Curriculum Standards • National: • Florida: Curriculum Objectives for 4.05 • Objectives (includes higher-order thinking): – Review skills from 3.05, 3.08, 4.02, 4.03, 4.04 – Identify types of reactions – Observe chemical reactions – Identify diatomic molecules – Predict the products of reactions – Apply an activity series to a single replacement reaction – Balance equations using ion charges, subscripts, and coefficients Periodic Table Review from 3.05/3.08 Vocabulary (Literacy Skill) Synthesis: Synthesize/combine (Review of 4.04) A + B → AB 1. Metal with a nonmetal makes an ionic compound (salt) Ca + Cl2 → CaCl2 2. Two nonmetals form a binary molecule 2H2 + O2 → 2H2O 3. Metal oxide plus water forms a metal hydroxide CaO + H2O → Ca(OH)2 4. Nonmetal oxide plus water forms an oxyacid (acid and oxygen) SO3 + H2O → H2SO4 Vocabulary (Literacy Skill) Decompostion: To decompose; to break down (Review of 4.04) AB → A + B 1. Binary compound decomposes 2NaCl → 2 Na + Cl2 2. Metal carbonate becomes a metal oxide and carbon dioxide CaCO3 → CaO + CO2 3. Metal chlorate becomes a metal chloride and oxygen gas 2KClO3→ 2KCl + 3O2 4. Metal hydroxide becomes a metal oxide and water Ca(OH)2 → CaO + H2O 5. Oxyacid (acid and oxygen) makes nonmetal oxide and water H2SO4 → SO3 + H2O Vocabulary (Literacy Skill) Single Replacement: More reactive element “replaces/switches places” with less reactive element (Review of 4.03) A + BY → AY + B Use Activity Series to determine if reaction happens (from 4.03) Vocabulary (Literacy Skill) Single Replacement: *You need to remember the ion charges and polyatomic ions from 3.05 and 3.08; there is a list of polyatomic ions in 3.08 *Show plus signs between reactants and between products *Cation (plus charge) stays on left of compound and anion (negative charge) is on the right of the compound Vocabulary (Literacy Skill) Double Replacement: Couple trades partners with other couple (Review of 4.03) AY + BZ → AZ + BY *No Activity Series for double replacement reactions. *You need to remember the ion charges and polyatomic ions from 3.05 and 3.08; there is a list of polyatomic ions in 3.08 *Show plus signs between reactants and between products *Cation (plus charge) stays on left of compound and anion (negative charge) is on the right of the compound NaCl + KBr → NaBr + KCl 2NaOH + CuCl2 → 2NaCl + Cu(OH)2 Vocabulary (Literacy Skill) Seven Diatomic Molecules H2, N2, O2, F2, Cl2, Br2, I2 Example: 2NaCl→ 2Na + Cl2 *Appear as a pair in nature *Know these when writing and balancing equations Subscript 2 when the molecule is written alone Vocabulary (Literacy Skill) Combustion: Oxygen is a reactant; exothermic; heat and light are released; reaction burns “in air” (oxygen is a reactant from the air); notice the diatomic molecules Examples: 2Ca + O2 → 2CaO CH4 + 2O2 → CO2 + 2H2O Scaffolding: Breaking directions into easier steps (Literacy Skill) Writing a chemical equation (you learned this in 4.02, 4.03, and 4.04) 1. Identify the type of reaction 2. Write the products (check for diatomic molecules) 3. Write the charges 4. Balance the charges using subscripts 5. Balance the equation using coefficients Writing products and balancing reactions (very important to practice) 1. Single replacement Check activity series first K + ZnCl2 → 2. Double replacement NaCl + KBr → Al(NO3)3 + 3NaOH → Writing products and balancing reactions (very important to practice) 1. Single replacement (check activity series first) 2K + ZnCl2 → 2KCl + Zn 2. Double replacement NaCl + KBr → NaBr + KCl Al(NO3)3 + 3NaOH → Al(OH)3 + 3NaNO3 Review (Literacy Skill) Writing a chemical equation Review 3.06, 3.08, 4.02, 4.03, and 4.04 (this lab applies all of those concepts) 1. Identify the type of reaction (synthesis, decomposition, etc.). 2. If it is a single replacement reaction, apply the activity series to determine if the reaction happens. 3. Write the products (if a molecule is diatomic, make sure it has a subscript 2) 4. Balance the charges of ions in an ionic compound with subscripts 5. Balance the equation with coefficients (law of conservation of mass) 6. Use plus signs between reactants and also between products 7. Make sure you can explain your answer on the phone to your teacher on all homework and exams Now complete the 4.05 virtual lab Download the lab worksheet, fill out your observations (bubbles, changed color, etc.), write the equations, and answer the essays We tutor this assessment FREQUENTLY so please attend LIVE tutoring (check the announcements page for the tutoring schedule). Writing equations is very important for your exams and for segment 2. We have wonderful tutoring sessions to help you! Woohoo! • Now it is your turn to complete the lab worksheet before submitting the 4.05 assessment. • Feel free to watch this tutorial again and attend tutoring. Remember, you may resubmit 4.05 until you master this topic. • Please review this tutorial for the module 4 exam and the semester exam. • Have a wonderful day!