Training Methods Naomi Radke, seecon international GmbH Training Methods Find this presentation and more on: www.sswm.info. Copyright & Disclaimer Copy it, adapt it, use.

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Training Methods
Naomi Radke, seecon international GmbH
Training Methods
1
Find this presentation and more on: www.sswm.info.
Copyright & Disclaimer
Copy it, adapt it, use it – but acknowledge the source!
Copyright
Included in the SSWM Toolbox are materials from various organisations and sources. Those materials are open source. Following the opensource concept for capacity building and non-profit use, copying and adapting is allowed provided proper acknowledgement of the source
is made (see below). The publication of these materials in the SSWM Toolbox does not alter any existing copyrights. Material published in
the SSWM Toolbox for the first time follows the same open-source concept, with all rights remaining with the original authors or producing
organisations.
To view an official copy of the the Creative Commons Attribution Works 3.0 Unported License we build upon, visit
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0. This agreement officially states that:
You are free to:
• Share - to copy, distribute and transmit this document
• Remix - to adapt this document. We would appreciate receiving a copy of any changes that you have made to improve this
document.
Under the following conditions:
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Disclaimer
The contents of the SSWM Toolbox reflect the opinions of the respective authors and not necessarily the official opinion of the funding or
supporting partner organisations.
Depending on the initial situations and respective local circumstances, there is no guarantee that single measures described in the toolbox
will make the local water and sanitation system more sustainable. The main aim of the SSWM Toolbox is to be a reference tool to provide
ideas for improving the local water and sanitation situation in a sustainable manner. Results depend largely on the respective situation
and the implementation and combination of the measures described. An in-depth analysis of respective advantages and disadvantages and
the suitability of the measure is necessary in every single case. We do not assume any responsibility for and make no warranty with
respect to the results that may be obtained from the use of the information provided.
Training Methods
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Contents
1. Lectures
2. Group Works
3. Discussions
4. Role Plays
5. World Café
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1. Lectures
What are Lectures?
• Traditionally: talking to a group (passive audience)
• Modified: include participation by the audience
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1. Lectures
How to be a Good Lecturer
• Present in clear, logical sequence
• Make the material accessible, intelligible and meaningful
• Cover the subject matter adequately
• Be constructive and helpful in you criticism
• Demonstrate expert knowledge in your subject
• Pace lecture appropriately
• Be concise
• Illustrate the practical application of the theory presented
• Show enthusiasm for the subject
• Generate curiosity about the lecture material early in the lecture
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1. Lectures
Planning a Lecture (1/3)
Points to be considered:
1. Learning outcomes:
◦ Learning what?
◦ Key concepts?
◦ Skills that participants
should develop?
◦ How communicated?
Source: SPUHLER (2012)
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1. Lectures
Planning a Lecture (2/3)
2. Structure: systematic
development of the main points
◦
◦
◦
◦
◦
Sign posts: indicate structure
“First, I will ...”
Frames: begin/end of section
- “That ends my discussion
...”
Foci
- “So the mainpoint is ...”
Links: link one explanation to
another
Summaries
Source: SPUHLER (2012)
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1. Lectures
Planning a Lecture (3/3)
3. Delivery:
clear!
knowledgeable!
interesting!
Source: SPUHLER (2012)
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1. Lectures
Tips and Techniques (1/2)
Help to keep the participants’ concentration and retention!
Source: SPUHLER (2012)
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1. Lectures
Tips and Techniques (2/2)
• Plan your overall framework carefully
• In the beginning: introduce yourself, expectations, learning objectives
• Presentation style: don’t be boring and monotone!
• Engage with the audience
• Leave them with a message
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1. Lectures
Advantages and Disadvantages
ADVANTAGES
DISADVANTAGES
• Knowledge straight to
participants
• Difficult for people not used
to auditory learning
• Good for auditory learners
• Difficult for people not good
at note taking
• Logistically easy
• Often used knowledge
delivery method, people are
used to it
• Participants may feel
uncomfortable asking
questions when they arise
• Lecturers may find it hard to
feel whether participants
understand
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2. Group Works
Benefits from Group Works (1/2)
• Enhancement of amount and depth of learning
• Development of communication and thinking skills
• Development of social skills and attitudes towards learning
• Achieve products of greater complexity/ size than as individuals
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2. Group Works
Benefits from Group Works (2/2)
More Benefits.... .
Source: SPUHLER (2012)
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2. Group Works
Types of Group Works
Informal Learning Groups
Formal Learning Groups
• Temporary and ad-hoc
• For a class/discussion point
• Often only a few minutes
• Complete a specific task
• Longer period of time
• Aim: focus student’s attention
and opportunity to cognitively
process material
• Comparing ideas with peers
Informal learning group at an SSWM
training.
Source: MIZO (2010)
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2. Group Works
When useful?
• Gathering ideas
• E.g. In preparation for a lecture
• Summarizing or reviewing
• E.g. Main outcomes in a lecture
• Assessing level of skills and understanding
• E.g. To see whether the teacher brought his point across
• Re-examining ideas
• Comparing and contrasting
• Brainstorming
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2. Group Works
When Do They Work Well?
If group is held together through:
• Positive interdependence: “sink or swim together”
• Individual accountability
• Face-to-face interactions (not necessarily all the time)
• Interpersonal and small-group skills (discussion, problem solving, ...)
• Group processing (evaluate what they are doing)
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2. Group Works
How to Do Group Works
• Preparing: clear task, material, group size and composition
• Instructing and Starting: time for questions, time and space for
group work
• Management: be there if questions arise, check on groups
• Evaluation/Results Sharing: in formal groups allow enough time for
result sharing; in informal groups less time e.g. only main findings
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2. Group Works
Group Size
small groups
LARGE GROUPS
• More participation by each
participant
• More ideas are generated
• Fewer social skills required
• Wider range of perspectives
and background knowledge
• Easier to coordinate meetings
• Easier to reach consensus
• More complex/sizable tasks
• Fewer groups in a class, thus
more time can be devoted to
each group’s presentation
Source: SPUHLER (2012)
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2. Group Works
Advantages and Disadvantages
ADVANTAGES
DISADVANTAGES
• Participant interaction and
active working
• May not effectively pass on
knowledge
• Spirit of communication,
cooperation, coordination
• Distraction away from task
can occur
• Develop responsibility,
leadership, teamwork skills
• Effectiveness can be limited
by some participants
• Participants receiving social
feedback
• Dominant participants
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3. Discussions
How to lead a good discussion?
To ensure that a discussion is substantive and even shy
participants get a word, the trainer must be well prepared…
Source: REGIOSUISSE (2008)
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3. Discussions
Preparation by Trainer
• Determine learners’ relevant experiences, needs, strengths,
interests
• Identify learning goals for the groups
• Plan activities for participants to prepare them for discussion
• Read and reflect on topics planned for the session
• Find or create appropriate resources
• Attend any relevant lectures that the participants attended
prior to the discussion
• Identify/work on skills he/she has for leading the session
• Develop well-structured but flexible plan for session
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3. Discussions
Initiating Discussions
• Develop how to start/restart a discussion
• E.g common experience, open-ended question, document
• Offer example if problem seems too abstract
• Allow sufficient waiting time
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3. Discussions
Moderating the Discussion (1/2)
The trainer should ask different questions at different levels:
• Comprehension
• Retell
• Application
• E.g. how is … related to …?
• Analysis
• E.g. how would you compare …?
• Synthesis
• E.g. what would you infer …?
• Evaluation
• E.g. what are your points of agreement/disagreement and
why?
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3. Discussions
Moderating the Discussion (2/2)
• Make sure no one dominates the discussion  invite and
encourage contributions from other participants
• Make sure only one group member speaks at a time
• Ensure the discussion does not drift off-topic
• Summarise the discussion afterwards and fill in points that
have not been said
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3. Discussions
Motivate Participation
• Choose interesting topics
• Be enthusiastic about the topic
• Make it relevant
• Organise the discussion
• Appropriate level of difficulty
• Actively involve students
• Variety
• Use concrete, appropriate and understandable examples
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3. Discussions
Common Problems and Solutions (1/3)
Problem 1: Learner direct all answers to the trainer
Solution:
• Redirect questions to other learners
• Ask whether everyone agrees
• Help students see conflicts as a good thing
• Announce that you will be note-taker
• Break the class into small groups
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3. Discussions
Common Problems and Solutions (2/3)
Problem 2: Non-participating learners and excessive talkers
Solution:
• Email discussion questions to participants in advance
• Pause before calling on a student
• Look for non-verbal signs of readiness to speak
• Turn statements into questions: “Do you agree with that?”
• Ask non-participating learners to sum up what has been said
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3. Discussions
Common Problems and Solutions (3/3)
Problem 3: Trainer-dominated discussions
Solution:
• Do not answer your own questions
• Be patient, wait for responses
• Be a moderator: summarise, re-direct and keep the problem
in view
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3. Discussions
Recording Discussions
Discussions may lead to important
outcomes!
• Somebody should take minutes
OR
• Record discussions on coloured cards or
flip charts
Source: SPUHLER (2012)
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3. Discussions
Advantages and Disadvantages
ADVANTAGES
DISADVANTAGES
• Greater interaction between
trainer and learners
• Requires setting ground rules
• Trainers check learners’
retention of the lesson
• Staying focussed through
interaction
Training Methods
• Not good for people that are
weak at note-taking
• Some do not feel
comfortable being put on the
spot in discussions
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4. Role Plays
What are Role Plays?
• A simulation in which every participant is given a role to play
• Vivid way to learn how to handle situations
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4. Role Plays
Types of Role Plays
• Multiple role play
• Different groups acting out the same role play, followed by an
analysis of the interactions and learning points
• Single role play
• One group plays the role for the rest of the participants, who
then analyse the interactions and learning points
• Role rotation
• Starts as a single role play, trainer will stop and discuss what
happened, then character exchange among participants
• Spontaneous role play
• One of the participants plays herself, other participants play
people with whom the first participant interacted before
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4. Role Plays
Why Role Plays?
• Help examine real life problems on the level of philosophy,
emotional and physical response
• Try out different theories and tactics in a relatively safe setting
• Understand different people and their roles/thoughts/feelings
• Identify and anticipate possible problems/fears/anxieties people
have about an event or action
Source: HEEB (2012)
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4. Role Plays
Steps in a Role Play (1/2)
Select a situation
Explain the situation
Cast roles
Prepare the role
players
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4. Role Plays
Steps in a Role Play (2/2)
Prepare the observers
Set the scene
Run the role play
Cut the role play
Source: HEEB (2012)
Training Methods
Debrief
35
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4. Role Plays
Advantages and Disadvantages
ADVANTAGES
DISADVANTAGES
• Develop greater involvement
with the focus of the training
• Player needs to get expert
feedback
• Behavioural pre-training
assessment in terms of skills
• Many people hate role plays
• Assessment of how well learner
understands
• Practice in a safe environment/
no real world consequences
• Better understand other
person’s position
Training Methods
• Performance can become too
artificial and sound funny
• Role plays in large groups
often go out of control (timewise and monitoring-wise)
inefficient training
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5. World Café
Introduction
• Used for the discussion of clear questions
• Collaborative dialogues/conversations in a casual
café atmosphere
• Set up in a cluster-type seating arrangement
Source: http://www.kstoolkit.org/The+World+Cafe. [Accessed: 14.05.2013]
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5. World Café
How to Conduct a World Café
1. Setting: resembles ordinary café with cluster-style seating (45 chairs)
2. Welcome and introduction: introduce process and rules
3. Small group rounds: at least three discussion rounds. After 20
minutes of the first discussion, each member of a group
changes to another table
4. Questions: new question applied for each new round or
discuss same issue throughout several rounds. Question
matters for real world situations and is clearly formulated
5. Whole group conversation: main ideas and results discussed,
synthesise the findings
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5. World Café
Principles of a World Café
Source: THE CHANGE INITIATIVE
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5. World Café
Special Roles
•
Café Convener: invites participants
•
Cafe Host: manages, provides structure, facilitator role
•
Table Host: stays constantly at one table during table change
to welcome new arrivals
•
Member/Participant
•
Design Team
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5. World Café
Advantages and Disadvantages
ADVANTAGES
DISADVANTAGES
• Informal and inclusive
• Requires clear and relevant
questions
• Cheap and easy to organise
• Personal involvement leads to
commitment to resulting plans
• Not suitable for making
direct decisions
• Social learning and consensus
finding
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6. References
THE CHANGE INITIATIVE (Editor) (): World Café. Bangkok: The Change Initiative Co., Ltd. URL:
http://www.change-initiative.com/752/9143.html [Accessed: 25.06.2012].
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“Linking up Sustainable Sanitation,
Water Management & Agriculture”
SSWM is an
initiative
supported by:
Created
by:
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