Open Space Strategies and LDFs Andy McNab SHELL PODIUM SITE LAMBETH  Prominent location  Fine views  On a main pedestrian route  In an area of identified deficiency.

Report
Open Space Strategies and
LDFs
Andy McNab
SHELL PODIUM
SITE LAMBETH
 Prominent
location
 Fine views
 On a main
pedestrian route
 In an area of
identified
deficiency
SHELL PODIUM
SITE, LAMBETH
 Not shown as
open space in the
UDP
 Measures in place
to address
deficiency
 Private ownership,
access could be
limited
 Low quality
 Few facilities
CABE SPACE

“Policies related to development
planning should be incorporated into
statutory development plan documents
and the strategy adopted as
supplementary planning guidance.”
Greenspace Strategies – A Good Practice Guide – CABE SPACE –
May 2004
PPG 17

“Well-designed and implemented
planning policies for open space, sport
and recreation are therefore
fundamental to delivering broader
Government objectives.”
PPG17
KEY CONCERNS

Most authorities will require policies
on:






Protection and enhancement
Re-location
Redevelopment
New provision to fill gaps
New provision to meet the demands of
new development
and
Local standards of provision
ISSUES
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
Defining open space
Developing protective policies
Defining criteria for redevelopment
Setting local standards
Using planning obligations
Integrating SEA/SA
1. DEFINING OPEN SPACE –
GUIDANCE
Statutory Definition
 “….land laid out as a public garden, or used
for the purposes of public recreation, or
land which is a disused burial ground.
Town and Country Planning Act 1990
1. DEFINING OPEN SPACE –
GUIDANCE
PPG 17
 “….all open space of public value
….which offer important opportunities
for sport and recreation and can also
act as a visual amenity.”
PPG 17 –Annex 1- July 2002
1. DEFINING OPEN SPACE –
GUIDANCE
PPG 17 Typology










Parks and gardens
Natural and semi-natural urban
greenspaces
Green corridors
Outdoor sports facilities
Amenity greenspace
Provision for children and teenagers
Allotments, gardens and city farms
Cemeteries and churchyards
Accessible countryside in urban fringe
areas
Civic spaces
1. DEFINING OPEN SPACE ISSUES




How should LDF define open space?
Should LDF identify and enumerate all
open spaces?
Should LDF identify ownership?
Should LDF include a typology?
1. DEFINING OPEN SPACE –
GOOD PRACTICE
Sutton Draft Open Space Strategy:


PPG 17 definition
Typology based on primary
purpose/accessibility/size
1. DEFINING OPEN SPACE –
GOOD PRACTICE
1. DEFINING OPEN SPACE –
GOOD PRACTICE
2. DEFINING PROTECTIVE
POLICIES - GUIDANCE
PPG 17
 “Open space and sports and
recreational facilities that are of high
quality, or of particular value to a local
community, should be recognised and
given protection by local authorities
through appropriate policies in plans.”
PPG 17 – Para. 11 - July 2002
2. DEFINING PROTECTIVE
POLICIES - GUIDANCE
PPG 17

“Areas of particular quality may include:
i. Small areas of open space in urban
areas….
ii. Areas of open space that provide a
community resource….
iii. Areas of open space that particularly
benefit wildlife and biodiversity.”
PPG 17 – Para. 11 - July 2002
2. DEFINING PROTECTIVE
POLICIES - GUIDANCE
PPG 17 Companion Guide:

“…the highest level of protection by the
planning system (should be afforded to
those which are):
i. Critically important in avoiding
deficiencies in accessibility, quality or
quantity and scored highly in the value
assessment; or
ii. Of particular nature conservation,
historical or cultural value.”
Assessing Needs and Opportunities: PPG 17 Companion
Guide – Chapter 8 - July 2002
2. DEFINING PROTECTIVE
POLICIES - ISSUES


Are different levels of protection
appropriate for different open spaces?
Should all open space be protected
with an exceptions policy?
2. DEFINING PROTECTIVE
POLICIES – GOOD
PRACTICE
Southwark Council UDP/SPG
 Metropolitan Open Land


Borough Open Land
Other Open Space
3. DEFINING CRITERIA FOR
REDEVELOPMENT GUIDANCE
PPG 17 tests:
 Demonstrably surplus to requirements
 Developers will need to “consult the


public and demonstrate that their
proposals are widely supported by
them”
Poor quality not necessarily a criterion
for redevelopment
Under-use not necessarily a criterion for
redevelopment
PPG 17 July 2002
3. DEFINING CRITERIA FOR
REDEVELOPMENT –
ISSUES
 What are the key criteria to be fulfilled
in order to allow the release of an open
space for development?
4. SETTING LOCAL
STANDARDS - GUIDANCE
PPG 17
 “Local standards should include:
 quantitative elements (how much


provision may be needed)
a qualitative component (against which
to measure the need for enhancement of
facilities)
accessibility (including distance
thresholds and consideration of the
cost of using the facility).”
PPG 17 – Para. 7 - July 2002
4. SETTING LOCAL
STANDARDS - ISSUES
 Is an overall quantitative standard
appropriate or are different quantitative
standards needed for different areas?
 Should quality standards be included
in LDFs?
 How should accessibility standards be
expressed in LDFs?
4. SETTING LOCAL
STANDARDS - GOOD
PRACTICE
Tower Hamlets Core Strategy:
 “The Council will seek to protect,
increase and improve the provision
of all types of open spaces in the
Borough, to a standard of 1.2
hectares per 1000 population, and
improve accessibility to, between
and within open spaces.”
4. SETTING LOCAL
STANDARDS – GOOD
PRACTICE
Local Authority
Standard
Fareham
2.4ha/1000 pop.
Sutton
2.88ha/1000 pop.
Tower Hamlets
1.2ha/1000 pop.
4. SETTING LOCAL
STANDARDS – GOOD
PRACTICE
5. USING PLANNING
OBLIGATIONS - GUIDANCE
PPG 17:
 “Planning obligations should be used
as a means to remedy local
deficiencies in the quantity or quality of
open space, sports and recreation
provision.”
PPG 17 – Para. 33 - July 2002
5. USING PLANNING
OBLIGATIONS - ISSUES
 In what circumstances should
provision or a contribution be sought?
 What should be the level of
contribution?
 How should future management be
assured?
5. USING PLANNING
OBLIGATIONS – GOOD
PRACTICE
Sutton Council:
 “Developments of 10 or more
residential units in areas of open space
deficiency will be required to provide
open space on site, or contribute
towards the provision or enhancement
of open space off site.”
5. USING PLANNING
OBLIGATIONS – GOOD
PRACTICE
Sutton Council:
 “Developments of 25 or more
residential units in areas where there is
no identified deficiency of open space,
will be required to make a contribution
towards the enhancement of public
open space off site ate a rate of 50% of
the full cost of
provision/enhancement.”
5. USING PLANNING
OBLIGATIONS – GOOD
PRACTICE
Sutton Council:
 Provision 18.3m2 per person (derived
from 1.83 ha per 1000 population)
 Cost of providing open space £10 per
square metre (derived from Sport
England/Milton Keynes/English
Partnerships pilot project 2004)
 Three bed house (average occupancy
2.8) Cost per unit £500
 Council will not normally adopt and
maintain
Consultation Draft Planning Obligations – SPD - 2006
5. USING PLANNING
OBLIGATIONS – GOOD
PRACTICE
Fareham Council:
 Only applicable where development will
exacerbate or create a deficit in
provision
 Three bed house
 Cost per unit : £2351.88
 Maintenance contribution : £1464.20
Supplementary Planning Guidance – Open Space – Revised
April 2006
6. INTEGRATING SEA/SA ISSUES
 SEA/SA is normally necessary for SPDs
 SEA/SA requires consideration of
alternatives
 Therefore should SEA/SA be integrated
into Open Space Strategy preparation?
CAUTIONARY
CONCLUSION
Lichfield Core Strategy:
 No PPG 17 assessment (evidence base
insufficient)
 Amended policy not subject to
consultation or sustainability appraisal
 Policy and strategy withdrawn

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