Jesus’ Interpretation of his Death Sepphoris in Galilee Heel Bone of Crucified Man Mosaic Floor in House in Jerusalem Jesus' References to his Impending Death Jesus' Three Predictions of his Death and Resurrection in the Synoptic Gospels Mark 8:31 He then began to teach them that the son of man must suffer many things and be rejected by the elders, chief priests and teachers of the law, and that he must be killed and after three days rise again. Mark 9:30 They left that place and passed through Galilee. Jesus did not want anyone to know where they were, 31 because he was teaching his disciples. He said to them, "The son of man is going to be betrayed into the hands of men. They will kill him, and after three days he will rise." 32 But they did not understand what he meant and were afraid to ask him about it. Jesus' References to his Impending Death Jesus' Three Predictions of his Death and Resurrection in the Synoptic Gospels 32 They were on their way up to Jerusalem, with Jesus leading the way, and the disciples were astonished, while those who followed were afraid. Again he took the twelve aside and told them what was going to happen to him. 33 "We are going up to Jerusalem," he said, "and the son of man will be betrayed to the chief priests and teachers of the law. They will condemn him to death and will hand him over to the gentiles, 34 who will mock him and spit on him, flog him and kill him. Three days later he will rise." Luke 18:31 Jesus took the Twelve aside and told them, "We are going up to Jerusalem, and everything that is written by the prophets about the son of an will be fulfilled. 32 He will be handed over to the gentiles. They will mock him, insult him, spit on him, flog him and kill him. 33 On the third day he will rise again." 34 The disciples did not understand any of this. Its meaning was hidden from them, and they did not know what he was talking about. What does Jesus say about his impending death in these three sayings? Jesus' References to his Impending Death Jesus' "Hour" in the Synoptic Gospels Mark 14:35: Going a little farther, he fell to the ground and prayed that if possible the hour might pass from him. 36 "Abba, Father," he said, "everything is possible for you. Take this cup from me. Yet not what I will, but what you will." 41b The hour has come. Look, the Son of Man is betrayed into the hands of sinners. What does Jesus mean by his “hour”? What does this imply about Jesus’ self-understanding? Jesus' References to his Impending Death Jesus' Prediction of his Death in the Gospel of John John 2:19: Jesus answered them, "Destroy this temple, and in three days I will raise it up."20 The Jews then said, "It has taken forty-six years to build this temple, and will you raise it up in three days?" 21 But he spoke of the temple of his body. 22 When therefore he was raised from the dead, his disciples remembered that he had said this; and they believed the scripture and the word which Jesus had spoken. John 3:14: Just as Moses lifted up the snake in the desert, so the Son of Man must be lifted up. John 7:6, 8, 30; 8:20; 12:23: Jesus’ “time” (kairos) and “hour” (hora) How does Jesus understand his death in these passages? Jesus' References to his Impending Death Jesus' Prediction of his Death in the Gospel of John John 7:33-36: I am with you for only a short time, and then I will go to the one who sent me. You will look for me but you will not find me and where I am you cannot come. John 8:21: I am going away, and you will look for me, and you will die in your sin. Where I go you cannot come. John 10:11: I am the good shepherd; the good shepherd lays down his life for the sheep….15 I lay down my life for the sheep. John 12:5, 7: Why was this perfume not sold for three hundred denarii and given to poor people?....Let her alone, in order that she may keep it for the day of my burial. Jesus' References to his Impending Death Jesus' Prediction of his Death in the Gospel of John But now they have seen, and hated me and my Father as well. But they have done this to fulfill the word that is written in their Law: “They hated me without reason.” (Psalms 35:19; 69:4) During his last Passover meal, Jesus explains to his disciples that he is leaving them; he adds that if he leaves, he will prepare a "place" (topos) for them, and will return to take them to himself (John 13:33; 14:3; 16:16-22). What are the ways that Jesus speaks about his impending death? Question How does Jesus understand his death in relation to his mission as the one who proclaims the Kingdom of God? The Salvation-Historical Purpose of Jesus' Death Gospel of John John 17:1: Father, the hour has come; glorify your son, in order that the son may glorify you (see 12:23; 13:31). John 15:13: Greater love has no one than this, that one lay down his life for his friends." John 12:24: Truly, truly, I say to you, unless a grain of wheat falls into the earth and dies, it remains alone; but if it dies, it bears much fruit. John 12:31: Now judgment is upon this world; now the ruler of this world will be cast out. What are the ways that Jesus understands the purpose of his impending death? The Salvation-Historical Purpose of Jesus' Death Synoptic Gospels Jesus as the Isaian Suffering Servant Isa 53:10 Yet it was Yahweh's will to crush him and cause him to suffer, and though Yahweh makes his life a guilt offering, he will see his offspring and prolong his days, and the will of Yahweh will prosper in his hand. 11 After the suffering of his soul, he will see the light of life and be satisfied; by his knowledge my righteous servant will make many righteous, and he will bear their iniquities. 12 Therefore I will give him a portion among the great, and he will divide the spoils with the strong, because he poured out his life unto death, and was numbered with the transgressors. For he bore the sin of many, and made intercession for the transgressors. The Salvation-Historical Purpose of Jesus' Death Synoptic Gospels Jesus as the Isaian Suffering Servant Ransom for Many Mark 10:45: For even the son of man did not come to be served, but to serve, and to give his life as a ransom for many. Isa 53:10: “Yahweh makes his life a guilt offering” Isa 53:11 “And he will bear their iniquities” Isa 53:12 “For he bore the sin of many” The Salvation-Historical Purpose of Jesus' Death Synoptic Gospels Jesus as the Isaian Suffering Servant Numbered among Transgressors Luke 22:37: It is written: "And he was numbered with the transgressors" (Isa 53:12); and I tell you that this must be fulfilled in me. Yes, what is written about me is reaching its fulfillment.” The Salvation-Historical Purpose of Jesus' Death Synoptic Gospels Jesus as the Isaian Suffering Servant Son of Man Rejected Mark 9:12: “How is it written about the son of man that he is to suffer many things and be rejected?” Isa 53:3: "He was rejected and forsaken of men" The Salvation-Historical Purpose of Jesus' Death Synoptic Gospels Jesus as the Isaian Suffering Servant Removal of Bridegroom Mark 2:19-20: “The days will come, when the bridegroom is taken away (aparthê) from them. Isa 53:8: "By oppression and judgment he was taken away (erthê); and as for his generation, who considered that he was cut off (LXX airetai) from of the land of the living; for the transgression of my people he was stricken" How does Jesus use Isa 53 to interpret his impending death? The Salvation-Historical Purpose of Jesus' Death Synoptic Gospels The Word over the Bread Luke 22:19-20: 14 When the hour had come, He reclined at the table, and the apostles with him.15 And he said to them, "I have earnestly desired to eat this Passover with you before I suffer; 16 for I say to you, I shall never again eat it until it is fulfilled in the kingdom of God." 17 And when He had taken a cup and given thanks, He said, "Take this and share it among yourselves; 18 for I say to you, I will not drink of the fruit of the vine from now on until the kingdom of God comes." And he took bread, and when he had given thanks he broke it and gave it to them, saying, "This is my body given for you. Do this in remembrance of me." And likewise the cup after supper, saying, "This cup which is poured out for you is the new covenant in my blood." The Salvation-Historical Purpose of Jesus' Death Synoptic Gospels The Word over the Bread "This is my body (or myself) (given) for you." Questions How does Jesus understand the salvation-historical significance of his death in the Gospel of John? How does Jesus understand the salvation-historical significance of his death in the synoptic gospels?