetochore
Spindle
microtubules
Fig. 8-6aa
INTERPHASE
Chromatin
Centrosomes
(with centriole pairs)
PROPHASE
Early mitotic Centrosome
spindle
PROMETAPHASE
Fragments
of nuclear
envelope
Centromere
Plasma
Nuclear
envelope membrane Chromosome, consisting
of two sister chromatids
Nucleolus
Kinetochore
Spindle
microtubules
Fig. 8-6ab
INTERPHASE
Fig. 8-6ac
PROPHASE
Fig. 8-6ad
PROMETAPHASE
Fig. 8-6b
METAPHASE
ANAPHASE
Metaphase
plate
Spindle
Daughter
chromosomes
TELOPHASE AND CYTOKINESIS
Cleavage
furrow
Nuclear
envelope
forming
Nucleolus
forming
Fig. 8-6ba
METAPHASE
ANAPHASE
Metaphase
plate
Spindle
Daughter
chromosomes
TELOPHASE AND CYTOKINESIS
Cleavage
furrow
Nuclear
envelope
forming
Nucleolus
forming
Fig. 8-6bb
METAPHASE
Fig. 8-6bc
ANAPHASE
Fig. 8-6bd
TELOPHASE AND CYTOKINESIS
Fig. 8-7a
Cleavage
furrow
Cleavage furrow
Contracting ring of
microfilaments
Daughter cells
Fig. 8-7aa
Cleavage
furrow
Fig. 8-7ab
Cleavage furrow Contracting ring of
microfilaments
Daughter cells
Fig. 8-7b
Wall of
Cell plate Daughter
parent cell forming nucleus
Cell wall
New cell wall
Vesicles containing Cell plate Daughter cells
cell wall material
Fig. 8-7ba
Wall of
parent cell
Cell plate
forming
Daughter
nucleus
Fig. 8-7bb
Cell wall
Vesicles containing
cell wall material
New cell wall
Cell plate
Daughter cells
Fig. 8-8a
Culture of cells
Addition of
growth
factor
Fig. 8-8b
Cells anchor to
dish surface
and divide.
When cells have
formed a complete
single layer, they
stop dividing (densitydependent inhibition).
If some cells are
scraped away, the
remaining cells divide
to fill the dish with a
single layer and then
stop (density-dependent
inhibition).
Fig. 8-9a
G1 checkpoint
G0
Control
system
G1
M
M checkpoint
G2 checkpoint
G2
S
Fig. 8-9b
Growth factor
Plasma membrane
Receptor
protein
Signal
transduction
pathway
Relay
proteins
G1 checkpoint
Control
system
G1
M
G2
S
Fig. 8-10
Lymph
vessels
Tumor
Blood
vessel
Glandular
tissue
A tumor grows from a
single cancer cell.
Cancer cells invade
neighboring tissue.
Cancer cells spread
through lymph and
blood vessels to
other parts of the body.
Fig. 8-11a
Fig. 8-11b
Fig. 8-11c
Fig. 8-12
Homologous pair of
chromosomes
Centromere
Sister chromatids
One duplicated
chromosome
Fig. 8-13
Haploid gametes (n = 23)
n
Egg cell
n
Sperm cell
Meiosis
Fertilization
Diploid
zygote
(2n = 46)
Multicellular
diploid adults
(2n = 46)
Mitosis and
development
2n
Fig. 8-14a
MEIOSIS I: Homologous chromosomes separate
INTERPHASE
Centrosomes
(with centriole
pairs)
Nuclear
envelope
PROPHASE I
METAPHASE I
ANAPHASE I
Microtubules Metaphase Sister chromatids
remain attached
plate
attached to
Spindle kinetochore
Sites of crossing over
Sister
Chromatin chromatids
Tetrad
Centromere
(with kinetochore)
Homologous
chromosomes separate
Fig. 8-14b
MEIOSIS II: Sister chromatids separate
TELOPHASE II
AND CYTOKINESIS
PROPHASE I
METAPHASE II
ANAPHASE II
TELOPHASE II
AND CYTOKINESIS
Cleavage
furrow
Sister chromatids
separate
Haploid daughter
cells forming
Fig. 8-15
MITOSIS
MEIOSIS
Parent cell
(before chromosome duplication)
Site of
crossing over
MEIOSIS I
Prophase I
Prophase
Duplicated
chromosome
(two sister
chromatids)
Tetrad formed
by synapsis of
homologous
chromosomes
Chromosome
duplication
Chromosome
duplication
2n = 4
Chromosomes
align at the
metaphase plate
Metaphase
Anaphase
Telophase
Sister chromatids
separate during
anaphase
2n
2n
Daughter cells
of mitosis
Tetrads
align at the
metaphase plate
Homologous
chromosomes
separate
(anaphase I);
sister chromatids remain
together
No further
chromosomal
duplication;
sister
chromatids
separate
(anaphase II)
Metaphase I
Anaphase I
Telophase I
Haploid
n=2
Daughter
cells of
meiosis I
MEIOSIS II
n
n
n
n
Daughter cells of meiosis II
Fig. 8-16-1
Possibility 1
Possibility 2
Two equally probable
arrangements of
chromosomes at
metaphase I
Fig. 8-16-2
Possibility 1
Possibility 2
Two equally probable
arrangements of
chromosomes at
metaphase I
Metaphase II
Fig. 8-16-3
Possibility 1
Possibility 2
Two equally probable
arrangements of
chromosomes at
metaphase I
Metaphase II
Gametes
Combination 1 Combination 2
Combination 3 Combination 4
Fig. 8-17a
Coat-color
genes
Eye-color
genes
Brown
Black
C
E
C
E
C
E
c
e
c
e
Meiosis
c
White
e
Pink
Tetrad in parent cell
(homologous pair of
duplicated chromosomes)
Chromosomes of
the four gametes
Fig. 8-17b
Brown coat (C); black eyes (E)
White coat (c); pink eyes (e)
Fig. 8-17ba
Brown coat (C); black eyes (E)
Fig. 8-17bb
White coat (c); pink eyes (e)
Fig. 8-17c
Sister chromatids
Sister chromatids
Homologous pair
of chromosomes
Fig. 8-18a
Tetrad
Chiasma
Centromere
Fig. 8-18b
Coat-color
genes
C
Eye-color
genes
E
c
e
1
Breakage of homologous chromatids
C
E
c
e
2
C
Tetrad
(homologous pair of
chromosomes in synapsis)
Joining of homologous chromatids
E
Chiasma
c
e
3
Separation of homologous
chromosomes at anaphase I
C
E
C
e
c
E
c
e
4
C
Separation of chromatids at
anaphase II and
completion of meiosis
E
Parental type of chromosome
C
e
c
E
c
e
Recombinant chromosome
Recombinant chromosome
Parental type of chromosome
Gametes of four genetic types
Fig. 8-18ba
Coat-color
genes
C
Eye-color
genes
E
c
e
1
Breakage of homologous chromatids
C
E
c
e
2
C
Tetrad
(homologous pair of
chromosomes in synapsis)
Joining of homologous chromatids
E
Chiasma
c
e
Fig. 8-18bb
C
E
Chiasma
e
c
3
Separation of homologous
chromosomes at anaphase I
C
E
C
e
c
E
c
4
C
e
Separation of chromatids at
anaphase II and
completion of meiosis
E
Parental type of chromosome
C
e
c
E
c
e
Recombinant chromosome
Recombinant chromosome
Parental type of chromosome
Gametes of four genetic types
Fig. 8-19-1
Packed red
and white blood
cells
Centrifuge
Blood
culture
1
Fluid
Fig. 8-19-2
Hypotonic
solution
Packed red
and white blood
cells
Centrifuge
Blood
culture
2
1
Fluid
Fig. 8-19-3
Hypotonic
solution
Packed red
and white blood
cells
Fixative
Stain
Centrifuge
Blood
culture
2
White
blood
cells
3
1
Fluid
Fig. 8-19-4
4
Fig. 8-19-5
Centromere
Sister
chromatids
Pair of homologous
chromosomes
5
Fig. 8-20a
Fig. 8-20b
Infants with Down syndrome
(per 1,000 births)
Fig. 8-20c
90
80
70
60
50
40
30
20
10
0
20
25
40
30
35
Age of mother
45
50
Fig. 8-21a-1
Nondisjunction
in meiosis I
Fig. 8-21a-2
Nondisjunction
in meiosis I
Normal
meiosis II
Fig. 8-21a-3
Nondisjunction
in meiosis I
Normal
meiosis II
Gametes
n+1
n+1
n–1
n–1
Number of chromosomes
Fig. 8-21b-1
Normal
meiosis I
Fig. 8-21b-2
Normal
meiosis I
Nondisjunction
in meiosis II
Fig. 8-21b-3
Normal
meiosis I
Nondisjunction
in meiosis II
Gametes
n+1
n–1
n
n
Number of chromosomes
Fig. 8-22
Fig. 8-24a
Deletion
Duplication
Homologous
chromosomes
Inversion
Fig. 8-24b
Reciprocal
translocation
Nonhomologous
chromosomes
Fig. 8-24c
Chromosome 9
Reciprocal
translocation
Chromosome 22
“Philadelphia chromosome”
Activated cancer-causing gene
Fig. 8-UN1
INTERPHASE (cell growth and chromosome duplication)
S
(DNA synthesis)
G1
Cytokinesis
Mitosis
(division of
(division
cytoplasm)
of nucleus)
Genetically
Identical
“daughter
cells”
MITOTIC PHASE (M)
G2
Fig. 8-UN2
Haploid gametes (n = 23)
n
Egg cell
n
Sperm cell
Meiosis
Multicellular
diploid adults
(2n = 46)
Fertilization
Diploid
zygote
(2n = 46)
Mitosis and development
2n
Fig. 8-UN3
Fig. 8-UN4

similar documents