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Ancient Greek for Everyone:
A New Digital Resource for
Beginning Greek
Units 4: Conjunctions
Biblical Reading
2013 edition
Wilfred E. Major
[email protected]
Ancient Greek for Everyone
• This class
– Unit 4 Biblical reading.
– Be able to:
• read the sentences aloud
• parse each verb and noun (with article where it appears)
• translate the sentences into English.
Ancient Greek for Everyone
• A statement of monotheism from the Book of Isaiah:
μάρτυρες ὑμεῖς ἐστε, εἰ ἔστιν θεὸς πλὴν ἐμοῦ
LXX Is. 44:8
ἐμοῦ (gen sg) me
θεός (nom sg) ὁ god
μάρτυς -υρος ὁ/ἡ witness
πλήν except
ὑμεῖς (nom pl) you
Ancient Greek for Everyone
• Isaiah quotes God on the same theme:
ἐγώ εἰμι ὁ θεός, καὶ οὐκ ἔστιν ἄλλος.
LXX Is. 45:22
ἄλλος (nom sg) ὁ other
ἐγώ (nom sg) I
θεός (nom sg) ὁ god
Ancient Greek for Everyone
• The Pharisees question the blind man after Jesus has restored his sight,
and at one point say:
Σὺ μαθητὴς εἶ ἐκείνου,
ἡμεῖς δὲ τοῦ Μωϋσέως ἐσμὲν μαθηταί.
Κατὰ Ἰωάννην 9:28
ἐκείνου (gen sg) ὁ that man (Jesus)
ἡμεῖς (nom pl) we
μαθητής (nom sg) μαθηταί (nom. pl.) ὁ student
Μωϋσέως (gen sg) ὁ Moses
σύ (nom. sg.) you
Ancient Greek for Everyone
• The names of the Apostles:
τῶν δὲ δώδεκα ἀποστόλων τὰ ὀνόματά ἐστιν ταῦτα·
πρῶτος Σίμων ὁ λεγόμενος Πέτρος καὶ Ἀνδρέας ὁ
ἀδελφὸς αὐτοῦ, καὶ Ἰάκωβος ὁ τοῦ Ζεβεδαίου καὶ
Ἰωάννης ὁ ἀδελφὸς αὐτοῦ,
Κατὰ Μαθθαῖον 10:2
ἀδελφός (nom sg) ὁ brother
ἀποστόλων (gen pl) apostle
αὐτοῦ his
δώδεκα twelve
λεγόμενος (nom sg) ὁ called
πρῶτος (nom sg) ὁ first
ταῦτα (nom/acc pl) τό these
Ancient Greek for Everyone
• The names of the Apostles continued:
3 Φίλιππος καὶ Βαρθολομαῖος, Θωμᾶς καὶ Μαθθαῖος
ὁ τελώνης, Ἰάκωβος ὁ τοῦ Ἁλφαίου καὶ Θαδδαῖος, 4
Σίμων ὁ Καναναῖος καὶ Ἰούδας ὁ Ἰσκαριώτης ὁ καὶ
παραδοὺς αὐτόν.
Κατὰ Μαθθαῖον 10:3-4
αὐτόν him
παραδούς (nom sg) ὁ who betrayed
τελώνης (nom sg) ὁ tax collector
Ancient Greek for Everyone
• Paul likens the individual members of a church to the limbs of a body
and concludes:
ὑμεῖς δέ ἐστε σῶμα Χριστοῦ καὶ μέλη ἐκ μέρους.
Πρὸς Κορινθίους α’ 12:27
μέρους (gen sg) τό part
μέλη (nom/acc pl) τό limb
ὑμεῖς (nom pl) y’all
Χριστοῦ (gen sg) ὁ Christ
Ancient Greek for Everyone
• Paul is discussing the Resurrection Body:
ὁ δὲ θεὸς δίδωσιν αὐτῷ σῶμα καθὼς ἠθέλησεν,
καὶ ἑκάστῳ τῶν σπερμάτων ἴδιον σῶμα.
Πρὸς Κορινθίους α’ 15:38
αὐτῷ (dat sg) ὁ him, τό it
ἑκάστῳ (dat sg) ὁ, τό each
ἠθέλησεν (3rd sg) wishes
θεός (nom sg) ὁ god
ἴδιον (nom/acc sg) τό their own
καθώς as
σπέρμα –ατος τό seed
Ancient Greek for Everyone
• Paul makes a point about ministry of the New Covenant:
οὐ γράμματος ἀλλὰ πνεύματος·
τὸ γὰρ γράμμα ἀποκτέννει,
τὸ δὲ πνεῦμα ζῳοποιεῖ.
Πρὸς Κορινθίους β’ 3:6
ἀποκτέννει (3rd sg) kills
γράμμμα –ατος τό letter, writing
ζῳοποιεῖ (3rd sg) creates life
Ancient Greek for Everyone
• From the first letter of John:
καὶ τὸ πνεῦμά ἐστιν τὸ μαρτυροῦν,
ὅτι τὸ πνεῦμά ἐστιν ἡ ἀλήθεια.
ὅτι τρεῖς εἰσιν οἱ μαρτυροῦντες,
τὸ πνεῦμα καὶ τὸ ὕδωρ καὶ τὸ αἷμα,
καὶ οἱ τρεῖς εἰς τὸ ἕν εἰσιν.
Ἰωάννου α’ 5: 6-8
ἀλήθεια (nom sg) ἡ truth
ἕν (nom/acc) τό one
εἰς into
μαρτυροῦν (nom/acc sg) τό bearing witness
μαρτυρῶν -οῦντος ὁ bearing witness
τρεῖς (nom) ὁ three
ὕδωρ, ὕδατος τό water
Ancient Greek for Everyone
• Prior to the Latin Vulgate by Jerome (c.347-420) and the
impact of figures like Augustine (354-430), Greek was the
dominant language of Christianity (and it remained so in the
Byzantine East).
• As Christianity spread and its institutions grew, early
Christians had to work out how to interact with the pagan
world, especially the Greek culture that still dominated it.
• Well educated, thoroughly versed in Greek literature and an
ardent Christian, Clement of Alexandria was one of the
“Church Fathers” who embodied Christianity’s absorption and
conquest of pagan Greek traditions..
Ancient Greek for Everyone
• Church Fathers routinely argued that Greek intellectual achievements were
in fact stolen from Scripture. Here Clement makes an example of Stoic
φασὶ γὰρ σῶμα εἶναι τὸν θεὸν οἱ Στωϊκοὶ καὶ
Clement of Alexandria Stromata 5.14.89
θεόν (acc sg) ὁ god
Στωϊκοὶ (nom pl) ὁ Stoics

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