L5 user needs, QC, ICT

Report
User needs
Quality Control
Prototyping
ICT
Copyright
Anthropometrics
• Anthropometrics is the name given to the
study of the sizes of people in relation to the
design of products.
• The study of the human body and its
movement, often involving research into
measurements relating to people. It also
involves collecting statistics or measurements
relevant to the human body, called
Anthropometric Data.
ANTHROPOMETRICS APPLIED TO A
HAIR DRYER
• Anthropometric data (measurements) are used to
determine the shape of handle and distance to be held
from head. Designed for average size hand. The length
of lead is determined from anthropometric data
(length of average arms and average height of users).
The hair dryer is now ergonomically designed.
Ergonomics
• Ergonomics is concerned with the relationship
between people and the products which they use .
It is also the study of people and their
relationship with the environment around them.
• Anthropometric data is used to help when
designing products to meet ergonomic needs.
• As well as sizes of people, ergonomics has to
consider the force which someone can apply – for
example using a packaged product.
Ergonomics
The Design Specification
• When designing a graphic product, a designer
has to make sure that it meets the design
specification.
• A specification is a statement that tells the
designer exactly what the product has to do and
what the design requirements are.
• A specification will always: describe what the
product has to do; describe what the product
will look like; include details of any other
requirements to suit the target market.
Specification
• The specification describes precise details of
a design,
( eg.materials, dimensions, tolerances, quality,
any important safety features, finish, etc.)
• A specification may have essential elements
to it – this is the primary specification.
• A specification may also have desirable
elements to it – this is the secondary
specification.
The Design Specification
• In detail, a specification should include the following
information about the product:
• the main function of the product;
• the main overall dimensions of the product;
• the main materials and processes which are likely to be
used;
• an outline of the appearance of the product;
• user requirements;
• how anthropometrics and ergonomics effect the design;
• the cost of the graphic product;
• possible production levels - one-off, batch, mass production;
• legal requirements which may have to be met;
• environmental considerations and requirements.
Quality Control
What is meant by Quality Control?
• Quality Control refers to the checks carried out on a product by
workers, during stages of its manufacture.
• These checks may include, simply ensuring that components are
positioned correctly, or that they are the correct type and size.
• A final quality check should include testing the product to ensure it is
to the correct standard, before it is distributed to the retailer /
customer.
• A combination of visual checks and automated checks (by sensors
and computers) are usually carried out.
Quality Control
There are two aspects to quality control:
1. The quality of the design itself, or how well
the graphic product meets the needs of the
user,
2. The quality of the manufacture, or how well
the graphic product has been made.
Quality Control
• These two aspects of quality can be independent of each
other.
A graphic product can be designed well but be poorly
made, or a well-made product may be of a poor design
which does not meet the needs of the user.
• For example, a popup card may be designed well, but could
be poorly made with rough edges, inaccurate cutting and
poor choice of colour.
Alternatively it could be well made, but poorly designed
• A product can only be a quality product if it is good design
that is made to a high standard.
Prototyping
Prototyping
• Designers will make a number of prototypes before deciding on a final
product.
There are many reasons for making a prototype, such as:
• Making a scaled prototype allows the designer/manufacturer to work out
the method of construction;
• Evaluating the manufacture of the prototype, allows the designer to plan an
efficient and cost effective manufacturing production line.
• Design faults and errors can be detected more easily and refined or solved
before the product goes into production.
• A prototype can be tested on potential customers and focus groups.
• Safety issues can be identified.
• The prototype can be tested against any relevant regulations and
legislation.
• Testing against the design specification, helps ensure a full and relevant
evaluation of a prototype is carried out. This should be carried out during
the entire development process.
ICT
Rapid prototyping
o Rapid Prototyping (RP) can be defined as a group of
techniques used to quickly fabricate a scale model of a
part or assembly using three-dimensional computer
aided design (CAD) data.
o Rapid Prototyping has also been referred to as solid
free-form manufacturing, computer automated
manufacturing, and layered manufacturing.
o RP has an obvious use as a vehicle for visualization (ie
Virtual prototyping software produces a 3D
representation, which can be manipulated and
viewed from any angle).
Rapid prototyping
•
•
•
•
•
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The reasons for Rapid Prototyping are:
To increase effective communication;
To decrease development time;
To decrease costly mistakes;
To minimize sustaining engineering changes;
To extend product lifetime by adding necessary
features and eliminating redundant features early in
the design;
Rapid Prototyping decreases development time by
allowing corrections to a product to be made early in
the process.
CAD - Computer Aided Design
CAD involves the use of computers to model
product ideas 2D or 3D and either view them
on screen or print them out for review and
reference.
CAD modelling is a key part of industrial design
process because it enables manufacturers to
test and modify ideas in 2D and simulate
products on screen in 3D
CAM - Computer Aided Manufacture
• This is the use of computer software to control
machinery.
• When a design is complete the drawing is
processed. This converts the drawing into a
detailed series of X, Y and Z coordinates.
• When the CNC machine shapes the material
the cutter follows the coordinates, in
sequence, until the shape has been
manufactured.
Designers and manufacturers can use
CAD and CAM in various ways to:
Make accurate working drawings for manufacturing
specifications and make changes easily and quickly.
Store style and colour information
Create, model and modify designs ideas quickly and
easily
 Apply texture, rendering or shading to drawings to
create virtual products (wood grain, shiny or rough
surfaces, lighting effects, etc).
 Present a virtual 3D animation of a product using
multimedia.
Identify all design aspects of the product, style
(appearance ) - function to ensure product fulfils
all requirements of the specification
 Calculate the volume/quantities and therefore
cost of materials required to produce product.
Produces coded information of drawn
component parts to drive CNC /CAM machines
in a fully computer integrated system/automated
system.
The use of ICT enables CAD information to be
sent electronically anywhere in the world
between clients, designers and manufacturers ,
so that design decisions can be made quickly.

CNC Machines
Computer Numerically Controlled
Machines
This term refers to the use of computers in the manufacture of
products.
Examples of these machines in graphic production include laser
cutters, routers, vinyl cutters, etching machines and 3D printers
used for rapid prototyping.
Copyright
Copyright
• Copyright is all about protection. It protects
physical ideas.
• Copyright gives the creator of an original piece of
work control over its publication, distribution and
adaptation.
• When you upload anything to public websites,
what you are doing is copying and sharing
content - and you are only allowed to do that if
you own the copyright or have permission from
the copyright holder.
•
Copyright
• The term "piracy" has been used to refer to
the unauthorized copying, distribution and
selling of works in copyright.
• However, you can use copyright-free images
such as clip art.
Exam Question
Explain the difference between quality of design
and quality of manufacture. (6)
Explanation should focus on:
Quality of design
There is an element of user perception in making
judgements about the quality of a design but all
quality designs must:
• ...function as intended
• ...be aesthetically pleasing • ...have user appeal
• ...be sustainable
Quality of manufacture
The four main features that define quality of
manufacture are:
•appropriate material selection
•appropriate manufacturing methods
•high quality surface finish
•well fitting components
The combination of quality of design and quality of
manufacture does not always result in a quality
product. For example a product can be:
a poor design that is made badly
• a poor design that is made well
a good design that is made badly
A product can only be a quality product if it is good
design that is made to a high standard.
•
Level 1 (0-2 marks)
Explanation shows limited understanding of
quality of design and quality of manufacture.
There will be little or no use of specialist
terms. Answers may be ambiguous or
disorganised. Errors of grammar, punctuation
and spelling may be intrusive.
•
Level 2 (3-4 marks)
Explanation shows some understanding of
the differences between quality of design
and quality of manufacture. There will be
some use of specialist terms, although these
may not always be used appropriately. The
information will be presented for the most
part in a structured format. There may be
occasional errors in spelling, grammar and
punctuation
•
Level 3 (5-6 marks)
Explanation shows a thorough understanding
of the differences between quality of design
and quality of manufacture and illustrates
this understanding. Specialist terms will be
used appropriately and correctly. The
information will be presented in a structured
format. The candidate can demonstrate the
accurate use of spelling, punctuation and
grammar.
A children’s craft kit to be sold in a
department store
Exam Question
State, with as much detail as you can, what you think was the most important design
specification point for each of the following aspects.
(i) The purpose of the package. [2]
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(ii) The environmental impact of the package. [2]
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(iii) Explain why the logo and the package will appeal to the parents of young children. [3]
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(iv) The box is made from 500 micron duplex folding boxboard.
Describe one physical property of this material that makes it the most suitable material
for the package (2)
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(v) State one quality issue relating to the box. [1]
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(vi) The box has been designed to appeal to the target market and the duplex folding
boxboard has been used in a particular way. Describe in detail the target market that
would find this product appealing. [2]
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(Vii) Explain how the Design Specification helps when evaluating the product at the end of
the design process. (2)
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• Quality Control e.g. random sampling 1 -100,
visual checks for colour and alignment, materials
etc, tolerance tests.
• Well explained and reasoned
• 2 marks
• Some understanding
• 1 mark
• No understanding or not attempted
• 0 mark

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