What is a Near Miss? - Construction Industry Institute

Report
Using Near Miss Reporting to
Enhance Safety Performance
Moderator:
Panel:
Roger Smith
Glen Clement, Alicia Weber, Wes Rimes, Brandon Shell,
Brian McKay, John Holliday, and Eric Marks
2014 CII Annual Conference
July 21–23 • Indianapolis, Indiana
Research Team 301, Using Near Miss Reporting to
Enhance Safety Performance
Patricia Anthony, DTE Energy
Steve Holland, GE Energy
David Clark, SAIC Constructors, LLC
John Holliday, Georgia-Pacific Corporation
Glen Clement, ConocoPhillips
Eric Marks, Georgia Tech
Bryon Creech, CH2M HILL
Brian McKay, Bechtel/Fairweather
Dennis Cobb, Phillips 66
Anthony Miller, Parsons
Bill Drust, Praxair
Wes Rimes, Yates Construction
Bob Fitzgerald, Southern Company
Jeff Ruebesam, Fluor Corporation
Jason Fulton, Dresser-Rand Company
Brandon Shell, ExxonMobil
Larry Green, BP
Sixto Mendez, SKEC USA, Inc.
Carroll Higdon, The Robins & Morton Group
Roger Smith, Zurich Services Corporation
Jimmie Hinze, University of Florida
Alicia Weber, Jacobs
Dr. Jimmie Hinze
Agenda
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
Mission Statement/Charter/Objective
Literature Review and Motivation
Research Methodology and Results
Near Miss Reporting Program
Simulated Near Miss
Findings and Conclusions
Questions
RT 301 Mission Statement/Charter
Research Team 301 explored:
1) … “how near miss reporting can enhance safety in construction” …
2) … “near miss reporting programs of organizations in industries other than
construction”…
3) … “benefits and limitations of implementing and maintaining a near miss
reporting program within a construction company and on individual
construction sites”…
Essential Question: How can near miss reporting programs be implemented
to significantly enhance safety performance?
Objective: Identify best practices associated with near miss reporting
programs including effective methods for collecting and assessing near miss
information
Only Marginal Safety Improvements
RT 301: Building on Existing CII Safety Research
Near Miss Reporting (RT 301)
Pro-Active
Safety
Safety
Management
Foundation
for Safety
Design for Safety
(RT 101) 1995
Hazard Recognition
(RT 293) 2003
Targeted Safety Programs
(RT 216) 2006
Managing Subcontractor
Safety (RT 13) 1990
Implementing
Active Leading
Indicators
(RT 284) 2012
Real-time ProActive Safety in
Construction
(RT 269) 2010
Safety Plus: Making Zero Accidents a
Reality (RT 160) 2002
Improved Workers’
Compensation
Management (RT 45) 1995
Owner’s Role in
Construction Worker Safety
(RT 190) 2003
Zero Injury Techniques (RT 32) 1993
Organizational Commitment to Safety
Lagging vs. Leading Indicators
Fatality
TRIR
Injury/Illness
Lagging Indicators
First Aid
Cost and Severity
Near Miss
(including hazardous conditions)
At Risk
Behavior
Heinrich’s Safety Pyramid
Leading Indicators
Research Methodology
9
Near Miss Reporting in Other Industries
Initial Interview Phase
1.
2.
3.
Company Information: Safety record (OSHA TRIR), annual revenue,
number of employees)
Project Information: Total cost, percent complete, safety record, cumulative
work hours, first aid incidents, number of safety personnel, and supervisors
Near Miss Reporting Program: Initiating party, near miss definition, flow of
information, investigation strategy, number of reported near misses
U.S.
International
Region
Number
Country
Number
Northeast
2
Canada
7
Northwest
6
Singapore
2
Southwest
12
Norway
1
Southeast
17
Initial Interview Findings
Key finding:
Misunderstanding that an
increase in reported near
misses negatively reflects
safety performance
Projects 50% or more
completeness are
included
Stepwise Regression of Dependent Variables
Dependent Variable
OSHA Recordable Incident Rate
Bottom
Line:
Near
Misses Investigated
Weight
(-) 42.21%
11.42%
As the
number
of
Number
of Safety
Personnel
near 9.87%
misses reported increases;
Number
of First AidTRIR
Incidentsdecreases
9.65%
the OSHA
Regression Metrics
Number of Supervisors
8.38%
Number of Craft Workers
5.23%
Safety Manager Time on Project
4.25%
95% confidence interval
P-value: Less than 0.001
Adjusted R-Square: of 0.89
Standard Error: 17.46
Near Miss Reporting Process
Define
Encourage
Roll Out
Communicate
Corrective
Actions
Collect
Analyze
Define
Encourage
Roll Out
Communicate
Corrective
Actions
Collect
Analyze
•
•
•
•
•
•
Management commitment
Elements of a near miss program
Specific definition of a near miss
Expectations for reporting
Procedures for reporting
Management action/reaction
What is a Near Miss?
• Program Objectives:
– Motivate and empower the workforce to be a partner in safety
– Recognize and communicate unsafe conditions and close-calls
– Take action to reduce risk and prevent adverse outcomes
• Near Miss Definition:
– An unplanned event or unsafe condition that has the potential for
injury or illness to people, or damage to property, or the
environment
Define
Encourage
Roll Out
Communicate
Corrective
Actions
Collect
Analyze
• Demonstrated commitment by
leadership
• Dedicated resources
• Program “champion”
• Develop training material
• Conduct craft and leadership training
Define
Encourage
Roll Out
Communicate
Corrective
Actions
Collect
Analyze
• Who reports?
• Determine collection method
– Verbal (report to supervisor)
– Paper (drop box)
– Electronic
• Near miss observation
– Required information
– Stop work authority
– Mitigate immediate hazards
• Language barriers
Define
Encourage
Roll Out
Communicate
Corrective
Actions
Collect
Analyze
• Evaluate available information
• Determine potential consequence
• Determine and conduct fit for
purpose investigation
• Determine contributing factors
• Trend data
• Determine cause
• Timely
Define
Encourage
Roll Out
Communicate
Corrective
Actions
Collect
Analyze
•
•
•
•
Address causes
Develop implementation plan
Improve training
Establish new or enhance
existing procedures
• Commit to corrective action plan
by leadership
Near Miss Reporting Database
Define
Encourage
Roll Out
Communicate
Corrective
Actions
Collect
Analyze
• Communicate results with workforce
– Daily toolbox safety talks
– Weekly safety meetings
– Printed investigation reports
– Post on project website
• Provide direct feedback to near miss
reporter (if known)
• Must be clear and concise
• Address language barriers
Define
Encourage
Roll Out
Communicate
Corrective
Actions
Collect
Analyze
• Leadership engagement
– Recognize employees/groups
– Celebrate successes
• Continually emphasize program
goals
– Fact finding, not fault finding
– Promote active learning
– Drive continuous improvement
Near Miss Reporting Information Flowchart
27
Findings: Barriers and Enablers
Barriers
Enablers
• Fear of retaliation
• Communication
• Fear that reporting reflects
poorly on performance
• Leadership and motivation
• Absence of a trusting
environment
• Near miss reporting training
• Lack of training
• Guidance and resources
• Reward strategy
• No follow-up
“If you see it, you own it” – Interviewed Safety Manager
Findings and Conclusions
• A comprehensive safety program is a prerequisite to implement a near
miss reporting program (CII RT 284)
• How to measure success of the program? Quality not quantity
• Increased near miss reporting enables identification of hazards before
an injury/illness/fatality occurs
• Fear of retaliation among workers is strong: Needs to be overcome
• Near miss reporting is an important tool of a comprehensive safety
program
• Safety leading indicators (i.e. near misses) can break the plateau
Dr. Jimmie Hinze
Thank you for your attention!
Discussion/Questions/Comments

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