World Geography Today

Report
HOLT
World
Geography
Today
CHAPTER 8
The United States
Section 1: History and Culture
Section 2: Regions of the United States
Section 3: Geographic Issues
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HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON
Section 1
History and Culture
HOLT
World
Geography
Today
Key events in American history:
 Earliest inhabitants arrived at least 14,000 years ago
from Asia.
 Europeans began arriving 500 years ago: first
Spanish, then English and French.
 British established 13 colonies.
 After independence, in 1776, U.S. established a
federal system of government.
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HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON
Section 1
History and Culture
HOLT
World
Geography
Today
Key events in American history: (continued)
 Westward expansion in the 1800s gained new lands
but caused conflict with American Indians.
 North industrialized, while South developed
plantation economy. Differences caused Civil War.
 Settlers occupied interior plains; immigration swelled
eastern cities.
 Great Depression Early 1900’s
 U.S. fought in two world wars; emerged as a major
power.
 Cold War 1950-early 1990’s
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Section 1
History and Culture
HOLT
World
Geography
Today
Unique elements of American culture:
 great diversity of people and languages
 variety of religions
 broad public education
 distinctive forms of popular culture: movies, jazz,
sports
 Immigration trends
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HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON
Section 2
Regions of the United States
HOLT
World
Geography
Today
Objectives:
 What is the economy of the Northeast like?
 Why is the Midwest such an important farming area?
 How is the geography of the South changing?
 How have environmental conditions influenced the
history of the West?
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HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON
Section 2
Regions of the United States
HOLT
World
Geography
Today
Features of Northeastern economy:
 first region to industrialize
 thriving commerce in port cities
 industrial decline in the late 1900s
 now a mix of industry, commerce, and finance.
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HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON
Section 2
Regions of the United States
HOLT
World
Geography
Today
Strength of Midwestern agriculture:
 one of the world’s most productive farming areas
 abundant arable land
 Corn Belt—corn for export, livestock feed
 Dairy Belt—major producer of butter and cheese
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HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON
Section 2
Regions of the United States
HOLT
World
Geography
Today
Changes in the South:
 shift away from rural farm economy
 growth of industry, prompted by low wages, cheap
land, laws
 substantial immigration from Latin America
 urbanization
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HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON
Section 2
Regions of the United States
HOLT
World
Geography
Today
Influence of the Western environment:
 harsh conditions limited early settlement
 ranching, wheat farming on plains
 abundant minerals fueled mining economy
 natural beauty stimulates tourism
 California agriculture based on irrigation
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Section 3
Geographic Issues
HOLT
World
Geography
Today
Objectives:
 What are some important environmental issues in the
United States?
 What natural hazards affect the lives of Americans?
 How are cities and population patterns in the United
States changing?
 How is the U.S. economy tied to other countries
around the world?
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Section 3
Geographic Issues
HOLT
World
Geography
Today
Environmental issues:
 huge energy consumption
 great waste and pollution
 population growth and economic development add to
problems (e.g., acid rain)
 fertilizer runoff harms marine life
 dams and competition for scarce water—key issues in
West
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HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON
Section 3
Geographic Issues
HOLT
World
Geography
Today
Natural hazards:
 earthquakes on west coast
 flooding in many areas
 tornadoes in Midwest and South
 hurricanes along east coast and Gulf of Mexico
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Section 3
Geographic Issues
HOLT
World
Geography
Today
Changes in cities and population
patterns:
 shift of population and business from center cities to
suburbs
 some gentrification in inner cities, forcing out lowincome residents
 major impact of immigration on ethnic and cultural
mix, notably in West and South
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HOLT
Section 3
World
Geography
Today
Geographic Issues
Global economy:
 reliance on world trade
 shifting emphasis from tariff protections to free trade
 pros and cons of free trade agreements (e.g., NAFTA)
Political Issues:
 Middle East (Afghanistan, Iran, Pakistan)
 Terrorism
 Economy(debt, taxes, jobs, housing market)
Social Issues:
 Racial Issues
 Rich vs. Poor (the gap between them is huge)
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