Thai Tones in English Loanwords

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Thai Tones in English Loanwords
Alif Silpachai
Southern California Undergraduate
Linguistics Conference (SCULC)
April 21, 2012
Preview
– Compare sources with a native speaker
• What my sources claim regarding Thai tones in
English loanwords
• What my sources missed
• What should be added
Background: Standard Thai
• Standard Thai, or Siamese, a Tai-Kadai
language, is a tone language spoken mainly in
Thailand.
• There are five phonemic tones in Thai.
Where is Thai(Siamese) Spoken?
Bangkok
Background: Speaker for this Paper
• Me
– I am a native speaker of Standard Thai
– I can read and write Thai.
– I have more English loanwords in my lexicon.
– English loanwords have “Thai tones”.
Sources
• Gandour (1976)
– General tonal patterns in English loanwords.
• Kenstowicz & Suchato (2006)
– Based on the work of Gandour (1976): an updated
version of Gandour’s paper.
Five Phonemic Tones in Thai
Name
Chao Letters
Example
Gloss
Mid
32
kʰaa
To be stuck
Low
21
kʰàa
Galangal
Falling
51
kʰâa
To kill
High
45
kʰáa
To trade
Rising
24
kʰǎa
leg
Tones in Praat
Mid 32
Low 21
High 45
Falling 51
Rising 24
Goals of Study
• To see which tones get selected in English
loanwords according to my sources.
• To explain the tonal rules in these loanwords,
using the OT.
• To explain why only some tones are used in
English loanwords.
• To see whether my pronunciation matches the
description of my sources. If not, the goal is to
suggest ways in which my sources be updated.
Distribution of Tones
• C = consonant
• V = vowel
– VV = long vowel
• O = obstruent
– p, t, k, b, d, ʔ etc.
• S = sonorant
– m, n, ŋ, l, w, j etc.
Distribution of Tones in Native Words
Syllable
type
Tones
allowed
Word
Example
Hence…
CVV, CVVS,
CVS
all five
tones
khaa,
khaaw,
khaw
CVVO
Falling and
Low
maak
*maak32
*máak45
*mǎak24
CVO
Low and
High
mak
*mak32
*mâk51
*mǎk24
Distribution of Tones
Syllable type
Tones allowed
Word examples
English Loans
Native words
CVV, CVVS, CVS
Mid and Falling
All five tones
khaa, khaaw,
khaw
CVVO
High and Low
Falling and Low
maak
CVO
High, Low, and
Falling
Low and High
mak
Monosyllabic Words
Tones in Monosyllabic Words
Syllable type
English
loanwords
English
CVV, CVVS, CVS
baa32
bar
faam32
farm
thəəm32
term
OT Analysis
This tableau shows that *RISEHIGHLOWFALL/CVS must outrank DON’THAVETONE.
/baa/
TONE
*RISEHIGHLOWFALL/CVS
☞ baa32
DON’THAVETONE
*
báa45
*!
*
bàa21
*!
*
bâa51
*!
*
bǎa24
*!
*
baa
*!
Tones in Monosyllabic Words
Syllable type
English
loanwords
English
CVVO
pháak45
park
bɔ́ɔt45
boss
fɔ̀ɔt21
Ford
bík45
big
ʔâp51
up
CVO
OT Analysis
The tableau shows that *MIDRISE/CVO must outrank DON’THAVETONE,
but does not dominate *RISEHIGHLOWFALL/CVS.
/bɔɔt/
TONE
*RISEHIGHLOWFALL/CVS
*MIDRISE/CVO
☞bɔɔ́ t 45
DON’THAVETONE
*
bɔɔt 32
*!
*
bɔ̌ɔt 24
*!
*
bɔɔt *!
Opacity
Syllable type
English
loanwords
English
Covert CVSO
bɛ́ŋ45
bank
khɛ́m45
camp
náj45
night
Opacity
Input
/bæŋk/
/bæŋk/
assign High
tone to
CVSO
delete final
obstruent
bɛŋ́ k45
delete final
obstruent
bɛŋ32
bɛŋ́ 45
assign High
tone to
CVSO
--
Output
[bɛŋ́ 45]
*[bɛŋ32]
OT Analysis
Stem Level
*MIDRISE/CVO,
MAX-C
>>*COMPLEXCODA
Lexical Level
*COMPLEXCODA,
DON’TCHANGETONE
>> *MIDRISE/CVO,
MAX-C.
Stem Level
DON’THAVETONE
☞béwt 45
*COMPLEXCODA
MAX-C
*MIDRISE/CVO
*RISEHIGHLOWFALL/C
VS
/bewt/
DON’TCHANGETONE
TONE
The tableau shows that *MIDRISE/CVO and MAX-C
must dominate *COMPLEXCODA.
*
*
bewt 32
*!
*
*
běwt 24
*!
*
*
bewt
béw45
bew32
*
*!
*!
*
*
*!
*
Lexical Level
/ béwt 45/
☞béw 45
béwt 45
běw 24
*
DON’THAVETONE
MAX-C
*
*!
*
*
*!
*
*
*
*
bew *!
bew32
*MIDRISE/CVO
*RISEHIGHLOWFALL/CVS
DON’TCHANGETONE
*COMPLEXCODA
TONE
This tableau shows that at the lexical level, *COMPLEXCODA and
DON’TCHANGETONE must dominate MAX-C and MIDRISE/CVO.
*!
*
*
Opacity?
Syllable type
CVSO(?)
English
loanwords
English
blɔn32
blonde
brɛɛn32
brand
fiw32
fuse
Polysyllabic Words
Tones in Polysyllabic Words
Final syllable
type
CVV, CVVS,
CVS
English
loanwords
English
wii32.sâa51
vísa
fɛɛ32.chân51
fáshion
dɔn32.lâa51
dóllar
Tones in Polysyllabic Words
Kenstowicz & Suchato (2006, page 940)
OT Analysis
/wíiH.sàaL/
ALIGN(H, R;
WORD, R)
MAX-H
MAX-L
☞ wii.sâaHL
wíiH.sàaL
*!
*!
*
*!
wii.sáaH
*
*!
*!
wìiL.saa
wîiHL.saa
NE
*
wii.sàaL
wíiH.saa
DON’TCHANGETO
*!
*
*
*
*
Tones in Polysyllabic Words
Final syllable
type
CVO, CVVO
English
loanwords
English
búk45.lèt21
booklet
boo32.nát45
bonus
méek45 Ɂâp51
make up
OT Analysis
ALIGN(H, R;
WORD, R)
*HL/CVO
MAX-H
MAX-L
/ bóoH.nàtL/
☞ boo.nátH
*
*!
bóoH.nàtL
boo.nâtHL
boo.nàtL
*!
*!
The Patterns We Have Learned
Type of Word
Syllable Type
Monosyllabic
Type of Word
Polysyllabic
Example
Gloss
CVV, CVVS, CVS Mid
baa32
bar
CVVO
High, Low
bɔ́ɔt45
boss
CVO
High, Low,
Falling
bík45
big
Final Syllable
Type
Tone(s)
Tone(s)
Example
Gloss
CVV, CVVS,
CVS
Falling
phaw32.wə̂ə51
power
CVVO, CVO
Low, High
búk45.lèt21
booklet
My Speech
• Largely agrees with the description of my
sources.
• But…
My Speech
Expected forms my pronunciation
gloss
*mii32.dîa51
mii32.dìa21
media
*maa32.fîa51
maa32.fia32
mafia
My Speech
OT Analysis
ALIGN(H, R;
WORD, R)
*HL/Cia
*HL/CVO
MAX-H
MAX-L
*
*
/máaH.fìaL/
☞ maa.fia
*!
maa.fíaH
*
*!
maa.fîaHL
*!
máaH.fìaL
Summary
• Analysis of the Sources
– My pronunciation largely agrees with my sources,
except for the polysyllabic words terminating in
–ia

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