Teaching Mixed HL/Non-HL Classes

Report
Attending to the Needs of Heritage
Language Learners in Mixed
Classrooms
Maria M. Carreira, Claire Chik
Joan Chevalier, Alejandro Lee, Julio Torres, Alegría
Ribadeneira
National Heritage Language Resource Center, UCLA
March 6, 2014
Overview of this presentation:
Five principles for teaching mixed classes
• Know your learners;
• Choose and use materials with a view towards
making learning meaningful, engaging, and
accessible to all learners;
• Make students active and autonomous partners
in what happens in the classroom;
• Build pathways to learning for all learners;
• Design courses and curricula that make linguistic
and demographic sense.
But first
WHY FOCUS ON MIXED CLASSES?
Rationale:
• Mixed classes are more common than HL classes
(the NHLRC programs survey);
• The disconnect: By and large, efforts in the area of HL
teaching have focused largely on HL classes;
• The principles outlined in this presentation also
apply to HL classes.
What we know about mixed classes
(The NHLRC Programs survey)
• There are three types of mixed classes:
Type 1: Very few HL learners (one to three);
Type 2: Small but significant numbers of HL
learners;
Type 3: HL-learner majority (some are the
mirror image of type 1)
Common challenge(s)/issue(s)
Type 1: One or two HL learners;
Type 2: HL learners are a significant minority
of class;
Type 3: HL learners are a (significant) majority
of the class
Specific challenge(s) for each
Type 1: One or two HL learners;
Type 2: HL learners are a significant minority
of class;
Type 3: HL learners are a (significant) majority
of the class
Findings of the NHLRC Programs Study
Type 1 (very few HL learners)
Needs of HL learners tend to be disregarded
Types 2 and 3 (significant minority or
majority HLL population);
Apply L2 methodology, materials, etc.
Quotes from the survey
• Type 1: I did not give particular consideration to
HL—they are usually a very small segment of the
class.
• Type 2: (Name of book) does not address the
needs of HL but it does a good job at the
beginning level where the majority of our
students take the (name of language) as a
general language requirement and where we
have less HL (15%) than at more advanced levels.
The background behind this state of
affairs;
• Limited resources (funding, instructors,
materials);
• Too few students (HL or L2) make it impossible
to separate students;
• Lack of institutional/departmental
commitment;
• Foreign language teaching methods are illsuited to teaching HL learners in specialized
and mixed classes.
Overview of this presentation:
Five principles for teaching mixed classes
• Know your learners;
• Choose and use materials with a view towards
making learning meaningful, engaging, and
accessible to all learners;
• Make students active and autonomous partners
in what happens in the classroom;
• Build pathways to learning for all learners;
• Design courses and curricula that make linguistic
and demographic sense.
Overview of this presentation:
Five principles for teaching mixed classes
• Know your learners;
• Choose and use materials with a view towards
making learning meaningful, engaging, and
accessible to all learners;
• Make students active and autonomous partners
in what happens in the classroom;
• Build pathways to learning for all learners;
• Design courses and curricula that make linguistic
and demographic sense.
Sources of information on learners
Definitions + linguistic studies
THIRD SOURCE?
Definitions:
Who is a heritage language learner?
• Narrow definitions – based on proficiency
• Broad definitions – based on affiliation
Example of a narrow definition
“An individual who is raised in a home where a
non-English language is spoken, who speaks or
merely understands the heritage language,
and who is to some degree bilingual in English
and the heritage language” (Valdés, 2001, p.
38)
Example of a broad definition
Heritage language learners are individuals who
“…have familial or ancestral ties to a particular
language and who exert their agency in
determining whether or not they are HLLs
(heritage language learners) of that HL
(heritage language) and HC (heritage culture)
(Hornberger and Wang, 2008, p. 27)
Learners who fit the narrow definition also fit
the broad definition
Broad definition
Narrow
definition
Broad + narrow definitions = two orientations to
HL teaching
Linguistic needs (narrow
definition)
Affective needs (broad
definition)
Broad + narrow definitions = two orientations to
HL teaching
Linguistic needs (narrow
definition)
Affective needs (broad
definition)
NEEDS STEMMING FROM BROAD
DEFINITION?
In high school I was one of very few Latinos. My friend and I were
called the "Mexican kids". This was always funny to me because my
Dad's family always told me I was American. In school I was labeled
Mexican, but to the Mexicans, I am an American. I am part of each,
but not fully accepted by either. In high school, I was considered
Mexican because I spoke Spanish but I was considered "Pocho" by
my Dad's family because my Spanish was not up to their standard.
It's this weird duality in which you are stuck in the middle. Latinos
are often told that they are not Americans but also that they are
not connected to their heritage. You take pride in both cultures and
learn to deal with the rejection. You may never be fully embraced
by either side. That's why you seek out other people like yourself.
Socializing with people who share a common experience helps you
deal with this experience.
Broad + narrow definitions = two orientations to
HL teaching
Linguistic needs (narrow
definition)
Affective needs (broad
definition)
Find identity
Navigate two worlds
Connect to others (find community)
Deal with rejection
Activity
time!
Activity I, p. 2
My work:
Spanish names in the U.S.
•
•
•
•
•
Two last names or one?
Nicknames?
Two different first names?
Maiden name or husband’s last name?
What do you do with difficult to pronounce
names? Keep them as they are? Modify them?
Drop and substitute?
What about L2 learners?
• What can be done to make “My Name”
meaningful and engaging for them?
Strategies
• Think in terms of comparing and contrasting
elements of the target culture with American
culture (Example: Little Red Riding Hood).
• Think in terms of adding “insider” knowledge
or perspectives to the information presented
(Example: Almanac style presentation of a
country)
LET’S PRACTICE
READY?
Activity II,
pp. 2 -3
Back to:
Five principles for teaching mixed classes
• Know your learners;
• Choose and use materials with a view towards
making learning meaningful, engaging, and
accessible to all learners;
• Make students active and autonomous partners
in what happens in the classroom;
• Build pathways to learning for all learners;
• Design courses and curricula that make linguistic
and demographic sense.
BACK TO THE TWO ORIENTATIONS
OF HL TEACHING…
Broad + narrow definitions = two orientations to
HL teaching
Linguistic needs (narrow
definition)
Affective needs (broad
definition)
HL learners’ linguistic needs are a
function of
•
•
•
•
The context of learning
The timing of learning
The amount input
The type of input
HL learner needs and strengths are a
function of
• The context of learning: primarily, home
-> informal, home register, perhaps non-standard
• The timing of learning: early years, diminished or
discontinued upon starting school
-> similar to the language of children
• The amount input: limited, relative to natives
-> incomplete knowledge of the HL (missing features
acquired later in life)
• The type of input: oral, informal, spontaneous,
-> implicit knowledge of the HL
COMPARE TO L2 LEARNERS
L2 learner needs and strengths
• The context of learning: school
-> formal, standard, academic, rehearsed, controlled
• The timing of learning: adolescence, early adulthood
-> adult-like with respect to certain features
• The amount input: limited (relative to native speakers and HL
learners)
-> incomplete with respect to certain features (those acquired
early in life)
• The type of input: formal, focused on form
-> explicit knowledge of rules
HL and L2 learners tend to have
complimentary skills and needs
HL language
L2 language
• The context of learning: primarily, home
• The context of learning: shool
-> informal, home register, nonstandard, spontaneous
-> formal, standard, academic,
rehearsed, controlled
• The timing of learning: early years, diminished
or discontinued upon starting school
-> similar to the language of children
• The amount input: limited, relative to
natives
-> incomplete knowledge of the HL
(late-acquired items)
• The type of input: oral, informal, spontaneous
-> implicit knowledge of the HL
• The timing of learning: adolescence, early
adulthood
-> adult-like with respect to certain
features
• The amount input: limited (relative to
native speakers and HL
learners)
-> incomplete with respect to certain
features (early acquired features)
• The type of input: formal, focused on
form
-> explicit knowledge of rules
Two perspectives of complimentary nature of HL
and L2 learners’ knowledge
Understanding heritage language learners
Two studies bring these
perspectives into focus
Two studies of paired interactions between HL
and L2 (Bowles 2011, 2012)
• HL and L2 learners were matched for
proficiency;
• They worked together on an information gap
activity;
• In the first study learners benefited more from
the activity than HL learners;
• In the second study, both types of learners
benefited equally from the activity.
First study: L2 learners benefited more from the
activity
Second study: Both learners benefited from
paired interactions
What made the difference?
• Material + task
HL learners are better at tasks that tap into
intuitive use of language, L2 learners, on the
other hand, do better at tasks that require
meta-linguistic knowledge (knowledge of
rules);
HL learners are more familiar with home
vocabulary; L2 learners, on the other hand,
are more familiar with academic vocabulary
First study: Only L2 learners benefitted
• Information gap activity
with a picture of a
kitchen (home
vocabulary)
All tasks were oral;
HL learners already knew
this, so they did not gain
new knowledge. L2
learners benefitted from
HL learners’ expertise.
Second study
• Information gap activity
with a picture of an
office; Oral and written
tasks.
Vocabulary was unknown to
both learner types, so both
benefitted.
Oral task benefitted L2
learners. Written task
benefitted HL learners.
Take home lesson about HL + L2
pairings
• Take advantage of complimentary strengths of
HL and L2 learners
• Mix tasks that require intuitive knowledge
(hard for L2Ls), and tasks that require metalinguistic knowledge (hard for HLLs);
• Hold both students accountable for
contributing to the task (assign the harder
task to each type of learner);
• Match HL-L2 learners for proficiency (????)
A metaphor for HL + L2 pairings
Seating arrangements at a fancy dinner party
Sample strategies and activities
for HL + L2 pairings
•
•
•
•
Cloze activity
Long distance dictation
KWL chart
Vocabulary rubric
Cloze activity: HL-L2 learner groupings
My great-grandmother. I ______liked to have known her, a wild, horse of a woman, so wild
she ________ marry. Until my great-grandfather _________ a sack over her head and
________ her off. Just like that, as if she ________a fancy chandelier. That's the way he
did it. And the story goes she never forgave him. She _________ out the window her whole
life, the way so many women sit their sadness on an elbow. I wonder if she _______the
best with what she got or was she sorry because she ________be all the things she wanted
to be.
Say it
Write it
Sample activities
(HL + L2 learners)
•
•
•
•
•
Cloze activity
Long distance dictation
KWL chart
Vocabulary rubrics
Exit cards
Long distance dictation
• In our family, we prefer to eat at home rather
than at restaurants.##For dinner, we always
eat a vegetable, a salad, rice or potatoes, and
soup or meat. ## The children drink milk and
the adults drink water and a glass of wine.
##We finish every meal with some fruit and
mint tea.
Sample activities
(HL + L2 learners)
•
•
•
•
Cloze activity
Long distance dictation
KWL chart
Vocabulary rubrics
The KWL chart
What I know about the (fill in a grammar topic, or a chapter objective):
What I want to learn about (the above grammar topic or chapter or chapter
objective):
What I have learned about (the above grammar topic or chapter or chapter objective):
The KWL chart in mixed classes
• The instructor previews point of instruction to
highlight the different components of
knowledge (e.g. past tense);
• Students look over the textbook presentation
of the point of instruction;
• Students fill out the KWL chart and compare
their responses;
• Students with complimentary needs find each
other
KWL charts by HL and L2 learners
• What I know: I know the
conjugation of regular
past tense verbs. I can
write most verbs correctly.
• What I want to learn:
Irregular verbs and
how use past tense in
conversation without
having to think too
much or make too
many mistakes.
• What I have learned:
• What I know: I know
how to talk about things
in the past and I can
understand when people
when they talk about the
past.
• What I want to learn:
How to write the verbs and
how to say some verbs that
are different.
• What I have learned:
Sample activities
(HL + L2 learners)
•
•
•
•
Cloze activity
Long distance dictation
KWL chart
Vocabulary rubric
The vocabulary rubric
Vocabulary words that are completely
new to me
Vocabulary words that I have heard and
understand but do not use myself
Vocabulary words that I use but do not
know how to write
These strategies develop learning and
collaborative strategies
•
•
•
•
Cloze activity
Long distance dictation
KWL chart
Vocabulary rubric
ACTIVITY III, pp. 3-4
MICRO- V. MACRO- APPROACHES
Micro approaches
•
•
•
•
•
•
Isolate grammar, lexical, and pronunciation items;
Use discrete activities to practice items;
Are bottom up, moving from simple to complex;
Deal with conscious knowledge of the language;
Occur more frequently at lower levels;
Contrast with macro-approaches
Macro approaches
• Focus on developing functional ability - the
wide variety of discourse in the professions,
social life, and the community;
• Can be discourse-based, content-based,
genre-based, task-based, or experiential;
• Are top-down and build on global,
background knowledge;
• Are more common at the advanced levels
You need both approaches to make
appropriate and correct use of language
Micro-
Macro-
Sustains
macro
abilities
Involves
real-life
use of
language
However…
• Micro-approaches confuse HL learners
because they lack the meta language of
instruction and are not used to thinking of
language as an object of study;
• Macro-approaches are inaccessible to L2
learners
Solution: Strategies
• To make micro-approaches useful to HL
learners teach the meta language and provide
a map of learning.
Useful tools: KWL chart, vocabulary rubric,
graphic organizers
The KWL chart
What I know about the (fill in a grammar topic, or a chapter objective):
What I want to learn about (the above grammar topic or chapter or chapter
objective):
What I have learned about (the above grammar topic or chapter or chapter objective):
The vocabulary rubric
Vocabulary words that are completely
new to me
Vocabulary words that I have heard and
understand but do not use myself
Vocabulary words that I use but do not
know how to write
A graphic organizer
Two ways of
talking about
the past
Preterite
Imperfect
(comí,
hablé,viví)
(comía,
hablaba, vivía)
What about macro approaches?
• Micro-approaches confuse HL learners
because they lack the meta language of
instruction and are not used to thinking of
language as an object of study;
• Macro-approaches are inaccessible to L2
learners
Solution: Strategies
• To make macro-approaches accessible to L2
learners by tapping into background
knowledge, pre-teaching vocabulary,
previewing the material, using graphic
organizers, visual aids, etc.
Guess what time it is?
Again!
ACTIVITY IV, pp. 4-5
Overview of this presentation:
Five principles for teaching mixed classes
• Know your learners;
• Choose and use materials with a view towards
making learning meaningful, engaging, and
accessible to all learners;
☞ Make students active and autonomous partners
in what happens in the classroom by taking advantage
of complimentary skills, using micro and macro
approaches, teaching strategies;
• Build pathways to learning for all learners;
• Design courses and curricula that make linguistic
and demographic sense.
Overview of this presentation:
Five principles for teaching mixed classes
• Know your learners;
• Choose and use materials with a view towards
making learning meaningful, engaging, and
accessible to all learners;
• Make students active and autonomous partners
in what happens in the classroom;
☞Build pathways to learning for all learners;
• Design courses and curricula that make linguistic
and demographic sense.
Why do we need this?
• Thus far, we have been looking at learners as
members of a group or category (HL v. L2);
• But HL learners are highly individualistic. Their
knowledge of the HL and HC varies according
to their life experiences.
Overview of this presentation:
Five principles for teaching mixed classes
• Know your learners as individuals;
• Choose and use materials with a view towards
making learning meaningful, engaging, and
accessible to all learners as individuals;
• Make students active and autonomous partners
in what happens in the classroom;
• Build pathways to learning for all learners;
• Design courses and curricula that make linguistic
and demographic sense.
DIFFERENTIATION AND FORMATIVE
ASSESSMENT
Principles of Differentiated Teaching
(DT)
In differentiated classrooms, teachers begin where students
are, not the front of a curriculum guide. They accept and build
upon the premise that learners differ in important ways…In
differentiated classrooms, teachers provide specific ways for
each individual to learn as deeply as possible and as quickly
and possible, without assuming one student’s roadmap for
learning is identical to anyone else (Tomlinson, 2000:2).
Strategies and tools
✔KWL chart
✔Vocabulary rubric
• Text-to-self connection
• The interactive journal
• Agenda
• Targeted groupings (mixed pairs, non-mixed
groupings)
• Exit card
Strategies and tools
✔KWL chart
☞
Micro- ability
✔Vocabulary rubric
☞
Micro- ability
• Text-to-self connection
• The interactive journal
• Agenda
• Targeted groupings (mixed pairs, non-mixed
groupings)
• Exit card
The vocabulary rubric
Vocabulary words that are completely
new to me
Vocabulary words that I have heard and
understand but do not use myself
Vocabulary words that I use but do not
know how to write
Strategies and tools
✔KWL chart
☞
Micro-ability
✔Vocabulary rubric
☞
Micro-ability
• Text-to-self connection
☞
Macro- ability
• The interactive journal
☞
Macro- ability
• Agendas
• Targeted groupings (mixed pairs, non-mixed
groupings)
• Exit card
Text-to-self connections
(Harvey and Goudvis 2000:266)
Passage from the text
This reminds me of…
Passage from the text
I agree or disagree because…
Expression from the text
I find this interesting because…
Text-to-world connections
(Harvey and Goudvis 2000:267)
Passage from the text
This reminds me of…
Character from the text
This character reminds me of…
A theme of the text
This reminds me of…
Text-to-text connections
(Harvey and Goudvis 2000:267)
Passage from the text
This reminds me of…
Character from the text
This character reminds me of…
Vocabulary/grammatical forms from the texts
This reminds me of…
Other uses: To personalize readings
The Dialectal Journal
(Dodge 2006: 67)
In this column, record
• a passage
• a main idea
• an important event
In this column
• write a reaction
• discuss its significance
• make an inference
• How do the text-to-self and dialectal journals
fit into a differentiated framework?
• Why is this well-suited for mixed classes?
Strategies and tools
✔KWL chart
☞
Micro
✔Vocabulary rubric
☞
Micro
✔Text-to-self connection
☞
Macro
✔The interactive journal
☞
Macro
• Agendas
• Targeted groupings (mixed pairs, non-mixed
groupings)
• Exit card
Strategies and tools
✔KWL chart
☞
Micro
✔Vocabulary rubric
☞
Micro
✔Text-to-self connection
☞
Macro
✔The interactive journal
☞
Macro
• Agendas
• Targeted groupings (mixed pairs, non-mixed
groupings)
• Exit card
Sample agenda from my class
(an HL class)
Date due: (usually in 1-2 weeks)
Work to be completed:
• Workbook # 7, 8, 9, 10 (HOMEWORK)
• Textbook, read “xxxxx” and answer questions
1-7. Use a spell check. (HOMEWORK)
• Prepare a “Sum it up” card for this unit.
(HOMEWORK)
• Blackboard, #1, 2. Must be completed with a
grade of 90% or better. (ONLINE EXERCISES, CENTER)
How do agendas support
differentiation?
• Make it possible to vary the pace of learning;
• Support self-directed learning;
• Enable effective classroom management.
Effective classroom management
• Mixed groups (HL + L2 learners)
• Homogeneous groups (only L2Ls or only HLLs)
Agendas support mini-lessons
• Mixed groups (HL + L2 learners)
• Homogeneous groups: One group of learners
works on agenda while the other receives a
mini-lesson from instructor.
When would you want to separate HL
and L2 learners?
• With work that requires skills that only one type of group has
e.g. Exercises that make use of grammatical terminology,
standard language,
He knows me well. (What kind of pronoun is
this?, give the equivalent pronoun in the plural)
• Solution: Teach a mini-lesson on grammar terminology to HL
learners, ask L2 learners to work on agenda exercises.
What about the opposite situation? When would you want to
meet with L2 learners and have HL learners work on agenda
items?
Strategies and tools
✔KWL chart
☞
Micro
✔Vocabulary rubric
☞
Micro
✔Text-to-self connection
☞
Macro
✔The interactive journal
☞
Macro
✔Agendas
✔Targeted groupings (mixed pairs, non-mixed
groupings)
• Exit card
Strategies and tools
✔KWL chart
☞
Micro
✔Vocabulary rubric
☞
Micro
✔Text-to-self connection
☞
Macro
✔The interactive journal
☞
Macro
✔Agendas
✔Targeted groupings (mixed pairs, non-mixed
groupings)
• Exit card
Visual check
HOW MANY OF YOU HAVE USED
EXIT CARDS?
The exit card (Dodge 2006)
Describe an “aha!” moment
Formulate a question about a point that remains
unclear. Describe one or two strategies that you
will use to answer this question.
Describe a contribution from a classmate that
proved very useful to you today.
How do exit cards differentiate
instruction?
• For learners - > encourage reflective thinking
and learner autonomy;
• For instructors -> provide feedback needed to
adapt their teaching
EXIT CARDS ARE A FORM OF
FORMATIVE ASSESSMENT
Assessment
• Diagnostic (pre-instruction)
• Formative (during instruction)
• Summative (post instruction)
What is formative assessment?
Formative assessment
Summative assessment
Purpose
To improve instruction and provide feedback
to students
To measure student competency
When administered
Ongoing, throughout unit
End of unit or course
How students use results
To self-monitor understanding,
Identity gaps in understanding and strengths
To monitor grades and progress toward
benchmarks
How teachers use results
To check for understanding, modify their own
teaching to enhance learning
For grades, promotion
How programs use results
To modify the curriculum and program
To report to external entities
Adapted from Checking for Understanding. Formative Assessment Techniques for Your
Classroom by Douglas Fisher and Nancy Frey, ASCD, 2007
How to do formative assessment
Almost any pedagogical activity can function as formative
assessment…
•Visual checks for understanding
• The “aha” moment exit card
• The KWL chart
What I know
What I want to learn
What I learned
Why do formative assessment
Course
placement
Summative
assessment,
(grades)
THIS CONFLICT ARISES FROM THE
INSTITUTIONAL CONTEXT
Not enough courses for student
population
HLL (novice)
HLL
(novice+)
HLL
L2L
(novice+)
Course
y
(intermediate)
How do you assign a grade to these
students and
• Maintain standards
• Address issues of fairness
Formative assessment
• For instructors: Provides the knowledge base to
respond to the needs of all learners through
differentiation;
• For students: Fosters learning by encouraging
metacognition and independence, offering multiple
representations of knowledge, previewing
summative assessment, lowering the stakes of
testing
• For programs: Provides the knowledge base fo
effective curriculum and program.
Grades
• In class
assignments
• Agenda homework
• Exit cards
Medium stakes
formative + summative
• Tests
• Quizzes
Lowest stake
formative
High stakes
summative
The result
• Struggling students get many opportunities to
practice the material before they have to
contend with high stakes testing;
• What about more advanced learners?
- they have to work hard (not an easy A!!!!!)
• But what can we do to make learning more
meaningful for them?
For outliers
• The contract: A negotiated agreement
It all hinges on
Learner
autonomy
Dynamic
teaching and
learning
Final activity: ACTIVITY V, p.5
Overview of this presentation:
Five principles for teaching mixed classes
• Know your learners;
• Choose and use materials with a view towards
making learning meaningful, engaging, and
accessible to all learners;
• Make students active and autonomous partners
in what happens in the classroom;
• Build pathways to learning for all learners;
• Design courses and curricula that make linguistic
and demographic sense.
Arabic 100 for HL learners
(From the NHLRC Learner Survey)
Arabic: Diglossia
• Modern Standard Arabic (High prestige, formal situations, written,
known by educated speakers, lingua franca among Arabs from different
countries);
• Colloquial Arabic (Low prestige, home language, informal
communications, not commonly written, mutually unintelligible regional
dialects) (Maamouri 1998)
Arabic 100:
• 11 students from six Arab countries (Syria, Lebanon, Saudi Arabia,
Jordan, Morocco, Egypt) and 1 student from Indonesia (Muslim).
• 2 have four or more years of education abroad, 3 have three years of
religious education in Arabic in the US; the rest have no literacy skills in
Arabic;
Variation in Arabic 100
• Between HL learners (as a function of life
experiences)
• Dialectal (language-specific properties)
• Diglossic (language-specific properties)
An HL Class:
Hindi 100 for HL learners
India: Hindi is the official language of the country. Individual states have their
own official languages. 29 languages have over 1 million speakers. India’s
languages stem primarily from two language families: Indo-Aryan in the north,
and Dravidian in the south. Many languages have their own writing systems
(Brass 2005, Hasnain 2003).
Hindi 100:
16 students from five different language backgrounds;
Hindi/Urdu (7); Gujarati (4); Punjabi (2);Telugu (2); Marathi (1)
Variation in Hindi 100
• Dialectal
• Cross linguistic (different languages)
• Between learners (HL and L2)
The crux of the problem
• In the Arabic and Hindi programs “HL classes”
are seen as a “catch all” destination for all
students that do not meet the traditional
profile of L2 learners.
• Arabic and Hindi 100 do not make linguistic
sense.
Overview of this presentation:
Five principles for teaching mixed classes
• Know your learners;
• Make materials meaningful and engaging to all
learners;
• Make students active partners in the learning and
teaching process;
• Use strategies to build in pathways to learning
for all learners;
• Design courses and curricula that make linguistic
and demographic sense.
Do…
Program level: Mitigate the problems of diversity
through smart curriculum design and placement.
1) Design courses that are tailored to the local
student population and that make linguistic sense
for them (orient teaching around the typical
learner)
2) Use placement to build maximally
homogeneous classes.
Class level: Accept and deal with diversity through
Differentiated Teaching (DT). Build in pathways
for all learners.
Five principles for teaching mixed classes
• Know your learners (as a type and as individuals);
• Make materials meaningful and engaging to all
learners (look for hooks);
• Make students active partners in the learning and
teaching process (use complimentary skills, microand macro-approaches, learning strategies;
• Use strategies to build in pathways to learning
for all learners (Differentiation, formative assessment);
• Design courses and curricula that make linguistic
and demographic sense.
Thank you!

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