Chapter 9 Nutrition, Exercise, and Weight Management Introduction Healthful diet and regular exercise help people live longer, happier, more capable lives. Poor eating habits and lack.

Chapter 9
Nutrition, Exercise,
and Weight Management
Healthful diet and regular exercise help
people live longer, happier, more capable
Poor eating habits and lack of exercise
exact a great toll: 400,000 deaths a year.
Six Groups of Nutrients
1. Carbohydrates
2. Proteins
3. Fats
4. Vitamins
5. Minerals
6. Water
Nutrition and Healthful Eating
A nutritious diet should include all 6 nutrients, with an
emphasis on:
Complex rather than simple carbohydrates
Focus on fruits, vegetables, and whole grains
Reduced amounts of saturated fat, sodium and sugars
Limited (but sufficient) number of daily calories
Or, in the words of Michael Pollan: “Eat food. Not too much.
Mostly plants.”
Nutrition and Healthful Eating
Grains (and Starches): Fuel for the Body
Eat fewer simple carbohydrates
(sugars, white bread, white rice, refined pasta)…
…and more (ideally ½ or more of total carbs) of complex
carbohydrates (brown rice, whole wheat bread and pasta,
oatmeal, etc.)
Fruits and Vegetables
Almost all Americans could benefit by eating more fruits
and vegetables.
A good rule of thumb: fruits and vegetables should
make up about ½ of a balanced diet.
Benefits: low in calories and sodium; contain fiber,
vitamins, and minerals; contain little fat (and if they do
have fat, it’s usually unsaturated)
Proteins: Providing the building blocks
for the body
Vary your sources of
protein for the most
benefit (more seafood
and vegetable-based
sources of protein;
fewer sources of red
meat and cheese)
Dairy Products
• Provide calcium, protein, and other
• Look for low-fat sources: dairy products,
like beef and pork, naturally can be high
in saturated fats.
• An essential part of a
nutritious diet*
• Unsaturated (liquid at
room temperature) fats
lower the risk for heart
• Saturated fats (solid at
room temperature)
increase the risk for heart
*Fats are naturally high in calories, so
a moderate daily consumption is best.
Trans fats: Greatly increase
the risk for heart disease
Essential for Every Body System
• Body = 50% to 70% H2O
• Loss of 2% to 5% of the body’s
water supply = dehydration
Vitamins: Organic compounds needed in small
• Fat-soluble = A, D, E, K
• Water-soluble = B complex, C
• Folate (folic acid)
• Antioxidants and phytochemicals
Minerals: Inorganic compounds needed in small
• Macrominerals = calcium, chloride, magnesium,
phosphorous, potassium, sodium
• Calcium and iron are important to women
Nutrition Facts Label
Exercise and Fitness
Benefits of regular physical activity
• Reduces the risk of early death
• Reduces risk of developing coronary heart
disease, stroke, and breast, lung, and colon
• Reduces the risk of developing type 2 diabetes,
osteoporosis, and depression
• Lowers high blood pressure and cholesterol
• Improves aerobic capacity, muscle strength, and
muscle endurance
Exercise and Fitness
• Can reduce symptoms of depression and
increase cognitive functioning
• For older adults, improves ability to complete
day-to-day tasks, reduces the risk of falls, and
improves mental cognition
• Helps maintain healthy muscles, joints, and
• Helps control weight, build muscle, and
reduce body fat
• Can reduce symptoms and severity of
diabetes and arthritis
• Improves mood and quality of sleep.
Exercise and fitness
Physical inactivity is a major public health
problem in the United States!
Most Americans do not get enough
physical activity to receive significant
Exercise: How Much Is Needed?
• Any physical activity provides
some benefits.
• Good benefits come with 2.5
hours of moderate-intensity or
1.25 hours of high intensity
activity per week.
• Greater benefits come from 300
minutes of
moderateintensity activity or 150 minutes
of high-intensity activity (or
Components of Physical Fitness
• Cardiovascular endurance
• Muscular strength
• Muscular endurance
• Flexibility
• Body composition
Total Fitness
Strength training and
aerobic exercise both
provide benefits.
Together, they
complement each
other—building muscle
mass and strengthening
the heart.
Gender Gaps: Women vs. Men
Physical differences in muscle size
• Women are half as strong in upper body areas,
two-thirds as strong in lower body and legs
• Smaller muscle fiber areas, but individual muscle
fibers are the same strength
• Higher percentage of body fat
• Lower blood volume, smaller hearts, less lung
Gender Gaps: Women vs. Men
Cultural differences in athleticism and
exercise habits
• Women traditionally not encouraged to
exercise, whereas men are.
• Until Title IX, funding for men’s
activities dwarfed women’s funding.
• Boys are encouraged to excel; girls are
taught to fit in.
Exercise Myths
• Exercise increases the appetite.
• Exercising special spots will reduce local areas
of fat.
• No pain, no gain.
• Lifting weights gives women a masculine, bulky
• The more sweat produced, the more fat lost.
• Exercise is not good for trimming down because
weight is gained in muscle.
• Women cannot perform well athletically while
Exercise and Aging
Changes associated with aging
that can be prevented or
minimized with exercise:
Higher body fat
Lower lean body weight
Decreased muscle strength
Decreased flexibility
Decreased bone mass
Lower metabolism
Slower reaction times
Exercise Abuse
Athletic amenorrhea
• Excessive exercise and abnormally low ratio of
body fat to body weight stops menstruation
Female athlete triad
• Disordered eating + amenorrhea + osteoporosis
Anabolic steroids
• Synthetic derivatives of male hormone
testosterone to increase muscle and lean body
Maintaining a Healthy Weight
Weight Gain
Caloric Input > Caloric Output
• Genetic
• Metabolic
Overweight = BMI 25–29.9
• Behavioral
• Environmental
• Cultural
• Socio-Economic
Obese = BMI >30
Overweight and Obesity
• Increasing across age groups, genders, and
• Nearly twice as many overweight children and
three times as many overweight adolescents than
in 1980
• 65.1% adults are overweight; 4.9% are obese
• 16% of U.S. children are overweight; 31% are at
risk of soon becoming overweight
• Resulting health problems: diabetes,
hypertension, coronary heart disease, certain
cancers, gout, gallbladder disease, certain
arthritic conditions
Obesity in the U.S.
Source: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2011). Behavioral Risk Factor
Surveillance System.
Economic Dimensions
• Obesity’s annual cost = $150 billion
– Direct medical costs: treatment of illnesses
– Indirect medical costs: lost productivity,
premature disability, early death
• Americans spend more than $60 billion a year
trying to lose weight. 70 million people are trying
to lose weight, and 95% of them are
How Women Can Maintain a Healthy Weight
Healthful strategies for weight loss/management
• Caloric input < caloric output
• Increase BMR via exercise
• Balanced, nutritious diet (with all six nutrients consumed
• Reasonable goals; aiming for long-term results
Unhealthful strategies
• Yo-yo dieting
• Diet pills
• Fad diets
• Hunger or starvation
• Unrealistic goals; aiming for the short term
A few additional words about obesity,
overweight and overall health…
• “Overweight” does not always mean
• If you are “overweight,” getting regular
exercise, and eating a nutritious diet,
you are probably more healthy than a
person who weighs less but does not
have those healthful habits.
Eating Disorders
Eating disorders are serious mental illnesses,
with distinct signs, symptoms, and effects
on the body.
The most common eating disorders include:
• Anorexia nervosa
• Bulimia nervosa
• Binge eating disorder (BED)
Global Perspectives
• Hunger
• Malnutrition
• Undernutrition
• Overnutrition
• Protein-energy malnutrition (PEM)
• Vitamin A deficiency (VAD)
• Iron deficiency
• Iodine deficiency disorders (IDD)
What are some ways to improve nutrition,
eating habits, and exercise patterns for
• You individually?
• This class?
• This college?
• This country?

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