Andreas Braun - Trilingualism.org

Report
Dr. A. Braun
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Native Language (NL)
One, two or three of the parents’ languages acquired
natively at a young age.
•
Community Language (CL)
The language spoken in the wider community and
neighbourhood where the trilingual families lived.
Home Languages (HLs)
The native languages (NLs) spoken by the parents.
It can also include the community language (CL).
•
Education Language (EL)
The main language used in school/nursery inside
and outside the classroom.
Dr. A. Braun
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To investigate the impact of the
extended family, particularly
grandparents, on trilingual families’
language practices with their
children.
Dr. A. Braun
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Researchers (Lambert, 1977; Cummins, 2000; Braun, 2010) have referred to
the distinctive sociolinguistic context in which bilingual experience occurs
when the home languages in a family are in a competitive or complementary
relationship with the society in which they live.
Cahiers (2009) compared language shift from Quechua to Spanish among
Andean migrants to Lima. It was found that “most in-migrant parents did not
use their mother tongue with their children despite a number of frequently
cited factors” presumed to favour maintenance: both parents being L1
speakers, speaking grandparents; frequent trips to the home area.
Skutnabb-Kangas and Dunbar (2010) A Global View Journal of Indigenous
Peoples Rights No. 1/2010. Inuktitut an Inuit languages spoken in Northern
Canada is dying. The researchers note that ‘teenagers cannot converse
fluently with their grandparents’
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Baumgartner (2010) in her guide book „Gelebte Zweisprachigkeit.
Wie erziehe ich mein Kind zweisprachlich?”: “Kinder die im
Ausland aufwachsen, müssen die Muttersprache der Eltern
sprechen wegen den Grosseltern und Cousinen die im Heimatland
der Eltern leben“. Sie spielen die wichtigste Rolle im
zweiprachigen/zweikulturellen Leben von Kindern die im Ausland
aufwachsen. (translated by A.Braun)
Baker (2003) argues that Disapproval of bilingualism may be
found among monolingual grandparents and monolingual extended
family members.
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Dr. A. Braun
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




In Semi-structured Interviews both Parents were
interviewed together when available (some
children)
Parents spoke at least two NLs in addition to the
CL.
Children were aged no older than 15 years.
In Forum/Email usually one parents explained
their language practices
32 countries with about 28 different languages.
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Type
Description
ENG
GER
Total
I
The parents each speak one different NL.
13
11
24
II
(NL  CL)
One or both parents speak two NLs.
13
18
31
III
(NL can be CL)
One or both parents speak three NLs.
9
6
15
35
35
70
(NL can be CL) + “Others”
Total
Abbr
CL – Community Language / NL – Native Language (Tab.1)
Published Typology by Braun, A. & Cline T. (2010) International Journal of Multilingualism
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Schooling
Linguistic
Social
Parental
Parental
Background
Strategies
Cultural
Home land visits
Time spent in Host
Country
Grandparents
Children
Other Relatives
Dr. A. Braun
OPOL
Status of English/NL
Parents’ use of NLs +
CL with their Children
Parents
TV/Radio/ Internet
Language
Competence /
Preference
Contextual
Factors
Children’s Age
Future Plans
Sequence of
Siblings
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9
10
9
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
77%
77%
56%
82%
Only CL
1 NL dropped
All NLs
regularly
Type I
ENG
Type I
GER
Tril. with
difficulties
Type II
ENG
Type II
GER
Number: Type 1: Eng: 13 / Ger:11 - Type 2: Eng:13 / Ger: 18
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% of Families
100
90
80
70
60
50
40
30
20
10
0
England
Germany
CL replaced CL replaced CL didn't
1 HL
2 HLs
replace HLs
Increasing
use of CL
Simple %, No Confidential Interval (CI), Standard Deviation or P-Value
Number: Eng: 13 / Ger: 11
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Number of Families
8
62%
ENG
GER
6
36%
36%
4
28%
23%
15%
2
0
Very Influntial
Influential
Not Influential
Total: ENG: 13 - GER: 11
Source: Interview Data
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Mother: “We both of us, my husband and me, wanted that our children can
discuss with their other relatives as well. When we go to visit my parents or
my husband's parents, grandparents...”[Fin mother 35y, Ger father 37y, 2
Kids 3 & 1y].
Father: “Yes he (son) speaks Italian with my parents…Well, I don’t know if
they (grandparents) would have complained but it would have been difficult
for them so it’s not just an issue for us. Mother: Yes, for my grandparents”
[Iranian mother 37y, Italian father 46y, 1 Kid 10y].
Mother: “They (grandparents) were trying to convince us to speak to her
(daughter) in Italian, so she (daughter) would learn it. So, they
(grandparents) can speak to her (daughter) as well” [Italia mother 34y,
Algerian father 42y, 1 Kid 3y]
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Father: “For both of us the same reason. None of our parents speak a foreign
language and we want our children to be able to communicate with their
grandparents [G3:101-104]. Mother: Our parents like it (trilingualism) as they
want to communicate with them (grandchildren)” [Portuguese mother 31y, Irish
father 34y, 2 kids 3 & 1y].
Mother: “When you learn the language and the culture and your learn to respect
the culture of the grandparents of the husband and the rest of the extended
family” [Finnish mother 40y, Dutch father 40y, 2 kids 13 & 15y].
Mother: “First the grandparents are there whereas our place of living can change.
We don’t know if we live in 5 years in Romania, Belgian, Spain or Finland, so
it’s best to use our mother tongues. And our parents can look after her (child) as
my mother speaks only Finnish and so J (child) can stay there without us”
[Finnish mother 35y, Rumanian father 33y, 1 kid 2y].
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% of Families
100
90
80
70
60
50
40
30
20
10
0
England
Germany
EL replaced EL replaced EL didn't
2 NLs
1 NL
replace HLs
Increasing
use of EL
Engl. Incl.
EFL
Simple %, No Confidential Interval (CI), Standard Deviation or P-Value
Number: Eng:13 / Ger: 18
Dr. A. Braun
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77%
Number of Families
14
ENG
GER
12
77%
10
8
6
17%
4
2
8%
6%
15%
0
Unclear
Influential
Not Influential
Total: ENG: 13 - GER: 18
Source: Interview Data
Dr. A. Braun
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Mother: “When they (children) were born we thought that
three languages is too much…and I wanted them to have a
strong English…We decided that he (father) was going to
speak Greek initially and I was going to speak English to
please his (Greek/British) parents mainly and his parents
obviously weren’t supposed (to speak) English to my children
because they should speak Greek to my children… But it
turns out they speak English to them (children) mainly…So
this is really annoying and it annoys my husband as well
because he really did it for his parents you know initially and
they (grandparents) don’t even speak Greek” [Finnish mother
34y, Greek/British father 37y, 2 kids 10 & 7y].
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Vater: „Meine Mutter spricht ah sie kann sich nicht entscheiden. Ich glaube
Kroatisch aber she spricht auch Deutsch...Ah ich würde es bevorzugen
wenn meine Mutter mehr Kroatisch sprechen würde and garkein Deutsch.
Ich habe einige Ideen, dass meine Mutter Kroatisch mit ihr (Enkelkind)
spricht und ich kontentriere mich auf Deutsch aber ich weiss noch nicht –
ich muss es testen“ (Bulgarische Mutter 27J, Kroatisch-Deutscher Vater
30J, 1 Kind 1J)
Translation
Father: “My mother speaks now – yes she can’t decide I feel Croatian but
she also uses German. ..Ah, I would prefer if my mother spoke more
Croatian and not German at all. I have some ideas that my mother can
speak with her Croatian and I concentrate on German but I don’t know yet
- I need to test it.”
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Description
Dr. A. Braun
Type I
ENG GER
In each set of GPs at least one GP 2
2
spoke the CL fluently
Type II
ENG GER
10
14
There was no fluent speaker of the 10
CL in either set of GPs
9
2
3
Unclear
1
0
1
1
Total
13
11
13
18
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Number of Families
16
14
ENG
12
GER
10
8
6
4
2
0
Grandparents are bilingual
Grandparents live in Eng./Ger.
Total: Eng: 13 – Ger:18
Source: Interview Data
Dr. A. Braun
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Email Messages*
Forum
Messages
Grandparents
18
Not yet analysed
Other relatives
47
Not yet analysed
Total
65 (out of 269) 24% 147 messages
(*Preliminary results)
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 Sampling method incl. internet forum, university colleagues,
snowballing, which attracted participants with a similar high
socio-economic background.
 Content of forum and email was sometimes vague and
ambiguous.
 The description on NL is becoming more difficult because
many participants in this study described English as one of
their “OWN LANGUAGES”.
 The influence of grandparents on trilingual families’ language
practices is only one factor.
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• Most Type 1 families in England and Germany raised their children trilingually, which
was partly related to the grandparents, who were mostly monolingual.
• In England, 11 out of 13 Type I families and in Germany 9 out of 11 referred to their
grandparents and other relatives when explaining their NL use with their children.
• The parents partly used their NLs with their children to provide a means of
communication between the children and their relatives, particularly their grandparents,
who generally did not speak the current CL of the parents, English or German.
• In contrast, most Type 2 families raised their children bilingually partly because one
set of grandparents was bilingual as well and/or they spoke the CL Eng/Ger or even
lived close by (Immigration background / Gastarbeiterfamilien).
• In England, 11 out of 13 grandparent couples and in Germany 16 out of 18 could
communicate with their grandchildren in one of the NLs that the parents used.
Therefore, there was no need to use both of the parents’ NLs. This seems to be a
major factor for parents to drop one language.
• Follow up study planned to lead up on these findings
Dr. A. Braun
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Baumgartner, B. (2010) „Gelebte Zweisprachigkeit. Wie erziehe ich mein Kind
zweisprachlich?", Rabenstück Verlag 2010
Baker, C. (2003) A Parents' and Teachers' Guide to Bilingualism by Colin Baker
(Second Edition, 2003), pp 11-13.
Braun, A. & Cline, T. (2010). Trilingual families in monolingual societies: working
towards a typology. International Journal of Multilingualism, 7 (2) p.110-127.
Braun, A. (2006). The effect of sociocultural and linguistic factors on the language use
of parents in trilingual families in England and Germany. Unpublished doctoral
dissertation, University of Bedfordshire, UK.
Cahiers 15.2 2009 [paru en 2011] Towards a shifters’ view of language shift. A
comparative study of Lima and Lille http://www.afls.net/cahiers/15.2/PooleyMarr.pdf
Tove Skutnabb-Kangas and Robert Dunbar (2010) A 1998 report (Kitikmeot struggles
to prevent death of Inuktitut) notes that ‘teenagers cannot converse fluently with their
grandparents’ (quoted in I. Martin 2000a: 31). http://www.cepnfnec.com/file/publication/docetudelegaux/En/Journal%20of%20Indigenous%20People
s%20Rights%20no.%201-2010.pdf
Dr. A. Braun
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Address:
Dr. Andreas Braun
Research Fellow
University of Hertfordshire
Centre for Lifespan and Chronic Illness Research
Health Research Building
College Lane
Hatfield, Herts.
AL10 9AB
UK
Webpage: www.Trilingualism.org
Email:
Dr. A. Braun
[email protected]
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