Secondary Electron Detectors

Report
SEM basics:
The electron beam interaction with
near surface specimen atoms will
make a signal which results in the
SEM image.
Introduction
Secondary electron
secondary electron detector
Introduction
Secondary electron
secondary electron detector
Secondary electrons:
Secondary electrons are
generated from the collision
between the incoming electrons
and the loosely bonded outer
electrons
The scattered secondary
electrons are categorized into
three different types.
Introduction
Secondary electron
secondary electron detector
(1) Electrons with energies E <50 e V: Secondary electrons (SE);
(2) Electrons with energies 50 eV < E < EPE: Inelastically backscattered and
elastically reflected electrons (RE).
Introduction
Secondary electron
secondary electron detector
SE1:
First kind of secondary electrons are generated
by the incoming electron beam as they enter the
surface.
The resulted image has high resolution which is
only limited by the electron beam diameter.
As SE1 is generated by near surface atoms so this
kind of secondary electron is independent of Vacc
.
Introduction
Secondary electron
secondary electron detector
SE2:
The secondary electrons that are
generated by the backscattered
electrons have returned to the
surface after several inelastic
scattering events
SE2 come from a surface area
which is bigger than the spot of
the incoming electrons , also
bigger than surface area of SE1.
Therefore resolution is less than
resolution of SE1 exclusively.
Introduction
Secondary electron
secondary electron detector
SE3:
The generator of this kind is the SE2 that enters the lens surface
and get scattered. Thus, it will result in a decrease of resolution.
Introduction
Secondary electron
secondary electron detector
Factors that affect Secondary Electron emission:
1- Atomic number (Z)
•
More SE2 are created with
increasing Z
Introduction
Secondary electron
secondary electron detector
2- Beam energy and beam current
•
Electron yield goes through a
maximum at low acc.
voltage, then decreases with
increasing acc. voltage
Introduction
Secondary electron
secondary electron detector
3- The most important factor is the local
curvature of the surface.
If we have a edge more secondary
electron can be emitted from specific
spot.
Introduction
Secondary electron
secondary electron detector
How do we get an image?!
156 electrons!
288
electrons!
Detector
Image
Introduction
Secondary electron
secondary electron detector
Everhart-Thornley Detector
• Secondary electrons (SE) are
attracted to Faraday cage because
of its positive charge.
• Detector surface inside faraday cage
(+12kV) accelerates electrons.
• Scintillator layer gives off photons
when struck by electrons.
• Light travels down the light tube
(LG) and hits photocathode and
converted back to electrons.
Introduction
Secondary electron
secondary electron detector
Photomultiplier Tube:
– It’s Entrance is coated with
photocathode which has low work
function, absorbs photons from
scintillator and emits low-E
photoelectrons.
– SE repeatedly accelerated
towards N successive dynodes
biased at ~+100 V positive
with respect to the last, producing
more excess SE. (total increase can
be as high as 106).
Introduction
Secondary electron
secondary electron detector
This amplification or gain, is controlled by the contrast control on the SEM. An
increase in contrast is seen as a selective increase in the highlights of the image,
rather then the shadows.
The brightness of the image is controlled by the preamplifier or brightness control. In
this case, both highlights and shadow areas of the image are amplified by the same
amount.
Introduction
Secondary electron
secondary electron detector
Signal to noise ratio:
Signal-to-noise ratio is defined as the power ratio between a signal and the
background noise:
Therefore, it would be a good way to measure image quality.
Introduction
Secondary electron
secondary electron detector
Factors that affect quality of image:
1. backscattered electrons that have low energy cannot escape Faraday
electric field and their absorption will generate a noise signal in our
output.
2. Electrical circuitries such as amplifier that are used in our detector
produce noise that affects our output .
3.
In the diagram , as the beam scans from left
to right, areas marked (B) will be bright
because they are scanned by the beam and
in the line of sight of the detector. Areas
marked (I) are intermediate in brightness
because they are out of the line of sight of
the detector.
Introduction
Secondary electron
secondary electron detector
Regions D will be dark because they are not scanned with the beam at all.
Tilting the specimen will alter the specimen topography relative to the beam and
detector and may enhance or reduce image quality.
Introduction
Secondary electron
secondary electron detector

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