Wakelin

Report
Accreditation and Competence in
the Context of World Wide
Engineering Mobility- the
International Engineering Alliance
Experience
Basil Wakelin
International Engineering Alliance
Educational Accords
Competence Recognition/Mobility Agreements
Washington
Accord
Sydney
Accord
Dublin
Accord
Engineers
Mobility
Forum
Agreement
/IPEA
APEC
Engineer
Engineering
Technologists
Mobility
Forum
Agreement
/IETA
Technicians
Professional
Engineers
Engineering
Technologists
Engineering
Technicians
Professional
Engineers
Professional
Engineers
(regional
agreement)
Engineering
Technologists
Future possibility
http://www.ieagreements.com
The Purpose of the IEA
To increase the benefits of authoritative
engineering education and competence
standards through promoting globally their
wider recognition and adoption.
What is engineering?
Engineering is an art supported by science and
thus professional competence is not
determined solely by education but requires a
period of post graduate experiential learning
to develop competence and judgment to a
professional level through a process of
professional mentoring.
What is a profession?
A profession is an occupational group which
specialises in the performance of such highly
developed skills for the meeting of complex
human needs that the right use of them is
achieved only under the discipline of an ethic
developed and enforced by peers and by
mastery of a broader contextual knowledge
of the human being, society, the natural
world, and historical trends" (Reeck 1982)
Engineering Competency
• An agreed educational base - Accord
recognised degree, or equivalent, plus
• Experience after graduation to develop both
professional and personal maturity. For the
IEA a minimum of seven years including two
years responsible experience and
• Meeting an agreed competence typically
measured by evaluation against 13 elements
http://www.ieagreements.com
International Engineering Alliance
Educational Accords
Competence Recognition/Mobility Agreements
Washington
Accord
Sydney
Accord
Dublin
Accord
Engineers
Mobility
Forum
Agreement
/IPEA
APEC
Engineer
Engineering
Technologists
Mobility
Forum
Agreement
/IETA
Technicians
Professional
Engineers
Engineering
Technologists
Engineering
Technicians
Professional
Engineers
Professional
Engineers
(regional
agreement)
Engineering
Technologists
Future possibility
http://www.ieagreements.com
Graduate Attributes
WA Graduate SA Graduate
(Professional) (Technologist)
DA Graduate
(Technician)
1.
Engineering Knowledge
2.
Problem Analysis
Complex
Broadly defined
Well defined
3.
Design/ development of solutions Complex
Broadly defined
Well defined
4.
Investigation
Complex
Broadly defined
Well defined
5.
Modern Tool Usage
Complex
Broadly defined
Well defined
6.
The Engineer and Society
7.
Environment and Sustainability
Complex
Broadly defined
Well defined
8. Ethics
9. Individual and Team work
10. Communication
11. Project Management and Finance
12. Life long learning
http://www.ieagreements.com/GradProfiles.cfm
Attributes
Element
1.
Engineering
Knowledge
2.
Problem
Analysis
Differentiating
Characteristic
Breadth and
depth of
education and
type of
knowledge,
both theoretical
and practical
Complexity of
analysis
… for Washington Accord
Graduate
Apply knowledge of mathematics,
science, engineering
fundamentals and an engineering
specialization to the solution of
complex engineering problems
… for Sydney Accord
Graduate
Apply knowledge of
mathematics, science,
engineering fundamentals and
an engineering specialization
to defined and applied
engineering procedures,
processes, systems or
methodologies.
Identify, formulate, research
Identify, formulate, research
literature and analyse complex
literature and analyse
engineering problems reaching
broadly-defined engineering
substantiated conclusions using problems reaching
first principles of mathematics,
substantiated conclusions
natural sciences and engineering using analytical tools
sciences.
appropriate to their discipline
or area of specialisation.
Range or Complexity of Problems
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
Range of conflicting requirements- WA -wide ranging or conflicting . SAmore defined
Depth of analysis required- WA - abstract thinking, requires originality.
SA -uses well proven analysis
Depth of knowledge required- WA -in depth, fundamentals based, first
principles approach. SA – application of developed technology.
Familiarity of issues- WA -infrequently encountered issues. SA - more
familiar problems
Extent of applicable codes- WA beyond scope of codes of practice. SA May be partly outside codes
Extent of stakeholder involvement and level of conflicting
requirements - WA -diverse groups. SA – several groups
Consequences - WA -significant in a range of contexts, SA -local
significance
Interdependence – WA -high level problems , many sub parts . SA -less
interdependence
Competency Profiles
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
Element
Professional
Engineer
Comprehend and apply universal knowledge
Comprehend and apply local knowledge
Problem analysis
Design and development of solutions
Evaluation
Protection of society
Legal and regulatory
Ethics
Manage engineering activities
Communication
Lifelong learning
Judgment
Responsibility for decisions
advanced
Engineering
Technologist
widely accepted
applied
widely accepted
advanced
applied
complex
broadly-defined
complex
broadly- defined
complex
broadly defined
complex
broadly-defined
=
=
=
=
complex activities broadly- defined
=
=
=
=
broadly defined
complex
complex
broadly defined
http://www.ieagreements.com/GradProfiles.cfm
Engineering
Technician
standardised
standardised
well-defined
well- defined
well-defined
well-defined
=
=
well- defined
=
=
well-defined
well- defined
Range of Engineering Activities
1. Range of resources – diverse resources
2. Level of interactions- resolution of significant problems
arising from interactions between wide-ranging or
conflicting technical, engineering or other issues,
3. Innovation - creative use of engineering principles and
research-based knowledge in novel ways.
4. Consequences to society and the environment significant consequences in a range of contexts,
characterized by difficulty of prediction and mitigation
5. Familiarity - Can extend beyond previous experiences by
applying principles-based approaches
Features of the IEA Approach
• Outcome focussed
• Not all elements are of equal weighting
• Much engineering by technologists and
technicians
• Self discipline and self regulation by peers
• Some aspects of accreditation are outside the
elements eg robustness or security of
outcomes, staffing, facilities, finance etc
Evaluation in practice
• Accords evaluate national accreditation
systems of members every six years
• Observation by international teams
• Concurrent evaluation of adjacent accord
programmes in an institution is possible
Experience to date
• Easier differentiation between classes of engineer
• Evaluation of national systems rather than
individuals
• Somewhat uneven understanding of the
differences between classes of engineer
• Evaluation of professional competence more
challenging
• Mobility benefits universal but variable
• The elemental outcomes based approach can
assist programme development
Conclusions
• Contribution to improved understanding of
required outcomes of engineering education
• Has assisted development of national
educational and accreditation systems
• Further development work is needed to
achieve a more universal understanding of
categories of engineer and bench marking
against common standards
A way forward?
The complete person
Common
Description A
Description B
Thank you

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