Process vs. Project

Process vs. Project
Tony Raymond, CBPP
Chicago Chapter
February 21, 2014
About Tony Raymond, CBPP
• Career started in 1996
• 15 years in PM-related work
• Taught classes in, SDLC, MS
Office, MS Project and PMP
• 4 years with Accenture (SAP
• Lifelong learner and teacher
PMP in 2002
MBA in 2008
CBPP in 2010
CQM/OE in 2014 (hopefully)
• Focus areas include
management, change
management, and business
process improvement
• Clients have included…
AT&T Broadband
BMO Harris
Kraft Foods
Why are we talking about this?
Business Process
PMs are living in an increasingly processdriven world that involve large strategic
BPM Professionals are being asked to
manage projects and expectations from
multiple stakeholder groups
CM Professionals are expected to integrate
their change plans with PM and BPM
“BPM is the harbinger of change. Change is a significant
part of BPM and a serious subject to anyone who hopes
to limit acceptance-risk in a project. BPM affects
people’s professional lives by directly changing what
they do and how they do it. BPM solutions are almost
always based on the introduction of new practices, new
rules, new tools, and new roles and responsibilities.” BPM CBOK v3.0, p. 276.
“In a well-planned and managed BPM change program,
the business managers and staff who will be affected
(within the project scope) will be engaged in the project
and its change management activities at a very early
stage in the project’s lifecycle.” - BPM CBOK v3.0, p.
“…it is recommended that practitioners familiarize
themselves with the basic principles of change
management and incorporate them into the overall
process program. In addition to change management,
an overall structure for project and program
management should also be incorporated.” - BPM CBOK
v3.0, p. 354.
What do you call it?
Activity 1
Activity 2
Activity 3
1. The combination of activities 1, 2, and 3 deliver a product.
2. Activity 1 is triggered by an external activity not shown here.
3. All activities are recurring activities.
4. Activity 2 could be done off-site
So, is this a process or a project?
Product or
“A combination of all the activities and support needed
to produce and deliver an objective, outcome, product
or service regardless of where the activity is
performed.” - BPM CBOK v3.0, p.160.
“Processes are a set of functions in a certain sequence
that delivers value to a customer. They are started by
clearly defined external events. They are formed from
a combination of all the activities and support that are
needed to produce and deliver an objective, outcome,
product or service — regardless of where the activity
is performed. These activities are usually a crossfunctional, cross organization aggregation of activities
that work together to create an end product or
service. Activities are shown in the context of their
relationship with one another to provide a picture of
sequence and flow.” – BPM CBOK v3.0, p. 265
Product or
“A temporary endeavor undertaken to create
a unique product or service.” – PMBOK, 3rd
• Have a definite beginning and end
• Create a product, service or result that is
different from similar products/services.
• Are progressively elaborated distinguishing characteristics of each
unique project will be progressively
detailed as the project is better
Seems pretty clear, right?
Business Process Management at a glance
"Business Process Management (BPM) is a
disciplined approach to identify, design, execute,
document, measure, monitor, and control both
automated and non-automated business
processes to achieve consistent, targeted results
aligned with an organization’s strategic goals.”
• BPM involves the deliberate, collaborative and
increasingly technology-aided definition,
improvement, innovation, and management of end-toend business processes that drive business results,
create value, and enable an organization to meet its
business objectives with more agility.
• BPM enables an enterprise to align its business
processes to its business strategy, leading to effective
overall company performance through improvements
of specific work activities either within a specific
department, across the enterprise, or between
1. Guide to the CBOK
2. Business Process Management
3. Process Modeling
4. Process Analysis
5. Process Design
6. Process Performance Management
7. Process Transformation
8. Process Organization
9. Enterprise Process Management
10. BPM Technologies
Deming’s PDCA Process Lifecycle
“The organization of the [CBOK] promotes not only a general reading, but also its use as a reference that helps the
reader address different aspects of BPM projects. Because it is a compendium of knowledge and experience on
BPM and business change, it should be consulted as needed for focusing on different areas at different phases in a
project.” - Tony Benedict, ABPMP President’s Note in BPM CBOK v3.0, p. v.
Project Management at a glance
Project Management is the application of knowledge, skills,
tools, and techniques to project activities in order to meet
project requirements. It is divided into 9 knowledge areas.
“As with all projects, formal project management is critical to
success. This vital part of delivering a successful change is itself
a specialized skill…formal, focused project planning and
management is important for the successful execution of a
process redesign or initial design, and we urge that
management controls be used to help promote success. For
project management hints and assistance, readers are advised
to contact the Project Management Institute.” - BPM CBOK
v3.0, p. 160.
PMI’s Project
5 Process Groups (PMBOK 3rd Ed.)
1. Initiating Process Group
2. Planning Process Group
3. Executing Process Group
4. Monitoring & Controlling Process Group
5. Closing Process Group
9 Knowledge Areas (PMBOK 3rd Ed.)
1. Project Integration Management
2. Project Scope Management
3. Project Time Management
4. Project Cost Management
5. Project Quality Management
6. Project Human Resource Management
7. Project Communication Management
8. Project Risk Management
9. Project Procurement Management
There are 44 documented
processes in these 5
process groups!
So, the worlds of BPM and PM
are interwoven somehow…
BPM and Projects
“Likewise, there seem to be two major approaches:
those that are more project-oriented versus those that
view BPM as a continuous process improvement and
transformation effort. These different models generate
roles and responsibilities with widely varying titles and
alignments of responsibilities, yet all are processmanagement focused.” -Brett Champlin, Preface in BPM
CBOK v3.0, p. xiv.
BPM and EPM can result from initiatives
or projects. Have you seen this happen
at an organization? What went well and
what didn’t?
“Managing business processes in aggregate through the
“Do” Phase of the PDCA Lifecycle usually involves the
development of capabilities to support Detailed Process
Design, Build, and Deployment. For example, (a)
Portfolio Management to sequence, initiate, and
manage the execution of large portfolios of businesscentric and technology-centric initiatives driven from
Transformation Planning, (b) Project Management to
manage individual business-centric and technologycentric initiatives underneath project portfolios….” BPM CBOK v3.0, p. 62.
Do you see any potential conflict that
may arise when PM and BPM
practitioners start working together and
come from these two different
approaches? How can we bridge this
divide? What have you seen work?
“BPM can also mean a holistic system as the outcome of
initiatives or projects. This result, called Enterprise
Process Management (EPM), includes the strategy,
values and culture, structures and roles, and a whole set
of end-to-end processes with their associated goals and
indicators, IT, and people.” - BPM CBOK v3.0, p. 36.
Portfolio Management and Project
Management are seen as capabilities
under the “Do” Phase of the PDCA
Lifecycle. What are the benefits or
challenges with this model?
Process Modelling and Projects
“Modeling tools vary in the number and types of
components (and information) they can capture, which
affects the type and level of process performance
analysis you can perform. Process modeling projects
frequently grow in scope and complexity. Because of
this, selecting a more powerful tool than required at the
beginning of a modeling project often makes the most
sense.” – BPM CBOK v3.0, p. 90.
Have you seen process model
frameworks used well in BPM projects?
What are the pros and cons of these
frameworks? How can they help a
project team in communicating with key
“When approaching a modeling challenge, the team
may choose to model from top-down, bottom-up, or
from the middle, depending on preference and project
requirements. Information capture techniques can vary
widely among projects…” – BPM CBOK v3.0, p. 124.
What are the challenges with a growing
scope and complexity from a project
management perspective? Shouldn’t
we want to gather as much detail as
wanted or needed to improve the
“Some enterprise process modeling projects start by
using one or more process model frameworks to create
a “straw enterprise model.” The “straw enterprise
process model” provides a springboard for vetting or
changing by executive management. Conversely, some
enterprise process modeling projects begin with the
executive and functional management’s point of view
and then benchmark the enterprise process model
against the process model frameworks.” – BPM CBOK
v3.0, p. 114.
Have you been involved in a process
modelling project where the requirements
weren’t clear? If so, which approach did
you start with (e.g. top-down)? What were
some capture techniques that you have
used to develop process models?
Projects and Process Analysis
“Business Process Management (BPM) is a committed
part of an overall business strategy, rather than a single
activity that is completed in the context of a single
project.” –BPM CBOK v3.0, p. 132.
Have you been on a process
improvement project that didn’t allow
enough time and priority to be
successful? What were the reasons
behind the rush? How about the other
extreme – analysis paralysis? Have you
seen it done right where just enough
time was dedicated to the project?
“Often, resources assigned to improvement projects
have other mission-critical responsibilities within the
organization. Although it is wise to get the most
knowledgeable individuals on the process analysis team,
these individuals may not be able to dedicate
themselves sufficiently to keep the project moving
forward.” - BPM CBOK v3.0, p. 152.
Have you ever been on a BPM project
that was treated as an isolated activity
rather than a part of an overall business
strategy? What was the result?
“As in any project, process improvement projects often
fail because of a lack of time and priority placed on the
project. On the other hand, taking too long for the
analysis phase of a complex project is one of the more
common pit falls. Balancing the inventory of processes
and sub-processes involved and ensuring the process
team will get the proper time commitment from the
business units is the responsibility of the project team
leader.” –BPM CBOK v3.0, p. 133-4.
Can you relate to this one? What can you
do when the SME has limited availability
and other priorities are pulling at their
time. Have you seen any other
alternatives that worked around the
resource constraints?
Projects and Process Design
“For this reason, it is strongly recommended that any
BPM project begin with the identification of standards
that must be used and the creation of project-specific
standards that are needed to provide consistency
among the products produced by different team
members.” - BPM CBOK v3.0, p. 168.
Have you ever started a BPM project
without the proper standards in place?
What were the challenges? How did the
project team overcome these
Do you agree that the method used to
design process should be suitable to the
complexity, scope, importance, and
benefit of the project? Ever been on a
project where the methods didn’t fit?
What happened?
“Further, to avoid overhead, the method followed
should be customizable to each project and reflect the
complexity, scope, importance, and benefit of the
project. This method will then be used to guide project
planning and be merged with the company’s approach
to project management, in order to provide a focused
project plan.” - BPM CBOK v3.0, p. 170.
“This presumes that (at least) at the project level, the
project manager will begin the project by defining the
deliverables and then setting internal standards for data
collection, interviews, models, etc. Of course, if
company standards exist to address this issue of
consistency, they will need to be followed. –BPM CBOK
v3.0, p. 174.
Have you ever been on a project where
the deliverables weren’t defined? What
are the risks of moving forward without
standards for data collection, interviews,
and models?
Projects and Process Design (cont)
“It is recommended that the project team also view this
current information from a strategic perspective. The
reason is that information collection is generally
project-focused; it is often not meant to have a life
beyond the project, or it simply cannot be maintained
and becomes out of date. Project-level content should
be used to support the eventual creation of the
Enterprise Business Model. Doing so removes the
overhead of creating this whole model as a project in
itself.” - BPM CBOK v3.0, p. 176.
Why is determining dependencies
between change projects important?
Have you ever seen a program/project
manager fail to define the relationships
between change projects? What was
the result?
“A great many good projects fail because the teams do
not pay enough attention to managing the change and
its acceptability to the business user…Some companies
have responded to this need to win staff acceptance of
change by forming formal change management groups
and standards for dealing with change in both business
and IT projects.” - BPM CBOK v3.0, p. 194.
Have you ever seen a project collect
information regarding a process only to
have it shelved after the process is
closed? Why was this done? What can
be done to ensure that it is included in
the Enterprise Business Model?
“Formally defining the relationships between change
projects allows executive management to look at
project funding differently and facilitates a type of
program management that coordinates the activity
between projects and between initiatives to ensure that
the goals of any strategy are met.” - BPM CBOK v3.0, p.
Do you have any examples of projects
where business and IT stakeholders
were involved in the design, but weren’t
on-board with the changes? Did the
team know? How did they handle the
news? What could the project team
have done to increase acceptance?
Projects and Process Performance Management
“Project Metrics: Describe project characteristics and
execution. Examples include resources allocation, cost,
time, and productivity.” - BPM CBOK v3.0, p. 236.
What does a successful BPM project look
like? On-time, within-budget, productivity
increased, or project resources not overallocated? Would your project sponsors
answer differently?
Why do you think the accuracy of
project schedule estimation is so
important? What aspects of schedule
estimation may skew the results? Have
you used a similar set of metrics? How
did it go?
“An application encompassing the definitions of
measurement, metric, and indicator is when project
schedule estimation is assessed for accuracy. Two
important measures to determine the accuracy of
project schedule estimation are Actual Project Duration
and Estimated Project Duration.” - BPM CBOK v3.0, p.
“The ABC method makes indirect expenses direct. It
provides activity frequency and cost information for
comparing activities before and after process
improvement. It reveals what will happen if a project is
not carried out (the do-nothing scenario) and which
processes provide value (are needed to attract and
retain clients or will result in operational savings).” BPM CBOK v3.0, p. 237.
Have you ever used the ABC method
to determine the cost of activities that
were lower value? Were the results
used to build a business case for a
BPM project? Was the process
measured after changes were made?
Were the anticipated savings realized?
Is it improvement or a transformation?
“Business Process Improvement (BPI) is a singular
initiative or project to improve the alignment and
performance of a particular process with the
organizational strategy and customer expectations. BPI
includes the selection, analysis, design, and
implementation of the (improved) process.” - BPM
CBOK v3.0, p. 36.
Have you seen this happen? Do the
improvements stick? Why are
transformations more sustainable than
isolated BPM improvement projects?
“As noted, transformation involves a much greater
change than improvement. As such, improvement
becomes part of transformation and is applied to every
aspect of the transformation project.” - BPM CBOK v3.0,
p. 268.
What are the limitations of BPIs? Have you
ever worked on a BPI project that involved
all the stages listed? Did the scope of the
BPI change significantly from selection to
“…although companies use various approaches to
tackle process improvement projects, they often end
up with departmental processes that do the same
thing as before—just better or faster. As a result, there
is a need to shift from isolated BPM improvementfocused
transformation programs.” –Craig Le Clair, Foreword to
Chapter 3 of BPM CBOK v3.0, p. 84.
Have you ever been on a process
“improvement” project, but it really was a
transformation initiative? How about a
process “transformation” project that was
really an improvement project? Why wasn’t
it labelled correctly? What happened?
Projects and Process Transformation
“This linking of process transformation to business
capability and strategy is often given too little attention
in transformation project planning and execution…This
sets the foundation for the transformation. At this point
the project manager will be able to identify high-level
goals and how the business needs to change to meet
them. He or she will not, however, know what changes
will be made or the details.” - BPM CBOK v3.0, p. 270.
Why is it important to have someone who
has experience specific to transformations
and not specific to an industry or a
company? Have you seen how this
experience helps in the transformation
delivery and avoiding serious missteps?
“Transformation will also change the culture of the
business or the part of the business that is transformed.
This level of change must be backed by management at
all levels—including the executive level, which will need
to define the new culture and determine how to create
it. If this involvement or other types of backing fail, the
project will not be more than partially successful.” BPM CBOK v3.0, p. 272.
Why is it so important for a process
transformation to be connected to a
business capability and strategy? What are
the risks if this is not done?
“Unlike improvement, which can happen in a focused
way to solve a problem, a broader‐based use of BPM to
support transformation requires the guidance of a
transformation‐level projects. This skill is not
industry‐specific and not‐company specific. It is, rather,
transformation experience‐specific. This is important in
delivering flexibility and improving control over the
business operation without serious missteps. - BPM
CBOK v3.0, p. 272.
Why is executive-level support of
transformational change important? Can
culture be created or changed? Have you
seen a partially successful transformation?
Fully successful one?
Projects and Process Transformation (cont)
“The transformation team should expect the executive
committee to remove obstacles to their success. As
issues are raised, it is important for continuity and
momentum that they be addressed and resolved in a
timely manner. The tough issues will be brought to the
project’s executive sponsor and, if necessary, to the
executive committee. The expectation is that the
obstacle will be removed — the issue resolved. When
this doesn’t happen, the estimates and project schedule
will become inaccurate and eventually meaningless.” BPM CBOK v3.0, p. 273.
Have you ever witnessed mid-level
managers doing this? Have you seen the
executive sponsor take timely and
appropriate action to stop the sabotage?
“The project team must keep in mind the key
stakeholders’ motivations and concerns: what is in the
change for them?…The project managers must use
discretion and understanding when addressing these
real obstacles, but they must be addressed and
removed.” - BPM CBOK v3.0, p. 281.
Why is risk and issue management so
important on a process transformation?
What can happen if the escalation procedure
isn’t followed properly? Have you ever been
on a project when issues have been
escalated and the sponsor didn’t take timely
and/or appropriate remediation steps. Are
schedule delays the only thing at risk?
“Some [mid-level managers], in fact, may feign interest
and work behind the scenes to kill the project
(unfortunately, this is fairly common). This is where the
executive project sponsor comes in. Any form of
passive-aggressive behavior or sabotage cannot be
tolerated and must be stopped.” - BPM CBOK v3.0, p.
Have you seen project teams document and
track change adoption among key
stakeholders? How was discretion and
understanding used to remove obstacles?
What was the outcome?
Projects and Process Transformation (cont)
“Involving a great many of the staff for short periods
and asking for their opinions is considered by some of
the more traditional project managers to be
unnecessary. We disagree…Only by involving many of
the people can these concerns be overcome. Involving
the key stakeholders early and communicating often in
small increments is a key success factor in any significant
change initiative.” - BPM CBOK v3.0, p. 281-2.
Have you had to work in a company culture
where broad involvement was not
encouraged? How did the transformation
team build remediation steps into the plan?
How did you anticipate, monitor, and
manage these tasks?
“The project sponsor is the main stakeholder, but not
the only one in a BPM transformation or improvement
project. Clearly all business and IT managers who will be
part of the projects are key stakeholders; so are finance
(SOX, Dodd Frank) and legal, so are the employees
(HR/union contracts) etc.” - BPM CBOK v3.0, p. 282.
Why do you think that involving key
stakeholders early and often runs counter to
more traditional project management
approaches? What does “small increments”
mean? Why might these smaller “bites”
contribute to better change adoption?
“If this broad involvement approach is not acceptable in
a given company culture, the project team will need to
build remediation steps into the project plan….The best
way to address these factors is to anticipate, monitor,
and manage them as specific tasks in the project plan.” BPM CBOK v3.0, p. 282.
Are these the typical key stakeholders in a
BPM project, based on what you have seen?
Which ones would you include?
Projects and Process Transformation (cont)
“…for those who truly act as road blocks to success,
mitigation steps must be designed with the project
sponsor and, if necessary, discussed with executive
management. If this cannot be turned around, the
project may need to be adjusted and a new scope or
deliverable defined. In this way, even if there are some
who will not really back the project (with time, priority,
access to staff or data, signoff, etc.), the project will
continue.” - BPM CBOK v3.0, p. 283.
How might the productivity of a project
team be impacted by key stakeholders?
What can happen when the key stakeholders
aren’t sufficiently involved?
“The approach to managing the project’s change
requirement will be iterative and will change as the
project is performed, based on continued interaction
and the project manager’s assessment. By analyzing the
result of the assessment, the project manager can
prioritize the key stakeholders and develop a change
plan that will take them to the desired level of
acceptance.” - BPM CBOK v3.0, p. 284.
Have you had to design mitigation steps with
the project sponsor? What were they? Did
they address the road blocks? Have you had
to adjust project scope or the deliverable
due to resistance? What were the
indications of poor support (time, priority,
access to staff or data, signoff, or something
“To make sure you make the most of the project-team’s
time, the BPM transformation project manager needs to
focus on
Involving those ‘key’ stakeholders that have the highest
potential to make or break the change.” - BPM CBOK
v3.0, p. 284.
What do you think it means when it says
that the “change requirement will be
iterative and change as the project is
performed”? What are the risks of having a
moving target? How does a PM prioritize
key stakeholders?
Projects and Process Transformation (cont)
“…change management will take on a different
emphasis through enhanced business staff involvement
in the project and in moving to continuous
improvement. This change in transformation-project
approach will require a commitment to training, and
obtaining experienced transformation experts to act as
mentors.” - BPM CBOK v3.0, p. 285.
Have you ever been involved in a
transformation project that was not fully
aligned with vision, mission or goals? Did
the project leadership communicate the
transformation vision well? What was the
“The project team, following sound changemanagement practices, will need to establish a sense of
urgency in the business managers and the staff. It is
also recommended that the project sponsor clearly set
the stage for those affected to gain something, instead
of lose something.” - BPM CBOK v3.0, p. 286.
How do you think “enhanced staff
involvement” will impact the emphasis on
change management? Why is training and
mentoring important as the transformation
project comes to a close?
“Any transformation should be aligned with company
vision, mission, and goals. Going further, management
should also have a clear separate vision for the
transformation project—what the new business
operation will look like and how it will perform.” - BPM
CBOK v3.0, p. 286.
How does a project team create a sense of
urgency? How might this be misinterpreted
by the business managers and staff? What
are some ways that a project sponsor can
highlight the benefits of a transformation?
Projects and Process Transformation (cont)
“Communication planning should be considered during
the project startup and updated at major points
(milestones, phase gates, deliverable points, etc.) in the
transformation project. Each update should be based
on the project manager’s assessment (working with the
business-unit managers) of which change management
techniques are working and how change management
issues maybe resolved.” - BPM CBOK v3.0, p. 289.
Have you been involved with a process
transformation that did not adequately
assess and address risks and issues? What
was the outcome? Why is appropriate
support during and following the project
“In the transformation project, performance goals
should be clearly defined targets. The simulation
modeling of the “As-Is” business will provide a baseline
of the current performance. Business managers and
staff will be able to use the baseline to measure the
delivery of the project’s goals as improvements against
the current operation.” - BPM CBOK v3.0, p. 294.
Why is communication planning such an
important part of a transformation project?
How does a PM assess the effectiveness of
change management techniques? Do you
have any good examples of how a PM and
business-unit managers may work together
to resolve change management issues?
“A well managed change should (a) ensure effective
communications are integrated with solid project
management practices, especially around risks and
issues, and (b) offer appropriate support during and
following the project.” - BPM CBOK v3.0, p. 295.
What are the characteristics of a clearly
defined target? Have you seen scorecards
that show baseline, current and target
metrics in a way that motivates team
Projects and Process Transformation (cont)
“Following traditional project management approaches,
the project is often formally closed as soon as the
deliverables are completed and accepted by the
sponsor. In BPMS projects we carry this one step
further and track the adoption of the change until
desired performance is reached.” - BPM CBOK v3.0, p.
Do you agree that transformation never
really ends? How might sponsors view an
open-ended transformation? How do you
close the initial transformation project and
transition activities into ongoing operations?
“Transformation, being more strategic, should be
viewed differently and should be funded differently.
However, in today’s ROI-focused environment, the
transformation will likely need to be justified the same
way an improvement project is justified—that is, based
on hard benefit estimate, not on strategic need. But
this will vary by company and the project manager will
need to work with the project sponsor to determine the
funding view that makes sense in your company.” - BPM
CBOK v3.0, p. 300.
What are the challenges of allowing a BPMS
project to continue until the desired
performance is reached? What happens if
the change is not adopted and/or the
performance goals are not achieved?
“This will require a change in the way projects and
business evolution are viewed. Today, open-ended
projects are seldom tolerated—even ones that offer a
series of delivery dates and benefits come to an end.
But if a company wants to move to continuous
improvement, transformation never really ends. Once
the initial transformation is implemented, the operation
moves to an unending cycle of performance
measurement, review, analysis, and change.” - BPM
CBOK v3.0, p. 299-300.
Why should transformation projects be
evaluated based on hard benefit estimates
rather than strategic need? How does a
transformation project differ from other
strategic projects? How have business
transformation projects been funded in your
Projects and Process Transformation (cont)
“As a starting point in any transformation design, put
yourself in the customer’s position, not in your
company’s position, and eliminate all the things you and
the project team hate when dealing with a company.
That is a good starting point. Then work inward to
eliminate what you hate and correct the deficiencies
that stop interaction the way you would like to do it.” BPM CBOK v3.0, p. 307.
How might monitoring and controlling process
operations help control project scope creep?
Have you ever encountered a situation where
the way that the BPM project manager
monitored and controlled process operations
differed from how the process manager did it?
What was the outcome?
Enterprise Process Management: “The cornerstone of
governing enterprise processes is coordinating the
enterprise portfolio of initiatives. To provide effective
governance in accordance with overall process design, it
is imperative that the process enterprise provides input
or is directly aligned to the enterprise Project
Management Office. ” - BPM CBOK v3.0, p. 358.
What are the challenges of the project team
putting themselves in the position of the
customer? Have you started a
transformation by asking the team what they
hate when dealing with a company? What
are some common deficiencies that stop
good customer interaction?
“Throughout the project delivery process, project
managers may monitor and control process operations
to ensure that the scope of the project conforms to the
project objectives. Projects, however, are temporary
endeavors with discrete, finite outcomes and
deliverables.” - BPM CBOK v3.0, p. 325.
Have you seen an organization coordinate its
process and project portfolios well? How
can a process enterprise provide meaningful
inputs into the EPMO? What feedback loops
between these governing structures should
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