Chapter 8

Report
8-1
Business in a
Changing World
Chapter 8
Organization, Teamwork, and
Communication
McGraw-Hill/Irwin
Copyright © 2009 by the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
8-3
PetConnection.com
An organization based on blogging providing a
unique competitive advantage.
8-4
Organization, Teamwork, & Communication
Importance of Organizational Structure
Structure Impacts:
•Decision making
•Costs & efficiencies
•Overall success and sustainability
8-5
Organization, Teamwork, & Communication
Organizational Culture
A firm’s shared values, beliefs, traditions,
philosophies, rules, and role models for behavior.
8-6
Organization, Teamwork, & Communication
Organizational Culture –
•Formal expression
•Informal expression
8-7
Organization, Teamwork, & Communication
Organizational Culture –
•Formal expression
•Mission statement
•Code of ethics
•Manuals
•Ceremonies
•memoranda
8-8
Organization, Teamwork, & Communication
Organizational Culture –
•Informal Expression
•Dress code
•Work habits
•Extracurricular activities
•Stories
8-9
Organization, Teamwork & Communication
Organizational Culture –
satisfying the needs &
expectations of stakeholders
Ensures that organizational members:
•share values
•observe common rules
•share problem solving approaches
8-10
Organization, Teamwork & Communication
The most important drivers of innovation in companies.
8-11
Organization, Teamwork & Communication
Developing
Organizational Structure
Organizational Structure – The arrangement or
relationship of positions within an organization.
8-12
Organization, Teamwork & Communication
Developing
Organizational Structure
Structure Develops –
•Managers assign work tasks to individuals & groups
•Coordination of diverse activities to attain objectives
8-13
Organization, Teamwork & Communication
Organizational Chart
What the Organizational Chart Shows –
•Organizational structure
•Chain of command (lines of authority)
•Other relationships (staff, committees, etc.)
•Lines of communication
8-14
Organizational Structure
The Evolution of a Clothing Store
Phases 1, 2, and 3
8-15
Organization, Teamwork & Communication
Organizational Growth
What does organizational growth require?
•Structuring of resources (human, physical, financial)
•Hiring specialized talent & skills
•Formalized structure (as workforce & specialization grows)
•Assign work tasks to individuals & departments
•Assign responsibility for organizational objectives
8-16
Assigning Tasks – Organizational Structure
Celestial Seasonings – Determining
activities required to meet objectives





Purchase herbs from suppliers
Dry the herbs
Place in tea bags
Package and label tea bags
Ship packages to retail outlets
8-17
Assigning Tasks
Specialization
Managers divide the labor into small, specific
tasks and assign to employees to accomplish
individual tasks.
8-18
Assigning Tasks
Why Specialize?
•Efficiency
•Ease of training
•Activities too numerous
8-19
Assigning Tasks
Overspecialization
•Employees become bored
•Job dissatisfaction
•Poor quality work
•Increased injuries
•Increased employee turnover
8-20
Organizational Structure –
Assigning Tasks
Departmentalization
Grouping of jobs into working units
(departments, units, groups, divisions)
8-21
Assigning Tasks – Organizational Structure
Departmentalization is the grouping of jobs
into working units usually called departments,
units, groups, or divisions.
•Functional departmentalization
•Product departmentalization
•Geographical departmentalization
•Customer departmentalization
8-22
Retailing & Wholesaling
Selling directly to the consumer
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Music stores
Sporting-goods shops
Dry cleaners
Boutiques
Drugstores
Restaurants
Hardware stores
8-23
Functional Departmentalization
8-24
Product Departmentalization
8-25
Geographical Departmentalization
8-26
Customer Departmentalization
8-27
Assigning Responsibility
Delegation creates a responsibility
•Delegation of authority
•Assigning responsibility
•Employee accountability
8-28
Assigning Responsibility
Delegation of Authority
Giving employees tasks and power to make
commitments, use resources, and take action to
carry out tasks.
8-29
Assigning Responsibility
Responsibility
Obligation placed on employees to perform
assigned tasks and be held accountable for
proper execution.
8-30
Assigning Responsibility
Accountability
Employees are answerable to a superior for work
outcomes.
8-31
Centralization
Centralized organizations
•Authority is concentrated at the top level.
Decentralized organizations
•Decision-making authority is delegated as far
down the chain of command as possible.
8-32
Span of Management
Span of Management – the number of
subordinates who report to a particular manager.
8-33
Span of Management
•A wide span of management exists when a
manager directly supervises a very large number
of employees.
•A narrow span of management exists when a
manager directly supervises only a few
subordinates.
8-34
Advantages of Small Business Ownership
•Costs
•Flexibility
•Focus
•Reputation
8-35
Span of Management – Organizational layers
8-36
Span of Management – Organizational layers
8-37
Forms of Organizational Structure
Line Structure
Line-and-staff structure
Multidivisional structure
Matrix structure
8-38
Forms of Organizational Structure
Line Structure – Convenience Store as an example
8-39
Forms of Organizational Structure
Line-and-staff Structure
8-40
Forms of Organizational Structure
Matrix Structure
8-41
Groups & Teams in Organizations
Group – two or more individuals who
communicate with one another, share a common
identity, and have a common goal
8-42
Groups & Teams in Organizations
Team – a small group whose members have
complementary skills, have a common purposes,
goals, and approach; hold themselves mutually
accountable.
8-43
Groups & Teams
Differences between Groups & Teams
8-44
Groups & Teams
Committee – permanent, formal group
performing a specific task.
Task force – temporary group responsible for a
particular change activity
8-45
Groups & Teams
Teams
•Project teams
•Product development teams
•Quality assurance teams (quality circles)
•Self-directed work teams (SDWT)
8-46
Communications in Organizations
8-47
Communications in Organizations
Formal Communication – flow of communication
within the formal organizational structure as
depicted on organizational charts.
•Upward communication
•Downward communication
•Horizontal communication
•Diagonal communication
8-48
Communications in Organizations
Informal Communication – separate from
management’s formal, official communication
channels.
•Grapevine
8-49

similar documents