Chapter 11.2 (Pg. 313-318): Applying Mendel*s Principles

Chapter 11.2 (Pg. 313-318):
Applying Mendel’s Principles
Genetics Vocabulary
- Genotype
- An organism’s genetic makeup
- Phenotype
- An organism’s physical traits
- Homozygous
- An organism has two of the
same allele for a trait
- Heterozygous
- An organism has two different
alleles for a trait
Probability and Genetics
- Probability is the likelihood an
event will occur
- Can be predicted in genetics
through segregation
- Assumes that each gamete has a
½ chance of carrying an allele
Punnett Squares
- Are named for their creator,
Reginald Punnett
- Are a simple matrix to calculate
the probability of inheritance
- Show the possible genotypes
and phenotypes of offspring
The Principle of Independent Assortment
- Genes for different traits can
segregate independently during
formation of gametes
- Traits that segregate
independently do not influence
each other’s inheritance
- The gene that determines seed
shape does not affect gene for
seed color
Two-Factor Crosses
- Show how the alleles for one
trait are inherited
independently of another trait
- Two dominant alleles don’t
always stay together
- Trick is to show the correct
combinations of alleles in the

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