Linking PEVs with Sustainability & Building Benchmarking Goals Workplace Building-related Emissions = People needing/using power at work Workplace Transportation-related Emissions = People showing up for work Washington State GHG Emissions by Source in 2010 (million metric tons CO2e) 23% of total state emissions. The Big Picture: WA’s Primary Energy Sources & Uses Workplace-related GHG emissions: kWh vs. Gasoline Comparing annual operations and transportation emissions for a Seattle CBD office building 8.00 7.00 million lbs CO2 6.00 5.00 Emissions from bldg kWh consumption 4.00 3.00 2.00 Emissions from employees round trip commuting in passenger vehicles 1.00 - Based on: 1 million SF office tower, electricity consumption of 17.5 kWh/SF; Seattle City Light emissions of 0.1 lbs CO2/kWh; 990 employee vehicles per day; 251 work days; PSRC 2006 Activity Survey commuter data; and vehicle emissions based on US passenger fleet average of 22 MPG, 4.90 lbs CO2 per gallon for upstream gasoline production, 20% adder due to oil sands content in Washington State refined gasoline, and 19.6 lbs 5 CO2 per gallon tailpipe emissions. Which conventional passenger vehicle commuters have the greatest impact on workplace-related GHG emissions from gasoline? 60% 29% 11% Short Dist. Commuters 12.0 miles avg 29% Medium Dist. Commuters 34.6 miles avg 41% Long Dist. Commuters 65.2 miles avg 29% % Vehicles by RT commute distance Source: Puget Sound Regional Council 2006 Activity Survey % Total Emissions by RT commute distance 6 Which PEV commuters could benefit from reliable charging at work? Round Trip Commute Distance Short <22 miles 12.0 miles avg Medium 24-48 miles 34.6 miles avg Long >50 miles 65.2 miles avg Nissan LEAF (all-electric) 84 miles No No Yes Chevy Volt (PHEV) 38 miles No Maybe Yes Ford C-Max Energi (PHEV) 21 miles No Yes Yes** Maybe Yes** Yes** Make/Model (PEV type) EPA rated electric driving range Toyota Plug-in Prius (PHEV) 11 miles* * Depending on how it is driven, may use both gas & electricity. ** Not sufficient range to complete trip on electricity alone. 7 Significant PEV savings: Long Distance Commuter with workplace charging 3 year lease 19,306 miles per year: 66 mile roundtrip commute; 20 miles per weekend day Vehicle Monthly Lease Payment Due at signing Lease Term (years) Fuel $/Month Total Monthly Cost Monthly Savings vs. Prius Total Savings vs. Prius • • • • • • Stnd Prius $358 $1,008 3 $125 $606 $0 $0 C-Max Energi $306 $951 3 $85 $513 $93 $3,351 Volt $269 $2,399 3 $60 $489 $117 $4,217 LEAF S $199 $1,999 3 $59 $406 $200 $7,200 Gas Cost: $4/gallon average over period. Efficiency: MPG = EPA Combined City/Highway; Watts/mile = EPA rating. Electricity: $0.11 per kWh average over period. $0.15 per mile over 12,000 miles per year additional lease cost. Maintenance: Not included. Lower for PEV. Home Charging Station Costs: Not included. L2 plus installation would add ~$1,000 initial. Based on Tom Saxton, Plug In America http://www.pluginamerica.org/drivers-seat/leasing-plug-vehicle-total-cost-ownership 8 Energy efficiency provides benefits by reducing load, while transportation electrification provide benefits by increasing load. Increasing the use of electricity for transportation provides net benefits for both society [petroleum displacement, GHG reduction, PM reduction, NOx+ROG reduction] and utility ratepayers.