Kelso High School English Department ‘To Kill a Mockingbird’ Chapters Twenty One, Twenty Two, Twenty Three, Twenty Four, Twenty Five– Learning Intentions • • • • • • • • • • Plot Summary / Key Incidents Characterisation – Jem Finch Characterisation – Atticus Finch Characterisation – Bob Ewell Characterisation - Dill Characterisation – Tom Robinson Theme - Prejudice and Intolerance Theme – Innocence Theme – Growing Up Symbolism Plot Summary / Key Incidents • Chapters 22-25 Summer - September 1935 • Jem is upset by the verdict. • The black community send gifts to Atticus to show their appreciation. • Bob Ewell spits at Atticus and vows revenge. • Tom tries to escape from jail and is shot dead. Characterisation – Jem • He is still upset by the verdict and “weeps bitterly” and tells Atticus, “It ain’t right”. Characterisation - Atticus • Atticus appears strained by the verdict. • He is bitter about the lack of outrage on the part of Maycomb to the verdict “Seems that only children weep” • The black community, however, show their appreciation by sending him food. Characterisation - Atticus • He is calm enough to walk away when Bob Ewell spits in his face and threatens him - “I wish – Bob Ewell wouldn’t chew tobacco,’ was all Atticus said about it.” • He is extraordinarily reasonable in: (i) saying that he would rather Bob Ewell vent his anger on him rather than on “that houseful of children there” (ii) trying to persuade the children to see the situation from Bob Ewell’s point of view. • He makes a mistake, however, in underestimating how angry Bob Ewell is about the court case. Characterisation – Bob Ewell • His negative portrayal continues: He spits in Atticus’s face and threatens him He is suspected of breaking into Judge Taylor’s house Aunt Alexandra describes him as having a ‘permanent running grudge against everyone involved in the trial” Characterisation: Dill • Dill is upset by the unfairness of the verdict “ I think I’ll be a clown when I get grown …” • He is disillusioned and so angry with people that he wants instead to separate himself from them and become a clown who laughs at them. Characterisation – Tom Robinson • Tom never seems to get angry about his situation, even though he has been unfairly accused and unfairly convicted. • He does, however, lose faith in the justice system which is why he tries to escape. He lost his faith in “white men’s chances”. • He is shot seventeen times by the guards trying to escape. • His death is described in the Maycomb Tribune as a “senseless slaughter”. Theme – Prejudice & Intolerance • Mr Dolphus Raymond recognises the prejudice and intolerance of Maycomb: “You haven’t seen enough of the world yet,” he tells Scout (when commenting on how special and good her father is, and her innocent belief in human goodness). “You haven’t even seen this town, but all you gotta do is step back inside the courthouse”. Theme: Prejudice and Intolerance • The missionary ladies, led by Mrs Merriweather, complain that Atticus shouldn’t have stirred up trouble by defending Tom. • Portrayed as hypocritical, “Mrs Merriweather’s large brown eyes always filled up with tears when she considered the oppressed”, [in Africa]. They talk about helping black people in Africa, but don’t recognise how they mistreat black people in their own town. • Maycomb loses interest in Tom’s death after only two days. It seems his trial has changed nothing, “Maycomb was interested by the news of Tom’s death for perhaps two days”. Theme: Innocence • Jem does not understand the flaws in the legal system. • He does not understand that laws can only be changed when people want them changed. Theme – Growing Up • Physically, Jem is growing up. He shows Scout his chest hair and is thinking of trying out for football. • Emotionally he is growing up. He realises that things aren’t always as they seem. He’d always thought that “Maycomb folks were the best folks in the world”, and he is disappointed to learn that they are not. Theme: Growing up • He learns that in life the just / right thing is not always done. • He learns how the justice system in America really works. Atticus tells him that “when it’s a white man’s word against a black man’s, the white man always wins”. • He also learns from Atticus that the world is sexist as Miss Maudie could never sit on a jury because she is a woman. • Scout is learning to become more considerate and put other people’s feelings before her own. She sits with the ladies at the Missionary Tea because she knows it will please her aunt. Theme: Growing Up • Scout is excited about crushing the rolypoly bug which conveys her as a child. • Jem, who is now sensitive to the vulnerability of those who are oppressed, gets her to leave the defenceless insect alone. Symbolism – Mr Dolphus Raymond • His sitting outside the courtroom is appropriate because he does not belong inside with the rest of the white people because he does not share their prejudice. Symbolism – Mr Underwood’s article • The article states, “sin to kill cripples, be they standing, sitting or escaping”. • Underwood “likened Tom’s death to the senseless slaughter of songbirds by hunters and children” • Symbolism makes clear that it is wrong to kill creatures who do no harm. Symbolism – The Insect • Jem prevents Scout from killing insects because “they don’t bother you”. • This is reminiscent of mockingbird symbol that it is wrong to kill creatures who do you no harm. Symbolism – “The Giant” • When Helen Robinson is told of Tom’s death she falls to the ground “like a giant with a big foot just came along and stepped on her”. • Is white society the giant? Success Criteria : Chapters Twenty Two, Twenty Three, Twenty Four and Twenty Five • • • • • • • • • • • Plot Summary / Key Incidents Structure Characterisation – Jem Finch Characterisation – Atticus Finch Characterisation – Bob Ewell Characterisation – Dill Characterisation – Tom Robinson Theme - Prejudice and Intolerance Theme – Innocence Theme – Growing Up Symbolism Chapters Twenty Two, Twenty Three, Twenty Four and Twenty Five The End!!