### Options, Futures, and Other Derivatives

```The Black-ScholesMerton Model
Chapter 13
Options, Futures, and Other Derivatives, 6th Edition, Copyright © John C. Hull 2005
13.1
The Stock Price Assumption


Consider a stock whose price is S
In a short period of time of length Dt, the
return on the stock is normally distributed:

DS
  mDt , s Dt
S

where m is expected return and s is volatility
Options, Futures, and Other Derivatives, 6th Edition, Copyright © John C. Hull 2005
13.2
The Lognormal Property
(Equations 13.2 and 13.3, page 282)

It follows from this assumption that


s2 
ln ST  ln S0    m   T , s T 
2


or



s2 
ln ST   ln S0   m   T , s T 
2




Since the logarithm of ST is normal, ST is
lognormally distributed
Options, Futures, and Other Derivatives, 6th Edition, Copyright © John C. Hull 2005
13.3
The Lognormal Distribution
E ( ST )  S0 e mT
2 2 mT
var ( ST )  S0 e
(e
s2T
 1)
Options, Futures, and Other Derivatives, 6th Edition, Copyright © John C. Hull 2005
Continuously Compounded Return, x
Equations 13.6 and 13.7), page 283)
ST  S 0 e xT
or
1
ST
x = ln
T
S0
or

s2 s 

x    m 
,
2
T 

Options, Futures, and Other Derivatives, 6th Edition, Copyright © John C. Hull 2005
13.5
The Expected Return


The expected value of the stock price is S0emT
The expected return on the stock is
m – s2/2 not m
This is because
ln[E(ST / S0 )]
and
E[ln(ST / S0 )]
are not the same
Options, Futures, and Other Derivatives, 6th Edition, Copyright © John C. Hull 2005
13.6
m and m−s2/2


Suppose we have daily data for a period of
several months
m is the average of the returns in each day
[=E(DS/S)]
m−s2/2 is the expected return over the
whole period covered by the data
measured with continuous compounding
(or daily compounding, which is almost the
same)
Options, Futures, and Other Derivatives, 6th Edition, Copyright © John C. Hull 2005
13.7
Snapshot 13.1 on page 285)



Suppose that returns in successive years
are 15%, 20%, 30%, -20% and 25%
The arithmetic mean of the returns is 14%
The returned that would actually be
earned over the five years (the geometric
mean) is 12.4%
Options, Futures, and Other Derivatives, 6th Edition, Copyright © John C. Hull 2005
13.8
The Volatility



The volatility is the standard deviation of the
continuously compounded rate of return in 1
year
The standard deviation of the return in time
Dt is s Dt
If a stock price is \$50 and its volatility is 30%
per year what is the standard deviation of
the price change in one week?
1
30 
 4.16%
52
Options, Futures, and Other Derivatives, 6th Edition, Copyright © John C. Hull 2005
13.9
Estimating Volatility from
Historical Data (page 286-88)
1.
2.
Take observations S0, S1, . . . , Sn at
intervals of t years
Calculate the continuously compounded
return in each interval as:
 Si 

ui  ln
 Si 1 
3.
4.
Calculate the standard deviation, s , of
the ui´s
The historical volatility estimate is: sˆ 
Options, Futures, and Other Derivatives, 6th Edition, Copyright © John C. Hull 2005
s
t
13.10
Nature of Volatility


Volatility is usually much greater when the
market is open (i.e. the asset is trading)
than when it is closed
For this reason time is usually measured
in “trading days” not calendar days when
options are valued
Options, Futures, and Other Derivatives, 6th Edition, Copyright © John C. Hull 2005
13.11
The Concepts Underlying BlackScholes




The option price and the stock price depend
on the same underlying source of uncertainty
We can form a portfolio consisting of the
stock and the option which eliminates this
source of uncertainty
The portfolio is instantaneously riskless and
must instantaneously earn the risk-free rate
This leads to the Black-Scholes differential
equation
Options, Futures, and Other Derivatives, 6th Edition, Copyright © John C. Hull 2005
13.12
The Derivation of the Black-Scholes
Differential Equation
DS  mS Dt  sS Dz
 ƒ
ƒ
2 ƒ 2 2 
ƒ
D ƒ   mS 
 ½ 2 s S Dt 
sS Dz
t
S
S
 S

We set up a portfolio consisting of
 1 : derivative
ƒ
+
: shares
S
Options, Futures, and Other Derivatives, 6th Edition, Copyright © John C. Hull 2005
13.13
The Derivation of the Black-Scholes
Differential Equation continued
The value of the portfolio  is given by
ƒ
  ƒ 
S
S
The change in its value in time Dt is given by
ƒ
D  D ƒ 
DS
S
Options, Futures, and Other Derivatives, 6th Edition, Copyright © John C. Hull 2005
13.14
The Derivation of the Black-Scholes
Differential Equation continued
The return on the portfolio must be the risk - free
rate. Hence
D  r Dt
We substitute for D ƒ and DS in these equations
to get the Black - Scholes differenti al equation :
2
ƒ
ƒ

ƒ
2 2
 rS
½ s S
 rƒ
2
t
S
S
Options, Futures, and Other Derivatives, 6th Edition, Copyright © John C. Hull 2005
13.15
The Differential Equation




Any security whose price is dependent on the
stock price satisfies the differential equation
The particular security being valued is determined
by the boundary conditions of the differential
equation
In a forward contract the boundary condition is
ƒ = S – K when t =T
The solution to the equation is
ƒ = S – K e–r (T
–t)
Options, Futures, and Other Derivatives, 6th Edition, Copyright © John C. Hull 2005
13.16
In case of options

Boundary conditions for European call:
ƒ = max (S – K, 0) when t =T

Boundary conditions for European put:
ƒ = max (K – S , 0) when t =T
Options, Futures, and Other Derivatives, 6th Edition, Copyright © John C. Hull 2005
13.17
The Black-Scholes Formulas
(See pages 295-297)
c  S 0 N (d1 )  K e
pKe
 rT
 rT
N (d 2 )
N (d 2 )  S 0 N (d1 )
2
ln( S 0 / K )  (r  s / 2)T
where d1 
s T
2
ln( S 0 / K )  (r  s / 2)T
 d1  s T
d2 
s T
Options, Futures, and Other Derivatives, 6th Edition, Copyright © John C. Hull 2005
13.18
The N(x) Function


N(x) is the probability that a normally
distributed variable with a mean of zero
and a standard deviation of 1 is less than x
See tables at the end of the book
Options, Futures, and Other Derivatives, 6th Edition, Copyright © John C. Hull 2005
13.19
Properties of Black-Scholes Formula

As S0 becomes very large c tends to
S – Ke-rT and p tends to zero

As S0 becomes very small c tends to zero
and p tends to Ke-rT – S
Options, Futures, and Other Derivatives, 6th Edition, Copyright © John C. Hull 2005
13.20
Risk-Neutral Valuation




The variable m does not appear in the BlackScholes equation
The equation is independent of all variables
affected by risk preference
The solution to the differential equation is
therefore the same in a risk-free world as it
is in the real world
This leads to the principle of risk-neutral
valuation
Options, Futures, and Other Derivatives, 6th Edition, Copyright © John C. Hull 2005
13.21
Applying Risk-Neutral Valuation
(See appendix at the end of Chapter 13)
1. Assume that the expected
return from the stock price is
the risk-free rate
2. Calculate the expected payoff
from the option
3. Discount at the risk-free rate
Options, Futures, and Other Derivatives, 6th Edition, Copyright © John C. Hull 2005
13.22
Valuing a Forward Contract with
Risk-Neutral Valuation



Payoff is ST – K
Expected payoff in a risk-neutral world is
SerT – K
Present value of expected payoff is
e-rT[SerT – K]=S – Ke-rT
Options, Futures, and Other Derivatives, 6th Edition, Copyright © John C. Hull 2005
13.23
Implied Volatility



The implied volatility of an option is the
volatility for which the Black-Scholes price
equals the market price
The is a one-to-one correspondence
between prices and implied volatilities
Traders and brokers often quote implied
volatilities rather than dollar prices
Options, Futures, and Other Derivatives, 6th Edition, Copyright © John C. Hull 2005
13.24
An Issue of Warrants & Executive
Stock Options




When a regular call option is exercised the stock
that is delivered must be purchased in the open
market
When a warrant or executive stock option is
exercised new Treasury stock is issued by the
company
If little or no benefits are foreseen by the market
the stock price will reduce at the time the issue of
is announced.
There is no further dilution (See Business
Snapshot 13.3.)
Options, Futures, and Other Derivatives, 6th Edition, Copyright © John C. Hull 2005
13.25
The Impact of Dilution


After the options have been issued it is not
necessary to take account of dilution when
they are valued
Before they are issued we can calculate
the cost of each option as N/(N+M) times
the price of a regular option with the same
terms where N is the number of existing
shares and M is the number of new shares
that will be created if exercise takes place
Options, Futures, and Other Derivatives, 6th Edition, Copyright © John C. Hull 2005
13.26
Dividends



European options on dividend-paying
stocks are valued by substituting the stock
price less the present value of dividends
into Black-Scholes
Only dividends with ex-dividend dates
during life of option should be included
The “dividend” should be the expected
reduction in the stock price expected
Options, Futures, and Other Derivatives, 6th Edition, Copyright © John C. Hull 2005
13.27
American Calls



An American call on a non-dividend-paying
stock should never be exercised early
An American call on a dividend-paying stock
should only ever be exercised immediately
prior to an ex-dividend date
Suppose dividend dates are at times t1, t2,
…tn. Early exercise is sometimes optimal at
time ti if the dividend at that time is greater
than
 r (t t )
K[1  e
i1
i
]
Options, Futures, and Other Derivatives, 6th Edition, Copyright © John C. Hull 2005
13.28
Black’s Approximation for Dealing with
Dividends in American Call Options
Set the American price equal to the
maximum of two European prices:
1. The 1st European price is for an
option maturing at the same time as the
American option
2. The 2nd European price is for an
option maturing just before the final exdividend date
Options, Futures, and Other Derivatives, 6th Edition, Copyright © John C. Hull 2005
13.29
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