Chapter 8 - BrainMass

Report
Chapter 8
Early Contingency Theories of
Effective Leadership
Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc.
publishing as Prentice Hall
Leadership in Organizations
8-1
Learning Objectives
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Understand why it is necessary to consider the
leadership situation when studying leadership
Understand how aspects of the situation can
enhance or diminish the effects of leader behavior.
Understand how aspects of the situation can serve
as a substitute for the influence of formal leaders
Understand the primary contingency theories of
effective leadership
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publishing as Prentice Hall
Leadership in Organizations
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Learning Objectives (Cont.)
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Understand the conceptual weaknesses of each
contingency theory
Understand the findings from empirical research
on contingency theories and the limitations of this
research
Understand the implications of situational theories
for improving leadership
Understand the limitations of the research on
contingency theories
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Leadership in Organizations
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LPC Contingency Theory
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LPC Score
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High LPC – A leader primarily motivated to have close,
interpersonal relationships with other people
Low LPC – A leader primarily motivated by
achievement of task objectives
Situational Variables
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Leader-member relations
Position Power
Task Structure
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Leadership in Organizations
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LPC Propositions
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Causal Relationships in the LPC
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LPC Contingency Model
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Research on the Theory
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Research tends to support most quadrants in the
model
Based on correlational results
Ways the different situational variables are combined
Conceptual Weaknesses
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LPC score a “measure in search of a meaning”
Descriptive, not predictive
Neglects medium LPC leaders (who probably
outnumber high or low LPCs)
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Path-Goal Theory of Leadership
“The motivational function of the leader consists of
increasing personal payoffs to subordinates for
work-goal attainment and making the path to these
payoffs easier to travel by clarifying it, reducing
roadblocks and pitfalls, and increasing the
opportunities for personal satisfaction with the
leader”
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Path-Goal Theory of Leadership (Cont.)
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Explanatory Processes – Expectancy Theory
Leader Behaviors
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Supportive leadership
Directive leadership
Participative leadership
Achievement-oriented leadership
Situational Variables
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Task characteristics
Subordinate characteristics
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Path-Goal Causal Relationships
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Path-Goal Theory
Major Propositions
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Path-Goal Theory
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Research on the Theory
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Mixed results
Conceptual Weaknesses
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Reliance on expectancy theory
Reliance on broad categories of leader behavior
Questionable hypothesized relationships
Considering each type of leadership behavior
separately
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Situational Leadership Theory
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Leadership Substitutes Theory
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Multiple-Linkages Model
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Conditions Affecting the Intervening
Variables in the Multiple Linkages Model
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Conditions Affecting the Intervening Variables
in the Multiple Linkages Model (Cont.)
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Leader Actions to Deal with Deficiencies
in Intervening Variables
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Leader Actions to Deal with Deficiencies
in Intervening Variables (Cont.)
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Cognitive Resources Theory
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General Evaluation of Contingency
Theories
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Guidelines for Managers
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Maintain situational awareness
Use more planning for a long, complex task
Consult more with people who have relevant knowledge
Provide more direction to people with interdependent roles
Provide more direction and briefings when a crisis occurs
Monitor a critical task or unreliable person more closely
Provide more coaching to an inexperienced subordinate
Be more supportive to someone with a highly stressful task
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Leadership in Organizations
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Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc.
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publishing as Prentice Hall
Leadership in Organizations
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