Solid State Street Lighting—RP-8 Developments and

Report
A Brighter Tomorrow
LED Streetlighting in Toronto
Solid State Street Lighting
March 19, 2013
28 January, 2013
William A. Smelser, BSc, IESNA, LC
1
ANSI/IESNA RP-8-00
Re-affirmed 2010
Recommended
Practice for
Roadway Lighting
28 January, 2013
William A. Smelser, BSc, IESNA, LC
2
Purpose of Standard
Recommended practice for designing new, continuous
lighting systems
Roadways, adjacent bikeways, and pedestrian ways
Basis for design of fixed lighting
28 January, 2013
William A. Smelser, BSc, IESNA, LC
3
RP-8-? (Being voted on again by RLC & TRC)
ANSI/IES Document, if Approved will:
•Use only Table 3 (Luminance)
•Split into new Table 2 (Roadways) and Table 3 (Streets)
– Illuminance may be moved to Annex
•Not include Cut-off Classifications
•Relate to TM-15 and Model Outdoor Lighting Ordinance (MLO)
BUG Ratings for Uplight control
•Rely on Veiling Luminance Ratio calculations for Glare Control
•Describe Limited Use of Mesopic Multipliers based on TM-12-12
Hope to Publish in 2013.
28 January, 2013
William A. Smelser, BSc, IESNA, LC
4
MLO
Joint IDA-IES
Model Outdoor Lighting Ordinance
IES
28 January, 2013
William A. Smelser, BSc, IESNA, LC
5
Prescriptive Method

Lumen density limits to address over-lighting
3 digit identification system for lighting products
• “B rating”
Backlight or “light trespass”
• “U rating”
Upward light or “sky glow”
• “G rating”
High angle zone or “glare”
Limits for each lighting zone are published
in TM-15-11(Luminaire Classification
System for Outdoor Luminaires)
28 January, 2013
William A. Smelser, BSc, IESNA, LC
6
Street Lighting Ordinance (Optional)
Light Shielding and Distribution
Cobra Head Street lights shall have zero uplight
Glare control shall meet requirements of ANSI/IES
RP-8-00 Veiling Luminance Ratio (Lv)
Exemption;
Decorative or architectural streetlights designed for
specific district shall meet uplight control requirements
“U”
28 January, 2013
William A. Smelser, BSc, IESNA, LC
7
Mesopic Vision
The Blue Lumen Myth
Roadway Lighting Committee (RLC) Research & Development
Presentation by Dr. Ron Gibbons, VTTI to sub-committee in LA Oct 1, 2010
Mesopic Factor (S/P ratio) does not apply to foveal vision.
Can be applied to peripheral vision when adaptation level is in the mesopic
range
Will be used only for areas primarily used by pedestrians when posted
traffic speed is at or below 40 kph (25 mph)
Calculation process is iterative and is performed at each calculation point.
Is not a multiplier that can applied to lamp lumens or illuminance levels
• Use and calculation methods discussed at RLC meeting in Dallas last
week
• May be deleted from final edition
28 January, 2013
William A. Smelser, BSc, IESNA, LC
9
IES Lighting Handbook 2011
S/P Ratios &
Mesopic Multipliers
0.3 cd/m²
28 January, 2013
William A. Smelser, BSc, IESNA, LC
10
What is Different about LED?
•Performance Considerations
•Standards and Testing Procedures
•Designing with LED Luminaires
28 January, 2013
WilliamA.A.Smelser,
Smelser,BSc.,
BSc,IESNA,
IESNA,LC
LC
William
11
Performance Considerations
HID Light Sources
LED Light Sources
Light produced by electric
arc
Light produced by photon
emission at diode junction
Intermittent (120 times per
second) AC current
Continuous light with DC
current
Will extinguish if line voltage Instant on and restrike
not maintained. One to 20
Life and efficacy affected by
minute restrike
operating temperature
No adjustment for operating
temperature
28 January, 2013
William A. Smelser, BSc, IESNA, LC
12
Performance Testing
IESNA Testing Procedures
For
LED Luminaires
28 January, 2013
William A. Smelser, BSc, IESNA, LC
13
Performance Testing
HID Luminaires
LED Luminaires
Photometric testing to
IES LM-31
Photometric testing to IES LM-79
Absolute photometry
Adjusted to published
initial lamp lumens
Lamp life and efficacy are derived
from data accumulated using IES
No adjustment for
LM-80 procedures based on LED
operating temperature junction temperatures in a
luminaire and calculated using
No adjustment to lamp
TM-21-11 procedures
life
28 January, 2013
William A. Smelser, BSc, IESNA, LC
14
LED Measurement Procedures
28 January, 2013
William A. Smelser, BSc, IESNA, LC
15
LM-79-08
Electrical and Photometric Measurements of Solid
State Lighting Products
Absolute photometry
Type C moving mirror goneophotometers normally used
for measurement of luminous intensity distribution from
which total luminous flux can be obtained
Spectroradiometer or colorimiter may be used to
measure chromaticity co-ordinates, CCT and CRI.
Spectral Power Distribution may also be determined
28 January, 2013
William A. Smelser, BSc, IESNA, LC
16
LM-79-08
Electrical and Photometric Measurements of Solid State
Lighting Products
Tests are performed in a chamber with no external air flow at an ambient
temperature controlled to 25˚C ± 1˚C
Luminaire is placed in measuring instrument and energized for a period of
time until thermal equilibrium is reached
Measurements are recorded and published without any correction factors
Other electrical data is recorded
Electronic file is prepared using LM-63 format
28 January, 2013
William A. Smelser, BSc, IESNA, LC
17
LM-80-08
Measuring Lumen Maintenance of LED Light Sources
LED Light Sources are tested at a minimum of three case
temperatures (Ts); 55˚C and 85˚C plus one other.
Test point is defined by the manufacturer so as to correlate to and
be used to calculate Junction Temperature (Tj).
Ambient temperature in test instrument to be maintained at 25˚C ±
1˚C
Drive current is set and remains constant throughout the test cycle
Both luminous flux and chromaticity are recorded initially and at
every 1,000 hours for a minimum of 6,000 or a preferred 10,000
hours.
28 January, 2013
William A. Smelser, BSc, IESNA, LC
18
LM-80-08
Measuring Lumen Maintenance of LED Light
Sources
Resulting reports provide Lamp Lumen Output at the
three or more junction temperatures (Tj) used in the
test.
28 January, 2013
William A. Smelser, BSc, IESNA, LC
19
TM-21-11
Projecting Long Term
Lumen Maintenance of
LED Light Sources
Approved by the IES Board in July 2011
28 January, 2013
William A. Smelser, BSc, IESNA, LC
20
LM-80 & TM-21
LM-80
(testing)
+
=
TM-21
(projection)
Something
useful
•TM-21 supplements IES LM-80 raw test data to provide LED
lifetime projections that are consistent and understandable
•Committee included U.S. Dept. Of Energy, NIST, PNNL, Cree,
Philips Lumileds, Nichia and OSRAM
•TM-21 provides two major functions:
1. Extrapolate a single LM-80 data set to estimate Lxx LED lifetime
2. Interpolate a matched LM-80 data set (same current, 3 different
temperatures) for a specific temperature, and estimate Lxx LED
lifetime
28 January, 2013
William A. Smelser, BSc, IESNA, LC
Courtesy; Mark McClear, Cree
21
TM-21 New Concepts
Example: L70(12k)
Lxx(Yk)
• xx = % lumen maintenance (e.g., L70, L88 , L50)
• Y = duration of LM-80 test used for the projection
• Calculated & Reported Lifetime
• Calculated
= what the extrapolation says
• Reported
= Calculated, limited by LM-80 test duration
(6x LM-80 for sample size ≥ 20)
Lifetimes always rounded to 3 significant digits
• 36,288  36,300
• 215,145  215,000
28 January, 2013
Courtesy; Mark McClear, Cree
William A. Smelser, BSc, IESNA, LC
22
TM-21-11 Tables
ABT1 30LED E35
Operating Hours
50K
60K
70K
80K
90K
100K
5
100%
100%
100%
100%
100%
100%
10
100%
100%
100%
100%
100%
100%
15
100%
100%
100%
100%
100%
100%
20
99%
99%
99%
98%
98%
98%
25
98%
98%
97%
97%
96%
96%
30
97%
97%
96%
95%
95%
94%
35
96%
96%
95%
94%
94%
93%
40
96%
95%
94%
93%
92%
92%
45
95%
94%
93%
92%
91%
91%
ABT1 30LED E53
Operating Hours
50K
60K
70K
80K
90K
100K
5
100%
100%
100%
100%
100%
100%
10
100%
100%
99%
99%
99%
99%
15
99%
98%
98%
97%
97%
97%
20
97%
97%
96%
96%
95%
95%
25
97%
96%
95%
95%
94%
93%
30
96%
95%
94%
94%
93%
92%
35
95%
94%
93%
93%
92%
91%
40
95%
94%
93%
92%
91%
90%
45
94%
93%
92%
91%
90%
89%
5
98%
97%
97%
96%
96%
96%
10
97%
96%
96%
95%
95%
94%
15
96%
95%
95%
94%
93%
93%
20
95%
95%
94%
93%
92%
91%
25
95%
94%
93%
92%
91%
90%
30
94%
93%
92%
91%
90%
89%
35
94%
93%
92%
91%
90%
89%
40
93%
92%
91%
90%
89%
88%
45
93%
92%
90%
89%
88%
87%
ABT1 30LED E70
Operating Hours
50K
60K
70K
80K
90K
100K
28 January, 2013
Ambient Temperatures
William A. Smelser, BSc, IESNA, LC
23
TM-21-11 Tables
ABT1 60LED E35
Operating Hours
50K
60K
Ambient Temperatures
5
100%
100%
10
100%
100%
15
97%
96%
20
96%
95%
25
95%
95%
30
95%
94%
35
94%
93%
40
94%
93%
45
93%
92%
70K
99%
99%
96%
95%
94%
93%
92%
92%
91%
80K
90K
100K
99%
99%
99%
99%
99%
99%
95%
95%
94%
94%
93%
93%
93%
92%
91%
92%
91%
90%
91%
90%
89%
91%
90%
89%
90%
89%
88%
ABT1 60LED E53
Operating Hours
50K
60K
70K
80K
90K
100K
5
99%
99%
98%
98%
98%
97%
10
98%
97%
97%
96%
96%
96%
15
99%
98%
98%
97%
97%
97%
20
97%
97%
96%
96%
95%
95%
25
97%
96%
95%
95%
94%
93%
30
96%
95%
94%
94%
93%
92%
35
95%
94%
93%
93%
92%
91%
40
95%
94%
93%
92%
91%
90%
45
94%
93%
92%
91%
90%
89%
5
96%
96%
95%
94%
94%
93%
10
96%
95%
94%
93%
93%
92%
30
93%
92%
91%
90%
89%
88%
35
93%
92%
91%
89%
88%
87%
40
92%
91%
90%
89%
88%
87%
45
92%
91%
90%
88%
87%
86%
ABT1 60LED E70
Operating Hours
50K
60K
70K
80K
90K
100K
28
January, 2013
8 November,
2011
15
20
25
95%
94%
94%
94%
93%
93%
93%
93%
92%
92%
92%
91%
92%
91%
90%
91%
90%
89%
William A. Smelser, BSc, IESNA, LC
24
TM-21-11 Curves
60 LED E70
Ambient °C
28 January, 2013
William A. Smelser, BSc, IESNA, LC
25
Levels of LED Standards
Level
Description
Example
Basic definition
LED chip, LED lamp, IES RP-16
Module, Light
Engine…
LED Component
Colour, Lumen
Maintenance,
Binning…
Fixture
Photometry, safety
Application
Streets, Roadways
Parking Areas
Program
Energy, utility
28 January, 2013
ANSI C78.377A,
IES LM-80, IES TM21, NEMA SSL-3,
CSA C22.2 No. 250.13
IES LM-79, UL 8750,
CSA C22.2 No.250
IES RP-8,
IES RP-20
US EPA Energy Star,
Design Lights
Consortia, Korean
Energy Program, etc.
Courtesy; Mark McClear, Cree
William A. Smelser, BSc, IESNA, LC
26
Junction Temperature Relationships
Relationship between Tj and Light Output or efficacy
• Every photometric file tested to LM-79 will potentially have a
different LLD curve
Relationship between Tj and expected useful life
• The same luminaire with changes to LED quantity and/or drive
current will have different projected life to Lxx or a different Lxx at
projected useful life of system.
– Lxx represents the appropriate Lamp Lumen Depreciation
level
– Optimum end of Life should be based on the expected life
of the luminaire not just the LED array.
28 January, 2013
William A. Smelser, BSc, IESNA, LC
27
We can now design for the light
level that is required at end of
useful life rather than using
estimated mean lumens.
28 January, 2013
William A. Smelser, BSc, IESNA, LC
28
Designing with LED
Luminaires
28 January, 2013
William A. Smelser, BSc, IESNA, LC
29
LED Street Lighting Design Parameters
Existing Street for conversion
i.
Street Parameters
a) Number and width of driving lanes
b) Width of any turn lanes
c) Width and location of parking lanes and bicycle lanes
ii. Street usage classification and Pedestrian conflict
iii. Pole specifics
a) Luminaire mounting height
b) Pole setback from curb
c) Bracket arm type and length
d) Arrangement and spacing
iv. Proposed cleaning cycle
v. Existing luminaires
28 January, 2013
William A. Smelser, BSc, IESNA, LC
30
Sample Application
Existing 200W HPS Flat Glass Cobra Head
• 245W input CWA ballast
Collector Street with Medium Pedestrian Traffic
Four lanes (2 in each direction). 3.5m lane widths
Staggered Poles spacing 79m
10.4m Mounting Height
2.5m setback
2.4m arms
28 January, 2013
William A. Smelser, BSc, IESNA, LC
31
Sample Application
Retrofit from HPS to LED
• No change in pole location or bracket arm
Expected useful life; 20 years (88,000 hours)
Cleaning every five years
Clean atmospheric conditions
Average night-time temperature 10°C
Require ≥ 50% energy reduction
28 January, 2013
William A. Smelser, BSc, IESNA, LC
32
Luminaire Dirt Depreciation
LDD = 0.89
28 January, 2013
William A. Smelser, BSc, IESNA, LC
33
LLF = LDD X LLD
LDD from IES RP-8-00;
• 5-year cleaning,
• Clean ambient
• LDD = 0.89
LLD from specific TM-21-11 table
• Average night-time ambient; 10°C
• Expected project life-time; 90,000 operating hours
• LLD = ?
LLF = 0.89 x ? = ??????
28 January, 2013
William A. Smelser, BSc, IESNA, LC
34
LLF = LDD X LLD
LDD from IES RP-8-05;
• 5-year cleaning,
• Clean ambient
• LDD = 0.89
LLD from specific TM-21-11 table (60LED E70) 700mA
• Average night-time ambient; 10°C
• 90,000 operating hours
• LLD = 93
.
LLF = 0.89 x .93 = .83
28 January, 2013
ABT1 60LED E35
Operating Hours
50K
60K
5
100%
100%
10
100%
100%
15
97%
96%
20
96%
95%
25
95%
95%
30
95%
94%
35
94%
93%
40
94%
93%
45
93%
92%
70K
99%
99%
96%
95%
94%
93%
92%
92%
91%
80K
90K
100K
99%
99%
99%
99%
99%
99%
95%
95%
94%
94%
93%
93%
93%
92%
91%
92%
91%
90%
91%
90%
89%
91%
90%
89%
90%
89%
88%
ABT1 60LED E53
Operating Hours
50K
60K
70K
80K
90K
100K
5
99%
99%
98%
98%
98%
97%
10
98%
97%
97%
96%
96%
96%
15
99%
98%
98%
97%
97%
97%
20
97%
97%
96%
96%
95%
95%
25
97%
96%
95%
95%
94%
93%
30
96%
95%
94%
94%
93%
92%
35
95%
94%
93%
93%
92%
91%
40
95%
94%
93%
92%
91%
90%
45
94%
93%
92%
91%
90%
89%
ABT1 60LED E70
Operating Hours
50K
60K
70K
80K
90K
100K
5
96%
96%
95%
94%
94%
93%
10
96%
95%
94%
93%
93%
92%
15
95%
94%
93%
92%
92%
91%
20
94%
93%
93%
92%
91%
90%
25
94%
93%
92%
91%
90%
89%
30
93%
92%
91%
90%
89%
88%
35
93%
92%
91%
89%
88%
87%
40
92%
91%
90%
89%
88%
87%
45
92%
91%
90%
88%
87%
86%
William A. Smelser, BSc, IESNA, LC
35
LLF = LDD X LLD
LDD from IES RP-8-05;
• 5-year cleaning,
• Clean ambient
• LDD = 0.89
LLD from specific TM-21-11 table (60LED E53) 525mA
• Average night-time ambient; 10°C
• 90,000 operating hours
• LLD = 96
.
LLF = 0.89 x .96 = .85
28 January, 2013
ABT1 60LED E35
Operating Hours
50K
60K
5
100%
100%
10
100%
100%
15
97%
96%
20
96%
95%
25
95%
95%
30
95%
94%
35
94%
93%
40
94%
93%
45
93%
92%
70K
99%
99%
96%
95%
94%
93%
92%
92%
91%
80K
90K
100K
99%
99%
99%
99%
99%
99%
95%
95%
94%
94%
93%
93%
93%
92%
91%
92%
91%
90%
91%
90%
89%
91%
90%
89%
90%
89%
88%
ABT1 60LED E53
Operating Hours
50K
60K
70K
80K
90K
100K
5
99%
99%
98%
98%
98%
97%
10
98%
97%
97%
96%
96%
96%
15
99%
98%
98%
97%
97%
97%
20
97%
97%
96%
96%
95%
95%
25
97%
96%
95%
95%
94%
93%
30
96%
95%
94%
94%
93%
92%
35
95%
94%
93%
93%
92%
91%
40
95%
94%
93%
92%
91%
90%
45
94%
93%
92%
91%
90%
89%
ABT1 60LED E70
Operating Hours
50K
60K
70K
80K
90K
100K
5
96%
96%
95%
94%
94%
93%
10
96%
95%
94%
93%
93%
92%
15
95%
94%
93%
92%
92%
91%
20
94%
93%
93%
92%
91%
90%
25
94%
93%
92%
91%
90%
89%
30
93%
92%
91%
90%
89%
88%
35
93%
92%
91%
89%
88%
87%
40
92%
91%
90%
89%
88%
87%
45
92%
91%
90%
88%
87%
86%
William A. Smelser, BSc, IESNA, LC
36
Existing 200W Flat Glass Cobra Head
IES RP-8-05 RECOMMENDATION
Avg. Maintained; ≥ 0.6 cd/m²
Max./Min; ≤ 6.0
Avg./Min.: ≤ 3.5
Lv Ratio; ≤ 0.4
245W input CWA ballast
28 January, 2013
William A. Smelser, BSc, IESNA, LC
37
LED Luminaire #1 (60 LED 700mA)
IES RP-8-05 RECOMMENDATION
Avg. Maintained; ≥ 0.6 cd/m²
Max./Min; ≤ 6.0
Avg./Min.: ≤ 3.5
Lv Ratio; ≤ 0.4
144.5 W input Electronic Driver
28 January, 2013
William A. Smelser, BSc, IESNA, LC
38
LED Luminaire #1 (60 LED 525mA)
IES RP-8-05 RECOMMENDATION
Avg. Maintained; ≥ 0.6 cd/m²
Max./Min; ≤ 6.0
Avg./Min.: ≤ 3.5
Lv Ratio; ≤ 0.4
105.7 W input Electronic Driver
28 January, 2013
William A. Smelser, BSc, IESNA, LC
39
Surge Protection
All Electronic Devices Require
Protection from Induced Voltage Surges
28 January, 2013
William A. Smelser, BSc, IESNA, LC
40
LEDgend Combats Surge – IEEE C62.41 2002

Category A: Indoor: 6kV / 0.5kA

Category B: Indoor: 6kV / 3kA

Category C Low: Outdoor: 6kV / 3kA

Category C High: Outdoor : 10kV/10kA
IEEE STD
C62.41
28 January, 2013
C
B
William A. Smelser, BSc, IESNA, LC
A
41
Design Integrity – System Life - Surge Protection
 Surge Protection Device designed to
meet ANSI/IEEE C62.41 2002Category C High
 Specifically designed for Electronic
control gear including LED Drivers
 Designed to fail “off”. Disconnects driver
from mains.
 To continue to protect luminaire
electronics until SPD is replaced.
 Warns that SPD has failed and
needs to be replaced
28 January, 2013
William A. Smelser, BSc, IESNA, LC
42
Basic LED Luminaire Specification
•
Colour Temperature
•
Supply Voltage
•
Photocontrol receptacle if required
•
Paint finish colour if required
•
Must be located on existing bracket arms and pole locations
•
Internal field level adjustment
•
Must meet RP-8 Table 3 lighting requirements for street classifications
•
LM-79 photometry from independent NVLAP approved lab
•
TM-21 LLD data
•
Vibration test data
•
Surge protection data
•
Warranty
28 January, 2013
William A. Smelser, BSc, IESNA, LC
43
Optional LED Luminaire Requirements
Dimming, Monitoring, Metering
• Dimmable Driver
•
Part-Night Dimming
•
Constant Light Output Dimming
• Wireless Monitoring
• Optional Metering
28 January, 2013
William A. Smelser, BSc, IESNA, LC
44
Discussion
28 January, 2013
William A. Smelser, BSc, IESNA, LC
45

similar documents