Planetary Exploration - Laboratory for Atmospheric and Space Physics

Report
PLANETARY
EXPLORATION!!!
Logan Dougherty
Quick Overview
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Mariner 2 – First successful Venus flyby (USA)
Mariner 4 – First successful Mars flyby (USA)
Venera 3 – First Venus impact. Contact lost. (USSR)
Venera 4 – Venus atmospheric probe
• Claimed to reach the surface intact, but disproven shortly after by
USA Mariner 5.
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Pioneer 10 & 11 – Jupiter and Saturn flyby
Mariner 10 – Mercury flyby
Voyager 1 & 2 – Outer solar system
Pathfinder – Mars rover
Cassini Huygens – Saturn lander
New Horizons – Pluto and Kuiper belt
Curiosity Rover – Mars Rover
Above: To the left is the
Mariner 2 and
to the right is the Voyager 1.
Right: The New Horizons
spacecraft.
Original Reasons for Planetary
Exploration
• The Space Race
• Main memorable part of the Space Race is the Apollo mission
• Large competition in planetary exploration as well
• Between USA and USSR
• http://nssdc.gsfc.nasa.gov/planetary/chronology.html
• As shown above, until the end of the Cold War, USA and USSR
competed largely in their attempts to study the moon and the
planets.
• Post Cold War, the USSR involvement declined heavily, leaving
the USA to dominate the field
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NASA Space Science and Planetary Science Budget, 19592010
($M, adj. to 2010)
$7,000.000
$6,000.000
$5,000.000
$4,000.000
$3,000.000
$2,000.000
$1,000.000
$0.000
Space Science
Planetary Science
NASA’s Big Questions for
Planetary Science
• HOW DID THE SUN'S FAMILY OF PLANETS AND MINOR
BODIES ORIGINATE?
• HOW DID THE SOLAR SYSTEM EVOLVE TO ITS CURRENT
DIVERSE STATE?
• HOW DID LIFE BEGIN AND EVOLVE ON EARTH, AND HAS IT
EVOLVED ELSEWHERE IN THE SOLAR SYSTEM?
• WHAT ARE THE CHARACTERISTICS OF THE SOLAR SYSTEM
THAT LEAD TO THE ORIGINS OF LIFE?
President’s FY13 In-Guide
Budget
• For FY13 Congress has passed a “Continuing Resolution”
• Under the CR PSD’s FY13 budget is $1.19B
• 21% decrease from FY12 level
Amazing Accomplishments
• Existence of bodies of water on Mars in the past.
• Atmospheric probes to help determine
composition of other planets.
• Missions that help deduce the early evolution of
planets and help to explain why our solar system
formed how it did.
• Valuable samples of surfaces that offer insight
into the formation of that planet.
What inspires Planetary Exploration?
Search for Life near Home
• Mars
• Signs of water, as discovered by rovers like Curiosity
• Venus
• People used to envision life existing there, but the harsh
atmosphere makes it difficult to support life
• Titan
• Liquid lakes of ethane and methane
• Colder than earth
• Atmosphere that consists of more than trace gases
Where else
should we
search?
Exoplanet Detection
• Kepler mission
• Uses transit method to detect dip in light curves
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Doppler Shift measurements
Binary Movements
Hundreds of planets have been discovered
Planetary Detection is part of the Astrophysics sector of NASA
as opposed to the Planetary Science, but offers useful
information in the theory of how solar systems evolve.
• Exoplanets are popular
• The idea inspires people and the public is interested in the
possibility of finding planets with life
What is the biggest
difficulty in directly
observing a planet?
New Worlds
• Blocks out the star’s light to gain a direct view of the planet.
• Can then study the spectra of the planet and gain knowledge
of its atmosphere.
• Offers the possibility of finding planets capable of hosting life
• Reasons that policy makers may consider investing:
• While Kepler has produced results, the public keeps hearing
about planets and it doesn’t peak their interest.
• This would offer a more definitive statement on the possibility of
life, and to see more detailed pictures of the planets, garnering
more public support.
• Offers useful knowledge about planet’s in the habitable zone of
stars.
“Space: the final frontier.”
Works Cited
• http://www.newscientist.com/data/images/archive/2542/25424001.jpg
• http://cinema-wallpapers.net/user-content/uploads/wall/o/60/LittleGreen-Men-toy-story-2-wallpaper.jpg
• http://jpl.nasa.gov
• http://science.nasa.gov/planetary-science/
• http://ut-images.s3.amazonaws.com/wpcontent/uploads/2011/02/Kepler-telescope.jpg
• http://4.bp.blogspot.com/_FQaCDdht2S8/TEybVhkHILI/AAAAAAAABDc/
wi6q8fMoElo/s1600/newhorizons.gif
• http://ut-images.s3.amazonaws.com/wpcontent/uploads/2008/07/voyager1.jpg
• http://www.nasa.gov/images/content/203286main_image_964_946710.jpg
• http://iliketowastemytime.com/system/files/outer-space-hdwallpaper.jpg?download=1
• http://i.telegraph.co.uk/multimedia/archive/02445/AV_2445412b.jpg
NASA’s Planetary Science Division
James L. Green
Director, Planetary Science Division
NASA Headquarters
February 21, 2013
Recent Accomplishments
2010
* September 16 – Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter in PSD
* November 4 - EPOXI encounters Comet Hartley 2
* Completed
* November 19 - Launch of O/OREOS
2011
* February 14 - Stardust NExT encounters comet Tempel 1
* March 7 – Planetary Science Decadal Survey released
* March 17 - MESSENGER orbit insertion at Mercury
* May 5 – Selection of 3 Discovery-class missions for study
* May – Selection of the next New Frontier mission for flight, OSIRIS-REx
* July 16 - Dawn orbit insertion at asteroid Vesta
* August 5 - Juno launch to Jupiter
* August 9 - Mars Opportunity Rover arrives at Endeavour Crater
* September 10 - GRAIL (A and B) launch to the Earth’s Moon
* November 26 – Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) launch to Mars
* December 31 – GRAIL A orbit insertion at Earth’s Moon
2012
* January 1 – GRAIL B orbit insertion at Earth’s Moon
* June 6 – Venus transits Sun (last time this Century)
* August 5 – MSL/Curiosity successfully lands on Mars
* August 20 – Selection of Discovery 12 Mission
* September 5 - Dawn leaves Vesta and starts on its journey to Ceres
The Revolution in
Planetary Science
Planetary Decadal Reports from the
National Academy of Science
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Planetary Science Objectives
• NASA’s goal in Planetary Science is to “Ascertain the content, origin,
and evolution of the solar system, and the potential for life elsewhere.”
• Planetary Program seeks to answer fundamental science questions:
1. What is the inventory of solar system objects and what processes are active
in and among them?
2. How did the Sun’s family of planets, satellites, and minor bodies originate
and evolve?
3. What are the characteristics of the solar system that lead to habitable
environments?
4. How and where could life begin and evolve in the solar system?
5. What are characteristics of small bodies and planetary environments that
pose hazards and/or provide resources?
Planetary Science accomplishes these goals through a series of
strategic-large, medium, small mission and supporting research
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Planetary Decadal Recommendations
Large Missions (“Flagship”-scale)
“Recommended Program”
(budget increase for JEO new start)
1)
Mars Astrobiology Explorer-Cacher –
descoped
2)
Jupiter Europa Orbiter (JEO) –
descoped
3)
Uranus Orbiter & Probe (UOP)
“Cost Constrained Program”
(based on FY11 Request)
“Less favorable” budget
picture than assumed
(e.g., outyears in FY12 request)
1)
2)
Mars Astrobiology ExplorerCacher – descoped
Uranus Orbiter & Probe (UOP)
Descope or delay
Flagship mission
4/5) Enceladus Orbiter & Venus Climate
Mission
Discovery
$500M (FY15) cap per mission (exclusive of launch vehicle) and 24 month cadence for selection
New Frontiers
$1B (FY15) cap per mission (exclusive of launch vehicle) with two selections during 2013-22
Research & Analysis (5% above final FY11 amount then ~1.5%/yr)
Technology Development (6-8%)
Current Commitments (ie: Operating Missions)
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President’s FY13 In-Guide
Budget
• For FY13 Congress has passed a “Continuing Resolution”
• Under the CR PSD’s FY13 budget is $1.19B
• 21% decrease from FY12 level
Planetary & President’s FY13
Budgets
$1,600.00
$1,400.00
$1,200.00
$1,000.00
$800.00
$600.00
$400.00
$200.00
$0.00
FY08
FY09
FY10
FY11
FY12
FY13
FY14
FY15
FY16
FY17
President’s FY13 Budget Missions
MAVEN
Mars 2020
Mars
R&A
Discovery
InSight
New Frontiers
OSIRIS-REx
LADEE
Technology
Outer Planets
Discovery and New Frontiers
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Address high-priority science objectives in solar system exploration
Frequent opportunities for science community to propose full investigations
Fixed-price cost cap full and open competition missions
Principal Investigator-led project
 Established in 1992
 $425M cap per mission excluding launch
vehicle (FY10)
 Open science competition for all solar
system objects, except for the Earth and
Sun
 Established in 2003
 $1000M cap per mission excluding launch
vehicle (FY10)
 Addresses high-priority investigations
identified by the National Academy of
Sciences
Discovery Program
Lunar formation:
Lunar Prospector (1998-1999)
Solar wind sampling:
Genesis (2001-2004)
Comet diversity:
CONTOUR
NEO characteristics:
NEAR (1996-1999)
Completed
Completed
Mars evolution:
Mars Pathfinder (1996-1997)
Mercury environment:
MESSENGER (2004-2013)
Main-belt asteroids:
Dawn (2007-2015)
Lunar Internal Structure
GRAIL (2011-2012 )
In Flight
Comet internal structure:
Deep Impact (2005-2012)
Nature of dust/coma:
Stardust (1999-2011 )
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InSight: Interior Structure from Seismic Investigations, Geodesy
and Heat Transport
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New Frontiers Program
1st NF mission
New Horizons:
2nd NF mission
JUNO:
3rd NF mission
OSIRIS-REx
Pluto-Kuiper Belt
Jupiter Polar Orbiter
Asteroid Sample Return
Launched January 2006
Arrives July 2015
Launched August 2011
Arrives July 2016
PI: Alan Stern (SwRI-CO)
PI: Scott Bolton (SwRI-TX)
Sept. 2016 LRD
PI: Dante Lauretta (UA)
NF-4 AO in FY15-16
Origins-Spectral Interpretation-Resource IdentificationSecurity-Regolith Explorer (OSIRIS-REx )
Science Objectives:
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Return and analyze a sample of pristine carbonaceous asteroid
Map the global properties, chemistry, and mineralogy
Document in situ the properties of the regolith at the sampling site
Characterize the integrated global properties to allow comparison with
ground-based telescopic data of entire asteroid population
• Measure the Yarkovsky effect
• Mission Overview:
RQ36 - Apollo
r ~ 280 m
P ~ 436 days
• Launch in September 2016
• Encounter asteroid (101955) 1999 RQ36 in
October 2019
• Study RQ36 for up to 505 days, globally
mapping the surface
• Obtain at least 60 g of pristine
regolith/surface material
• Return sample to Earth in September 2023
in a Stardust-heritage capsule
• Deliver samples to JSC curation facility for
world-wide distribution
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Discovery and New Frontiers Missions Timeline - Current
Missions
Calendar Year
2000
2001
2002
2003
2004
2005
2006
2007
MESSENGER
2008
2009
2010
2011
2012
2013
2014
2015
2016
2017
2018
2020
2021
2022
2022
Discovery Missions
Extended Mission
8-year Phase E
2019
8-year Phase E
Dawn
GRAIL
ASPERA-3
6-year Phase E
Extended Mission
Hibernation
EPOXI
Strofio
12 month Phase E (+6 month extension)
InSight
New Frontiers Missions
10-year Phase E
New Horizons
Juno
10-year Phase E
OSIRIS-REx
2000
2001
2002
2003
2004
2005
2006
2007
2008
2009
2010
2011
2012
2013
2014
Now
Phases Pre-A,A,B,C,D
Phase E
Extended Mission
7-year Phase E
2015
2016
2017
2018
2019
2020
2021
2022
2023
Mars Exploration Program 2000-2010
“Follow the Water…”
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Mars Budget Analysis FY’00 through FY’17
800
700
$M
MSL Landing
600
500
MSL Delay
400
300
Mars Operating Budget FY’00 – FY’12
200
Mars President’s
Budget FY’13 – FY’17
100
0
2000
2001
2002
2003
2000
Mars Op Budget FY'00-FY'11
Mars Pres Budget FY'12-FY'17
2004
2001
2002
2005
2006
2007
2003
2004
2005
2008
2006
2009
2007
2010
2008
2011
2009
2012
2010
2013
2011
2014
2012
2015
2013
2014
2016
2017
2015
2016
2017
271
451
454
497
553
532
593
607
695
362
438
547
587
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
361
228
189
267
503
NASA’s Future Mars Missions
Operational
2013
2001-2012
Odyssey
2016
2018
2020
MRO
MAVEN
Aeronomy
Orbiter
Mars Express
Collaboration
ESA Trace Gas
Orbiter
(Electra)
“Seeking Signs of Life…”
Curiosity –
Mars Science
Laboratory
Opportunity
2022
ESA ExoMars
Rover (MOMA)
Phoenix
(completed)
Future
Planning
2020
Science Rover
InSight
Spirit
(completed)
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Developing Missions
Upcoming Launches
• MAVEN and LADEE in final phases of development for 2013 launch dates
The JUpiter ICy moons Orbiter
Mission
• On May 2, 2012, the ESA formally
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selected JUICE as the first Large-class
mission in ESA’s Cosmic Vision Program
The JUICE mission will investigate the
emergence of habitable worlds around
gas giants, characterizing Ganymede,
Europa, and Callisto as planetary objects
and potential habitats
JUICE will first orbit Jupiter for ~2.5
years, providing 13 flybys of Callisto and
2 of Europa, and then will orbit
Ganymede for 9 months
Launch is scheduled for 2022 with Jupiter
arrival in 2030 and Ganymede orbit
insertion in 2032
NASA will contribute ~$100M in
instruments and other support
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Planetary Technologies
ASRG and Pu-238 Production
Advanced Stirling Radioistope Generator (ASRG)
•After Discovery 12 selection, working to identify next ASRG mission
• Expectation is that Discovery 13 will provide similar opportunities to
test mission enabling technologies (ie: ASRG, NEXT…)
•Two ASRG flight units (F1 and F2) will be completed in 2016
• The completed flight units will go into bonded storage, unfueled,
pending a mission decision for flight use
Plutonium-238
•Technology demonstration activities include:
• A qualified Neptunium-237 target for irradiation
in the High Flux Isotope Reactor (First Np-237 targets irradiated)
• A qualified process for post-irradiation target processing
• A qualified Pu-238 product
• A project plan for scale-up to full-scale production at 1.5-2.0 kg/year
•Project baseline and confirmation by December 2013
Planetary Supporting Research
and Analysis Program
Supporting Research & Analysis (R&A) Program Elements
Planetary Science Research
PGG, Cosmochem, PAST, PATM, PME, PIDDP, Origins, PP, LPI, ASTEP,
ASTID, NAI, Exobiology
Near Earth Objects Observation (NEOO)
Planetary Data Systems (PDS)
Astromaterial Curation
Mars Research & Analysis
Mars Data Analysis Program (MDAP)
Mars Fundamental Research Program (MFRP)
Discovery Research
SRLI DAP/LARS (Lab Analysis of Returned Samples)
PMDAP (Planetary Missions DAP)
MESSENGER/Dawn PSP
GRAIL PSP
Outer Planets Research
OPRP, Cassini DAP/PSP
Lunar Science Research
NLSI, LASER, MMAMA, PGG/Cosmo Lunar, LRO PSP
Call for Proposal to these PSD Program Elements comes out in ROSES
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http://solarsystem.nasa.gov/yss
Questions?

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