Year 12 Chemistry He classified all chemicals into three categories – acids, bases and salts He believed that all acids contained oxygen and it was this that gave them their sour taste Flaw: not all acids contain oxygen and metal oxides form bases Showed that all acids do not contain oxygen Proposed that acids are hydrogen containing materials following the discovery of HCl Flaw: not all substances that contain hydrogen are acids Acids dissociate in water forming H+ as one product Bases dissociate in water forming OHas one product Neutralisation involves the reaction of H+ and OH- forming a salt in water Flaws: theories only apply to aqueous solutions Some substances such as NH3 are bases and do not contain OH Relative strengths not addressed Amphoteric substances not addressed An acid is a proton (H+) donor A base is a proton acceptor Examples: HCl + H2O <===> H3O+ + Cl¯ NH3 + H2O <===> NH4+ + OH¯ Identify the acids/bases Any other acids/bases? Amphiprotic substances are those that can act as bases and acids Water is an obvious example Notice in the previous slide that water reacts with both acids and bases. Bisulfate is another amphiprotic substance. Construct chemical equations to show this property. Acid 1 + Base 2 Base 1 + Acid 2 Conjugate pair 1 Conjugate pair 2 What does this mean? An acid reacts and forms a conjugate base which can also accept a proton A base reacts and forms a conjugate acid which can donate a proton Conjugate pairs differ only by one H+ Example: HNO3 + H2O <===> H3O+ + NO3¯ Here, nitric acid and the nitrate ion are conjugates and water and the hydronium ion are also conjugates Predicting Equilibrium The direction of acid-base equilibria is away from the stronger acid base side and towards the weaker acid base side The stronger the acid, the weaker its conjugate base The stronger the base, the weaker its conjugate acid Reactions that proceed to a large extent: A strong acid will force the equilibrium in the opposite direction (in this case, forward or right) HCl + H2O <===> H3O+ + Cl¯ Reactions that proceed to a small extent: If the weaker of the two acids and the weaker of the two bases are reactants (appear on the left side of the equation), the reaction is said to proceed to only a small extent: NH3 + H2O <===> NH4+ + OH¯ Identify the conjugate acid base pairs in each reaction.