Brain Structural and Functional Changes Associated with Addiction

Report
Brain Structural and Functional Changes
Associated with Addiction and Recovery
Qinghua He, Ph.D.
Associate Professor
Southwest University, Chongqing, China
Agenda
Addiction and its underlying neural mechanism
MRI and fMRI background
Structural and Functional changes associated with
Food Addiction
Structural and Functional changes associated with
Facebook Addiction
Structural and Functional changes associated with
Cocaine Addiction and Recovery
Agenda
Addiction and its underlying neural mechanism
Addiction
Substance Dependence
Cocaine; Heroin; Methamphetamine; Nicotine; etc.
Behavior Addiction
Internet Addiction; Overeating; Pathological gambling;
Compulsive shopping; etc.
Neural Mechanisms underlying Addiction
Noel, Brevers, Bechara, 2013, Current Opinions in Nueorbiology
Agenda
Addiction and its underlying neural mechanism
MRI and fMRI background
MRI scanner
Superconducting
1-7 Tesla for human magnets
f/MRI scanning
Source: http://www.cis.rit.edu/class/schp730/lect/lect-2.htm
Gray Matter Analysis
Source: http://www.martinos.org/neurorecovery/technology.htm
Borrowed from FSL Course 2012, Bristol, UK
Agenda
Addiction and its underlying neural mechanism
MRI and fMRI background
Structural and Functional changes associated with
Food Addiction
Food Addiction
Compulsive eating
Binge eating
Obesity
Brain Structure Bases
He et al., 2015, Brain Structure and Function
Brain Structure Bases
He et al., 2015, Brain Structure and Function
Brain Structure Bases
He et al., 2015, Brain Structure and Function
Brain Structure Bases
Regression Analysis
all three factors made unique contributions to BMI
Mediation Analysis
IGT score in the first 40 trials mediated the association
between GMV in the MCC region and BMI (indirect
effect = -0.23, p<0.05) as well as between the number
of white matter tracks passing this region and BMI
(indirect effect = -0.27, p<0.05).
He et al., 2015, Brain Structure and Function
Functional Bases
He et al., 2014, Nutrition Journal
Functional Bases
He et al., 2014, Nutrition Journal
Functional Bases
He et al., 2014, Nutrition Journal
Functional Bases
He et al., 2014, Frontiers in Neuroscience
Functional Bases
He et al., 2014, Frontiers in Neuroscience
Food Addiction
Impulsive System
Hyper-active
Inhibition Control System
Hypo-active
Agenda
Addiction and its underlying neural mechanism
MRI and fMRI background
Structural and Functional changes associated with
Food Addiction
Structural and Functional changes associated with
Facebook Addiction
Facebook Addiction
Turel & He et al., 2014, Psychological Reports
Facebook Addiction
Turel & He et al., 2014, Psychological Reports
Facebook Addiction
Turel & He et al., 2014, Psychological Reports
Facebook Addiction
Impulsive System
Hyper-active
Control System
Maybe intact
Agenda
Addiction and its underlying neural mechanism
MRI and fMRI background
Structural and Functional changes associated with
Food Addiction
Structural and Functional changes associated with
Facebook Addiction
Structural and Functional changes associated with
Cocaine Addiction and Recovery
The Cocaine study
Purpose
Combine fMRI, sMRI and DTI to understand the neurocognitive
mechanism and recovery of drug addiction
sMRI
Gray matter volume, cortical thickness
DTI
White matter tractography
fMRI
Cue Task
Cup Task
Resting State
Method Summary
Group Difference
A VS Controls; difference between users and control
A VS D | A VS BCD effects of recover
D VS Controls the brain region not showing recover
Correlation with Years of recovery
Positive
Negative
Cue Task (BOLD)
Cocaine-related pictures VS Nature pictures
Block design
Cocaine Addiction
Actually, the ACC activation showed a positive
activation with recover; but VMPFC does not
The activation of ACC seems recover
But the activation of the VMPFC never recover
Summary
Substance Addiction is like a brain disease
Some of the brain function were damaged permanently
Some functions could recover
Different neural systems were engaged in different types of
addictions
Impulsive system mostly engaged in the Facebook Addiction
Impulsive system and reflective system engaged in the food
Addiction
The decision making process doesn’t seem to recover in Cocaine
Addiction
Acknowledgements
UCLA
Prof. Yih-Ing Hser
USC
Prof. Antoine Bechara
Dr. Lin Xiao
Beijing Normal University
Prof. Qi Dong
Prof. Gui Xue
Dr. Chunhui Chen
UC Irvine
Prof. Chuansheng Chen
The Ohio State University
Prof. Zhong-Lin Lu
Cal State Fullerton
Prof. Ofir Turel
Questions?

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