Here is Ned`s Presentation!!!!!! - ASHRAE

Report
American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers, Inc.
Standard 90.1
Energy Standard for Buildings Except Low-Rise Residential Buildings
Presented to:
October 21, 2013
ASHRAE Columbus Chapter
Agenda
• 90.1-2010 – What Changed
• 90.1-2013 – What Changed
• 90.1-2016 – Items Being Considered
• Questions
Development of
90.1-2010
HVAC Equipment
• Several Changes Made to Equip Efficiency.
• Process for Equipment Efficiency Upgrades.
AHRI
DOE
90.1
4
Notable Changes in 90.1-2010
Computer Rooms no longer exempted
from standard.
2.3 The provisions of this standard do not apply to
C. equipment and portions of building systems that
use energy primarily to provide for industrial,
manufacturing, or commercial processes.
Computer Rooms
Economizers:
TABLE 6.5.1B Minimum Fan-Cooling Unit Size for Which an Economizer is Required
for Computer Rooms
Climate Zones
1a, 1b, 2a, 3a, 4a
2b, 5a, 6a, 7, 8
3b, 3c, 4b, 4c, 5b, 5c, 6b
Cooling Capacity for Which an Economizer is Required
No economizer requirement
≥135,000 Btu/h
≥65,000 Btu/h
Computer Rooms
Economizers (Exceptions):
j. Systems primarily serving computer rooms where:
1. the total design cooling load of all computer rooms in the building is less than
3,000,000 Btu/h and the building in which they are located is not served by a
centralized chilled water plant, or
2. the room total design cooling load is less than 600,000 Btu/h and the building
in which they are located is served by a centralized chilled water plant., or
3. the local water authority does not allow cooling towers, or
4. less than 600,000 Btu/h of computer room cooling equipment capacity is being
added to an existing building
Computer Rooms
Economizers (Exceptions):
k. Dedicated systems for computer rooms where a minimum
of 75% of the design load serves:
1. those spaces classified as an essential facility
2. those spaces having a mechanical cooling design of Tier IV
as defined by ANSI/TIA-942
3. those spaces classified under NFPA 70 Article 708 – Critical
Operations Power Systems (COPS)
4. those spaces where core clearing and settlement services
are performed such that their failure to settle pending
financial transactions could present systemic risk as
described in “The Interagency Paper on Sound Practices to
Strengthen the Resilience of the US Financial System, April 7,
2003”
Computer Rooms
Water Economizers Design Capacity
Water economizer systems shall be capable of cooling supply
air by indirect evaporation and providing up to 100% of the
expected system cooling load at outdoor air temperatures of
50°F dry bulb/45°F wet bulb and below.
(Exceptions):
a. Systems primarily serving computer rooms in which 100%
of the expected system cooling load at 40°F dry bulb / 35°F
wet bulb is met with evaporative water economizers.
b. Systems primarily serving computer rooms with dry cooler
water economizers which satisfy 100% of the expected
system cooling load at 35°F dry bulb.
Computer Rooms
TABLE 6.8.1K Air Conditioners and Condensing Units Serving
Computers Rooms
Minimum
SCOP-127 Efficiency
Down flow units / Upflow units
ANSI/ASHRAE 127
Notable Changes in 90.1-2010
Energy Recovery
6.5.6.1 Exhaust Air Energy Recovery. Individual fan
systems that have both a design supply air capacity of
5000 cfm or greater and have a minimum outdoor air
supply of 70% or greater of the design supply air quantity
shall have an energy recovery system with at least 50%
recovery effectiveness.
11
Energy Recovery
12
Notable Changes in 90.1-2010
Single Zone VAV
New Requirements for chilled water and commercial package rooftop units to have
2 speed or VAV fans.
13
Single Zone VAV
a. Air-handling and fan-coil units with chilled-water cooling coils and supply fans with
motors greater than or equal to 5 hp shall have their supply fans controlled by
two-speed motors or variable-speed drives. At cooling demands less than or equal
to 50%, the supply fan controls shall be able to reduce the airflow to no greater
than the larger of the following:
1.One half of the full fan speed, or
2. The volume of outdoor air required to meet the ventilation
requirements of Standard 62.1.
14
Single Zone VAV
b. Effective January 1, 2012, all air-conditioning equipment and air-handling units
with direct expansion cooling and a cooling capacity at AHRI conditions greater
than or equal to 110,000 Btu/h that serve single zones shall have their supply fans
controlled by two-speed motors or variable speed drives. At cooling demands less
than or equal to 50%, the supply fan controls shall be able to reduce the airflow to
no greater than the larger of the following:
1.
Two-thirds of the full fan speed, or
2.
The volume of outdoor air required to meet the ventilation requirements of
Standard 62.1.
15
Notable Changes in 90.1-2010
Lab Exhaust Fan Power (p)
Fan power limits placed on laboratory exhaust fans.
6.5.3.1 Fan System Power Limitation
Exception:
c. Fans exhausting air from fume hoods. Note: If this
exception is taken, no related exhaust side credits
shall be taken from Table 6.5.3.1.1B and the Fume
Hood Exhaust Exception Deduction must be taken
from Table 6.5.3.1.1B.
Laboratory Exhaust Fans
Notable Changes in 90.1-2010
Fume Hood Exhaust
Modifications made to fume hood exhaust requirements
6.5.7.2 Fume Hoods. Buildings with fume hood systems
having a total exhaust rate greater than 15,000 cfm shall include at least
one of the following features:
a. VAV hood exhaust and room supply systems capable of reducing
exhaust and makeup air volume to 50% or less of design values.
b. Direct makeup (auxiliary) air supply equal to at least 75% of the exhaust
rate, heated no warmer than 2°F below room setpoint, cooled to no cooler
than 3°F above room setpoint, no humidification added, and no
simultaneous heating and cooling used for dehumidification control.
c. Heat recovery systems to precondition makeup air from fume hood
exhaust in accordance with Section 6.5.6.1, Exhaust Air Energy Recovery,
without using any exception.
Fume Hood Exhaust
6.5.7.2 Laboratory Exhaust Systems. Buildings with
laboratory exhaust systems having a total exhaust rate greater
than 5000 cfm shall include at least one of the following features:
a. VAV laboratory exhaust and room supply system capable of reducing
exhaust and makeup air flow rates and/or incorporate a heat recovery
system to precondition makeup air from laboratory exhaust that shall meet
the following:
A + B×(E/M) ≥50%
Where:
A = Percentage that the exhaust and makeup air flow rates can be reduced
from design conditions.
B = Percentage sensible recovery effectiveness.
E = Exhaust airflow rate through the heat recovery device at design conditions
M = Makeup air flow rate of the system at design conditions.
Notable Changes in 90.1-2010
Kitchen exhaust hoods (ax)
Worked with TC to properly characterize exhaust hoods and
makeup air for kitchens. Many years of improper language that
encouraged designs that wasted energy.
6.5.7.1 Kitchen Hoods. Individual kitchen exhaust
hoods larger than 5000 cfm shall be provided with makeup air
sized for at least 50% of exhaust air volume that is
a. unheated or heated to no more than 60°F and
b. uncooled or cooled without the use of mechanical cooling
Kitchen Exhaust
6.5.7.1.1 Replacement air introduced directly into the
hood cavity of kitchen exhaust hoods shall not exceed 10% of
the hood exhaust airflow rate.
Kitchen Exhaust
6.5.7.1.2 Conditioned supply air delivered to any space with a kitchen
hood shall not exceed the greater of:
a. the supply flow required to meet the space heating or cooling load
b. the hood exhaust flow minus the available transfer air from adjacent
spaces. Available transfer air is that portion of outdoor ventilation air
not required to satisfy other exhaust needs, such as restrooms, and
not required to maintain pressurization of adjacent spaces
Kitchen Exhaust
6.5.7.1.3 If a kitchen/dining facility has a total kitchen hood exhaust
airflow rate greater than 5,000 cfm then each hood shall have an
exhaust rate that complies with Table 6.5.7.1.3. If a single hood, or hood
section, is installed over appliances with different duty ratings, then the
maximum allowable flow rate for the hood or hood section shall not
exceed the Table 6.5.7.1.3 values for the highest appliance duty rating
under the hood or hood section. Refer to ASHRAE Standard 154 for
definitions of hood type, appliance duty, and net exhaust flow rate.
Exception: At least 75% of all the replacement air is transfer air that
would otherwise be exhausted.
Kitchen Exhaust
6.5.7.1.4 If a kitchen/dining facility has a total kitchen hood exhaust airflow rate
greater than 5,000 cfm then it shall have one of the following:
a. At least 50% of all replacement air is transfer air that would otherwise be
exhausted.
b. Demand ventilation system(s) on at least 75% of the exhaust air. Such
systems shall be capable of at least 50% reduction in exhaust and
replacement air system airflow rates, including controls necessary to
modulate airflow in response to appliance operation and to maintain full
capture and containment of smoke, effluent and combustion products
during cooking and idle.
c. Listed energy recovery devices with a sensible heat recovery effectiveness
of not less than 40% on at least 50% of the total exhaust airflow.
Notable Changes in 90.1-2010
Garage ventilation
Reduce airflow if not required to reduce fan energy and heating
energy.
Garage Ventilation
6.4.3.4.5 Enclosed Parking Garage Ventilation.
Enclosed parking garage ventilation systems shall automatically detect
contaminant levels and stage fans or modulate fan airflow rates to 50% or
less of design capacity provided acceptable contaminant levels are
maintained.
Exceptions:
a. Garages less than 30,000 ft2 with ventilation systems that do not utilize
mechanical cooling or mechanical heating
b. Garages that have a garage area to ventilation system motor nameplate
hp ratio that exceeds 1500 ft2/hp and do not utilize mechanical cooling or
mechanical heating.
c. Where not permitted by the authority having jurisdiction.
90.1-2013 What Changed
90.1-2013 Notable Activities
Envelope
1. Significant increase to insulation values (bb)
90.1-2010 Standard
Columbus, Ohio
Fairbanks, Alaska
Roof Insulation (ab. deck)
R-20
R-20
Metal Framed Wall
R-13 + R7.5 c.i.
R-13 + R7.5 c.i.
Addendum to 90.1-2010
Columbus, Ohio
Fairbanks, Alaska
Roof Insulation (ab. deck)
R-30
R-35
Metal Framed Wall
R-13 + R10 c.i.
R-13 + R18.8 c.i.
28
Economizer/Humidification System
Not really a new requirement but clarified applications where hydronic
cooling and humidification are utilized to maintain dewpoints above 35F,
that a water economizer shall be utilized if an economizer is required.
29
VAV Static Pressure Sensor Location (s)
Located such that set point no greater than 1.2” wg or shall
have automatic reset controls based on damper position (reset
logic shall have alarm provisions for rogue zones with manual
disable)
30
DDC Requirements (aa)
Most new buildings and renovations to existing systems
currently with DDC
31
Escalators & Moving Walkways (b)
When not conveying passengers shall operate at minimum speed per ASME A17.1
32
• Fan Efficiency (u)
Minimum
FEG = 67
Per AMCA 205
Exceptions:
-single or multiple
fans 5 hp or less.
-Part of a system with
a 3rd party
certification or
covered by another
efficiency standard
(i.e. part of pkg equip)
33
Cooling Tower Flow Turndown (af)
1. Previously the standard required towers with motors 7.5 hp and larger to be
at least 2 speed. This addendum requires that for multi-tower installations
that utilizes VFDs that the towers not be staged, but rather control all fans at
the same speed.
2. Multiple Tower installations with multiple pumps (in parallel) shall be able to
reduce flow to 50% of the design flow rate (really a mfgr reqt)
34
Small Motor Efficiency (aj)
Motors 1/12 hp to less than 1 hp shall be ECM or minimum 70% efficient. Also shall
have means to adjust motor speed for balancing or remote control. Targets cooling
applications (fan coils and fan powered boxes), though have exception when fan is for
heating only
35
Hydronic Variable Flow(ak)(90.1-2016)
Requires variable flow on all heating and chilled water
systems if there are 3 or more control valves. No longer a hp
exemption. Also requires water temperature reset (chilled
and htg water based on valve position unless using valve
position to comply with variable flow requirement).
36
Boiler System Design Input (Btu/h) Minimum
Turndown Ratio (am) **
≥ 1,000,000 and less than or equal to 5,000,000 (3 to 1)
> 5,000,000 and less than or equal to 10,000,000 (4 to 1)
> 10,000,000
(5 to 1)
Requires the use of multiple single stage boilers or the use of
modulating boilers.
37
Computer Room PUE (ap)
6.6 Alternative Compliance Path
Climate Zone
PUE a
1A
2A
3A
4A
5A
6A
1.61
1.49
1.41
1.36
1.36
1.34
1B
2B
3B
4B
5B
6B
1.53
1.45
1.42
1.38
1.33
1.33
3C
4C
5C
1.39
1.38
1.36
7
8
≤ 1.32
≤ 1.30
PUE=Total Power ÷ Total IT Power
38
6.5.3.2.1 Fan Airflow Control (aq) **
Each cooling system listed in table 6.5.3.2.1 shall be designed to vary the indoor
fan airflow as a function of load and shall comply with the following requirements.
Table 6.5.3.2.1 Effective Dates for Fan Control
Cooling System Type
Fan Motor Size
Mechanical
Effective Date
Cooling
Capacity
DX Cooling
Chilled Water and
Evaporative cooling
≥110,000 Btu/h
1/1/2012
≥75,000 Btu/h
1/1/2014
≥65,000 Btu/h
1/1/2016
≥5 HP
Any
1/1/2010
≥1/4 HP
Any
1/1/2014
any
39
Humidification and Preheat (as)
Requires humidifiers tubes to be provided with R-0.5 value insulation and restricts
preheat coils from generating heat when AHU in mechanical cooling or economizer
operation.
Face and bypass
Preheat coil
Steam Humidifier
40
Door Switches (ba) (started as window switches)
Doors (including doors more than 50% glass) require switches to
disable or setup/setback cooling/heating to 90F/55F. Exclusions
for door with automatic closers, loading dock doors.
90.1 Definition-Doors that are more
than 50% glass are considered
fenestration.
41
Service Water Heater Efficiency (bo) **
Gas hot water systems over 1,000,000 btuh (total bldg) input
require minimum 90% thermal efficiency (i.e. condensing style
water heaters or heat pump water heaters).
High Efficiency
Condensing Style
Standard Efficiency
Exemption: Individual gas water heaters less than
100,000 btuh input.
42
Commercial Refrigeration (bq)
3 Addendums passes in for 2013 standard, with the first 2
primarily restating current federal requirements. This
addendum added additional requirements.
•Refrigerated display cases with automatic lighting controls.
•Temperature based defrost termination (in addition to time based).
•Anti-sweat heater controls (based on ambient dewpoint)
•Condensers with variable fan speed control.
•Crankcase heaters shut-off on compressor run.
43
Demand Control Ventilation (bs)
Increased stringency from 40p/1000 sq.ft. to 25p/1000 sq.ft.
•
•
Occupancies that would be included that are not included now (based on Standard
62.1 default densities) would be:
– Classrooms; Music/dance class; Conference lobbies; Office Reception;
Museum; Mall commons; Gym; and health club. Daycare; computer labs; and
break rooms.
Exempt occupancies would be: Correctional cells; Daycare sickrooms; Science labs;
Barber; beauty & nail salons; and bowling alley seating.
44
Energy Recovery (bt)
Table 6.5.6.1a Energy Recovery Requirement (ventilation systems operating <8000 hr/yr)
% Outdoor Air at Full Design Airflow Rate
Zone
≥10%
and
<20%
≥20%
and
<30%
≥30%
and
<40%
≥40%
and
<50%
≥50%
and
<60%
≥60%
and
<70%
≥70%
and
<80%
≥80%
Design Supply Fan Airflow Rate (cfm)
3B, 3C, 4B, 4C, 5B
1B, 2B,5C
6B
1A, 2A, 3A, 4A, 5A,
6A
7,8
NR
NR
NR
NR
NR
NR
NR
NR
NR
NR
NR
NR
≥26000
≥12000
≥5000
≥4000
≥28000
≥26500
≥11000
≥5500
≥4500
≥3500
≥2500
≥1500
≥26000
≥16000
≥5500
≥4500
≥3500
≥2000
≥1000
≥0
≥4500
≥4000
≥2500
≥1000
≥0
≥0
≥0
≥0
45
24x7 Energy Recovery (cy)
Table 6.5.6.1b Energy Recovery Requirement (ventilation systems operating ≥8000 hrs/yr)
% Outdoor Air at Full Design Airflow Rate
Zone
≥10%
and
<20%
≥20%
and
<30%
≥30%
and
<40%
≥40%
and
<50%
≥50%
and
<60%
≥60%
and
<70%
≥70%
and
<80%
≥80%
Design Supply Fan Airflow Rate (cfm)
3C
NR
NR
NR
NR
NR
NR
NR
NR
1B, 2B, 3B, 4C,
5C
NR
≥19500
≥9000
≥5000
≥4000
≥3000
≥1500
>0
1A, 2A, 3A, 4B,
5B
≥2500
≥2000
≥1000
≥500
>0
>0
>0
>0
4A, 5A, 6A, 6B, 7,
8
>0
>0
>0
>0
>0
>0
>0
>0
46
Vestibule Heat (ca)
Deactivate heat above 45F outside and limit heating to 60F.
“Vestibules are installed to reduce infiltration into the building. The benefit
of a vestibule during the heating season is negated if the vestibule is
heated to the heating set point of the adjacent space. At the same time,
tempering of vestibule air is needed to avoid ice formation.”
47
VAV Dual Maximum (ck)
Elimination of 30% minimum reheat for DDC boxes, requires
reduction to 20% of maximum supply air at deadband, then
heat to maximum supply air (20F above space temperature),
then a maximum of 50% of air can be reheated.
48
Water Economizer Sizing Reqts Comp Rms (de)
Table 6.5.1.2.1 Water Economizer Sizing Dry-Bulb and Wet-Bulb Requirements
for Computer Rooms
Evaporative Water
Economizer
90.1-2010:
Evap Water Econ at 40F db/ 35F wb
Drycoolers 35F db.
Zone
Dry-Bulb
(°F)
1
1
2
2
3
3
3
4
4
4
5
5
5
6
6
7
8
A
B
A
B
A
B
C
A
B
C
A
B
C
A
B
Wet-Bulb
(°F)
NR
NR
40.0
35.0
40.0
30.0
30.0
40.0
30.0
30.0
40.0
30.0
30.0
35.0
30.0
30.0
30.0
35.0
30.0
35.0
25.0
25.0
35.0
25.0
25.0
35.0
25.0
25.0
30.0
25.0
25.0
25.0
Dry
Cooler
Water
Economiz
er
Dry-Bulb
(°F)
NR
NR
30.0
30.0
25.0
25.0
30.0
25.0
25.0
25.0
20.0
20.0
25.0
20.0
20.0
20.0 49
20.0
Humidity Control (di)
Restricts the use of fossil fuels or electric for humidification
above 30% RH. Recognizes some exceptions such as
museums and hospitals or accreditation standards.
50
90.1-2016
Items Being Considered
•
•
•
•
•
•
Elevator Efficiency (cw)
Computer Room Definition (cs) + 90.4
Expanded Water Economizer Reqts (du)
Evaporative Precoolers for Pkg Air Cooled
Heat Pumps/VRF + Prescriptive Reqts
Bldg Energy Recovery Ventilator Reqt
52
•
•
•
•
•
Fan and Pump Efficiency (DOE)
Occupant Based HVAC Controls (62.1) **
Enhanced Demand Control Ventilation
Air Cooled vs Water Cooled
Heat Recovery from Condenser Heat **
53
• Advanced Energy Standards (AES) Initiatives
– Hydronics working group
– RTU working group
54
Chiller Water “System” Example
No regulations
Regulations
ASHRAE 90.1 fan
power requirement,
no approach
requirement and
ignore water use
Do not address multiple chillers
and towers although most are
applied that way
Cooling
Tower
Condenser Water
Pump
No focus on condenser
water pumping power
other than a pipe sizing
requirement
Condenser
Current 550/590 Chiller
Standard and Certification
focus
ASHRAE 90.1 Full and part
load efficiency
Compressor
No focus on chilled water
pumping power other than
pipe sizing
Evaporator
No integration of
economizers, exhaust fans,
ERV and IAQ
Chilled Water
Pump
Outside
Air
55
Very little focus on
the effective air
distribution
Air
Handler
No focus on duct pressure
drop and very little on applied
fan power
Conditioned Space
Packaged Ducted Rooftop “System” Example
Economizer and
outside air not
reflected in ratings
ERV/Rooftop CEF can
be used for full load,
but not part load and
annualized
Demand ventilation not
reflected in ratings
Packaged Rooftop
Rating of the rooftop EER and IEER
with part of the fan power is covered
by AHRI 340/360 but we do not
certify the full operating map
No annualized performance
for heating
Power Exhaust not
included in ratings
Only part of the duct work
pressure drop included in the
ratings
Very little focus on
the effective air
distribution
56
Conditioned Space
On VAV units reheat not
reflected in ratings

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