Ch. 8 Sec. 2

Ch. 8 Sec. 2
Revolutions of 1830 and 1848
France Again
• Revolts that began in Paris inspired the outbreak
of uprisings throughout Europe
• Louis XVIII issued the Charter of French Liberties
• dies in 1824
• Charles X (younger brother) inherits the throne
• Rejects the constitution that allowed some liberties
• Liberals and radicals respond
• Within days control Paris
• Frightened Charles X abdicated and fled to England
“Citizen King”
• Radicals want a republic, but moderate
liberals prevail with a constitutional
monarchy and chose Louis Philippe (cousin
of Charles X) as King
• Supported the revolution of 1789
• Got along well with liberal bourgeoisie
• Bourgeoisie prospered
• Voting rights and other policies favoring middle
class and hurting the working class
“When France sneezes Europe
catches a cold”
• Most uprisings were suppressed, but some won
and even failed revolutions encouraged reform
• Belgium
• 1815 unification of Austrian Netherlands and kingdom
of Holland by the Congress of Vienna
• Belgians resented, different religion, language
• Support from Britain and France resulted in Belgium becoming
and independent state in 1831
• Polands fight for independence is crushed by
Russian forces in 1830, survivors flee to U.S.
France Again!!
• 1840s tough times in France
• Radicals discontent
• Utopian socialists want and end to private
• Even liberals upset with Philippe’s government
• Corruption and limited voting rights
• Recession shuts down factories and poor
harvests cause bread prices to rise
February Days
• Mob-like street fighting
• Louis Philippe abdicated
• Liberal, Radical, and Socialist leaders create the
Second Republic
• Doomed from the beginning because of political
• Upper and Middle-class interests won control and
shut down policies that infuriated workers and
June Days
• Street fighting again, but this time it was
characterized by deeper divisions among the
• At least 1,500 people killed before the
government crushed the rebellion
• Fear, mistrust, and hatred between all
Napoleon III
• A national assembly dominated by those who want
order restored
• Issue a constitution for the Second Republic
• Strong President, 1-house legislature
• Voting rights for all men (widest suffrage in the world)
9 million instead of 200,000
• Louis Napoleon overwhelmingly wins election
• Attractive to working class, cared about social issues
• Name carried support with conservatives
• Like his uncle used his power to seize more power
• 1852 proclaims himself emperor (90% of the vote)
Revolts surge through Europe
• Culmination of years of grievances
Liberal greater share of political power
Protection of basic rights for all males
Relief from Industrial miseries
Nationalists opposing foreign rule
Austrian Empire
• Students and workers demaning change
• Metternich resigned and fled
• Hungarians and Czechs demand
• Temporary success
• Austrian troops regroup and crush rebels
Italian City-States
• Want to end domination of Hapsburg rule
and create independent republics
• Forces regain control quickly
• Austrian troops oust new governments
• French army restores the pope in Rome
• Local rulers cancel reforms
German States
• Liberal reforms, economic hard times
• Force Prussian King Frederick William IV to agree to a
constitution and elected assembly
• Dissolved within a year
• Attempts to have a united Germany fail
• Divisions over republic or Monarchy
• What states would be included
• Frederick William IV rejects the offer of the crown
• By 1850 rebellion fades
• Rulers military force
• Revolutionaries did not have mass support

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