Social and Cultural norms Pages 111 - 127 Introduction Norms A set of rules based on social an cultural beliefs that regulate behavior Deviation from the norm results in punishments, stigmatizing, marginalizing OR (+) creative, original thinkers How does the need to belong (social nature of humans) affect behaviors within the norms? Reference two studies Pg 111 - 115 Key Studies & Theories Bandura's Bashing Bobo study (pg 112-113) Eron & Huesmann's (1986) study of violence and television viewing (pg 114) Kimball & Zabrack (1986) on television and violence in a Canadian village (pg 114) Sabido method (pg 115) *Aronson and Mills (1959) – hazing (pg 119) Asch - conformity (pg 120) *Abrams (1990) of the Asch Deutsch and Gerald (1955) conformity (pg 122) Berry (1967) conformity (pg 123) Social Learning Theory Albert Bandura’s, Social Learning Theory Humans learn behavior through observation and imitating. attention Retention Social Learning Motivation Motor reproduction Observational learning: Learning that occurs through watching the behavior of other people. This is a highly efficient way of learning because we do not have to actually have the experience ourselves in order to learn it. Models may be direct (teacher to a student) or Indirect (not trying to influence behavior) Key Concepts- Bandura Factors that are involved in social learning Attention Retention Motor reproduction Motivation – learners must want to demonstrate the behavior. Factors that influence whether social learning will take place Consistency Identification with the model. There is a tendency to imitate those you identify with, like age, gender, Rewards/punishment People learn by what happens to others, you do not have to experience the consequence. Liking the model Warm and friendly models are more likely to be imitated than cold, uncaring models. Rewards/punishment Vicarious reinforcement: When you learn by watching someone else either receive a reward or punishment. Vicarious reward would be when you see someone get a scholarship to a top US university because of their good grades and extra-curricular actives and then you become more committed to your school work. Vicarious punishment is when you watch someone put their hand in a pool of hot water and get burned; you learn not to do the same thing even without having to be burned yourself. Bandura et al. 1961 Aim: would children imitate aggressive adult models? Were children more likely to imitate same sex models? Method: experimental Procedure: Children ages 3 – 6 were grouped according to a defined aggression rating. Each group was exposed to a different modeling behavior After viewing the models, children were observed in a natural environments and assessed Bandura et al. 1961 cont., Findings: Children showed signs of observational learning Girls imitated verbal abuse observed by female model whereas boys imitated physical abuse as observed by the made model Criticisms of Bandura Method: low ecological validity very brief encounter with the model the children may have been frustrated when they were taken away from the toys. Does aggression against BoBo assume aggression against living being? There may have been slight differences in the adult models aggressive behavior Initial aggression assessment (grouping) may not have been accurate Demand characteristics? Criticisms of Bandura cont., Ethics: Is it appropriate to demonstrate violence to children? Is there any guarantee that once violence is learned that you can unlearn it? Violence in the media and its effect on aggression in children. Social learning theory has been used to explain the role of violence in the media on aggression in children. Application of social learning theory The results of televised violence demonstrates consistently: Children learn how to be aggressive in new ways Children draw conclusions as to whether the behavior will bring rewards or punishments. Eron (1986), 15 year longitudinal study Positive correlation between number of hours violence watched on TV by elementary school children and levels of aggression when they were teenagers. Those who watched violence on TV at 8 years of age, were more likely to be arrested and prosecuted for criminal acts as adults. Kimball and Zabrack (1986) Canadian study – children demonstrated a significantly higher level of aggression two years after TV was introduced to the town. Charlton, Gunter & Hannan (2002), The other side of the argument Aim: Does exposure to TV violence influence behavior? Method: Natural Experiment TV was first introduced to St. Helena in 1995 Procedure: cameras were et up in the play grounds of primary schools and children were observed (ages 3-8) before and after the introduction of TV. Findings: no significant difference in behavior after 5 year assessment Why are Charlton et al. Findings so different? What might be different about St. Helena vs. the UK or USA? Discuss possible reasons as to why this study is so different from Bandura et al, and Kimball and Zabrack Is TV always negative? Bandura’s Social learning theory is the basis for educational presentation or shows designed to bring aware to difficult social issues Example – Tanzania 1996 – 1996 the serial Twende na Wakati (Let’s Go with the Times) found an increase in safe sex women's status and family planning. Sabido Method Sabido method: A methodology for designing and producing serialized dramas on radio and television that can affect change of behavior in the general population with regard to important social issues, such as HIV infection, domestic violence and drug use. Evaluation of Social Learning Theory Social Learning Theory explains: Why behavior may be passed down in families Why children do not have to use “trial-and-error” learning to model a behavior. Note: a behavior may be acquired, i.e. it is not learned by demonstration. It does not explain why people do not learn a desired behavior. people are motivated not only by modeling, but by beliefs and previous experiences Pages 116 - 119 Social Influence: Compliance Compliance – the result of direct pressure to respond to a request, even though the pressure may not be apparent to the individual. Conformity – when the situation does not exert direct pressure to follow the majority, BUT, the pressure is perceived. Compliance Techniques Compliance techniques are the cornerstone of marketing and advertising. Robert Cialdini: Six factors that influence compliance Authority – advertisers use famous people Commitment – once you comply there is a high likelihood of repeat behavior. Liking – people comply with request from people they like! Reciprocity – the need to return a favor. Scarcity – “limited quantity,” “limited time,” opportunity seems more valuable. Social Proof – got to be right if others are doing it?????? Reciprocity Reciprocity (pg 116-117) Reciprocity principle – the social norm that we should treat others the way they treat us. The rules of reciprocity state that a person must try to repay another for their gestures. What role does guilt play in reciprocity? Do the emotions involved with reciprocity always have to involve a tangible exchange of goods? i.e. gift giving? Door-in-the-face technique Door-in-the-face technique – a version of reciprocity in which emotions are used to elicit the “guilt” that brings about the exchange of favors. People are more likely to accept the 2nd request The tecnique requires 2 requests First request will surely be turned down, because of the extreme The second request is of lesser demand. Door-in-the-face technique Cialdini et al.(1975) – posing as a ‘county youth counselling program.’ Control group: “Would you be willing to take a group of juvenile delinquents to the zoo for the day?” 83% refused Experimental Group: “would you be willing to sign up for two hours per week as a counselor for two years?” All refused “would you be willing to take a group of juvenile delinquents to the zoo for the day?” 50% agreed (a 33% improvement) Door-in-the-face technique Where are is Door-in-the-face techniques used? Sales techniques Manipulation Commitment (pg 118-119) Commitment = being consistent with previous behavior. Cialdini argues that once a person makes a commitment they will encounter personal and interpersonal pressures to follow through. Kurt Lewin (1951) argued that behavior is motivated by goal gradients. The longer people commit to something the less likely they are to abandon the goal. Foot in the Door techniques Foot in the Door techniques Getting people to agree to something small with the hopes of persuading them to agree to something larger Dickerson et al., (1992) Aim: could the team get college students to conserve water in the dormitory showers? Method: Field Experiment Procedure: “Foot in the door” technique 1. students were asked to sign a poster: “take shorter showers. If I can do it, so can you” 2. then they were asked to take a survey to think about their own water usage. 3. Shower times were then monitored. Dickerson et al., cont., Results: students who signed the poster and had time to think about their usage had average shower times of 3.5 minutes. Significantly shorter than average times across the dorms. Conclusion: getting people to make a commitment to something small may influence them to accept a higher level commitment. Concerns of this study: maybe those who signed already have a commitment to the cause????? Low-balling A persuasion and selling technique in which an item or service is offered at a low price, but the cost (price, time, commitment) is actually higher. Cialdini et al., (1974) pg 118 example Hazing Hazing – a series of initiations in order to join an exclusive groups. How dies hazing compare to other initiation rites seen in other cultures? Why does this behavior continue? Why does an individual subject themselves to the hazing? Young, 1963, studied 54 tribal cultures: the more dramatic or stringent the ceremony the greater the solidarity of the groups Can group solidarity be created without hazing? Aronson and Mills (1959) Aim: will someone who had to go through the hazing value the group more that someone who did not have to go through the hazing? Method: Experiment Procedure: female college students were asked tp join a sex discussion group Some had to go through a very embarrassing initiation to join while others joined without initiation. Group meeting consisted of confederates who were trained to be as boring and uninterested as possible and the participants. Can group solidarity be created without hazing? Cont., Results: the women who went through the initiation found the meeting to be very valuable. The women who did not have any initiation recognized that the meetings were “worthless and uninteresting.” Social Influence Summary of techniques Reciprocity Door-in-the-face Commitment Goal gradients Foot-in-the-door Low-balling hazing Pages 119 - 123 Social Influence: Conformity Conformity: the tendency to adjust ones thoughts, feelings or behaviors in ways that are in agreement with a particular individual or group. “peer pressure” is an example of conformity at a school level. Classic study of Conformity Asch (1951) Aim: to what extent would a person conform to an incorrect answer on a test if the response from the other members of the group was unanimous. Method: Experimental Procedure: Confederates – helped the researcher deceive the participant. Group was told they would be taking part in a psychology experiment on visual judgment Asch’s line test 18 trial were run in all. Confederates were instructed to answer some of the trial correctly, but the majority of them incorrectly. Result: 75% agreed with confederates incorrect responses at least once. 32% agreed with the incorrect responses a minimum of onehalf or more trials. 24% did not conform. Why Did They Conform? Debriefing notes revealed: They new their response was incorrect but they did went along with the group because they did not want to discredit the results of the test, or appear to be against the group. Some felt a sense of unease or self-doubt about their answer. Factors that influence the “Asch Paradigm” Group Size: 1 confederate = 3%conformity 2 confederates = 14% conformity 3 confederates = 32% conformity Larger groups did not increase – in case cases they may even decrese. Unanimity: When all confederates agreed, conformity was fairly certain Confidence : If the test is measuring something in a persons field of expertise, conformant is less likely. Self-esteem: Those with high self-esteem are less likely to conform. A Critical Look at Asch Artificiality and ecological validity??? Do these experiments accurately predict how people will react in real-life situations? Demand Characteristics Culture In the original study only one culture was studies and the group was not multicultural Ethical Considerations Deception, feelings of anxiety about their performance today this would not be regarded as acceptable Friend et al. (1990) there is a bias in the interpretations. Argues what factors caused people to dissent rather than influence to conform. Can a Minority Opinion Sway the Majority? Hogg an Vaughan (1995), reasons a minority can influence the majority: Dissenting opinions produce uncertainty and doubt Such opinions show that that alternatives exist Consistency show that there is a commitment to the alternative view. Examples: Women’s rights to vote, Civil rights movement, environmental protection. Groupthink – is characterized by having complete unanimity among the group. Often the group is blindsided and unprepared for alternative possibilities. AVOID GROUPTHINK Brainstorm Look at alternatives Play devils advocate Why do People Conform? Deutsch and Gerard (1955) Informational social influence – how people cognitively process information about a situation. Normative social influence – people have the need to belong. They conform to avoid rejection. “I realize this looks silly, but I want to hang with these guys.” Why do People Conform? Cont., Festinger (1954)– “Social comparison”: What is everybody else doing?? When we notice there is a difference and it creates an anxiety, Festinger refers to this as Cognitive dissonance. Cultural Aspects of Conformity True or False: Asian cultures engage in more conforming behavior and value conformity to a greater degree than Americans. True Americans see conformity as a negative trait. True Cashmore and Goodnow (1986) high level of conformity among Italians. Burgos and Dias-Perez (1986) Puerto Ricans valued conformity and obedience in regard to childreaing. Do Cultural Norms Affect Conformity? Smith and Bond (1993) meta analysis of 31 conformity studies: Individualistic cultures – conformity was lower North America, Northwest Europe Collectivist cultures – conformity was higher Asia, Africa, Oceania, South America *Connection – Berry study, Temne people and the Inuit's Points to consider: Methodology, gender, ethics, culture Homework /class work assignment 3 key study sheets on confomity Evalute each +/- Pages 124-125 Cultural Norms Culture: A dynamic system of rules, explicit and implicit, share by a group and transmitted across generations, that allows the group to meet basic needs of survival, pursue happiness and well-being, and derive meaning from life (Matsumoto & Juang). Cultural norms: These are the rules which indicate the expected behavior in a group. Hofstede (2002) refers to this as “mental software” Kuschel (2004) culture should not be used as an explanation of behavior, but rather as a window into understanding survival, beliefs, attitudes and group behavior. Pg 124 - 125 ‘Etic’ & ‘Emic’ approach to psychology Etic and Emic are referencing two sets of data collected in reference to human behavior. Etic – the attempt to find universal theories that would apply to all cultures. An etic account attempts to be 'culturally neutral', limiting any ethnocentric, political, and/or Western bias or alienation by the observer Draw on universal properties of cultures Emic – looks at understanding behavior from cultural perspective. How do locals think? Definitions Etics: an approach to studyging culture based on the premise that there are universal properties of cultures which share common perceptual, cognitive and emotional structures - typically employed in cross-cultural psychology where behaviors are compared across cultures. Emics: An approach to studying culture with the idea that behaviors are culture specific. This is also characterized as cultural relativism. ToK: ethics Which of the arguments regarding female genital mutilation do you find most persuasive, and why? It is moral because it is a cultural practice and different cultural practices should be respected It is immoral because it is known how it inflicts pain on girls and removes their potential for pleasure. I disagree with this cultural norm. It is immortal and there is a need for social action to change this practice. Can the values of the society ever be changed with any validity by applying the values of another culture? Pages 125 – 127 Dimensions: The perspectives of a culture based upon values and cultural norms. Cultural Dimensions Ethnocentrism: The inability to empathize with another culture; to assume that one's own culture is the standard by which other cultures are assessed. Dimensions of culture: The perspective of a culture based on values and cultural norms. Dimensions work on a continuum. The two that we will examine are individualist vs. collectivist cultures and time orientation - monochronic vs. polychronic cultures. Two dimensions Individualism vs. collectivism Uncertainty vs. avoidance Research: Individualist vs. collectivism Hoefstede’s 1973 IBM study. In this study Hoefstede asked employees of multicultural company to fill in surveys about morale in the workplace. He then carried out a content analysis on the responses, focusing on key differences of people from different countries. The trends he noticed he called dimensions. “understanding dimensions will help facilitate communication between culture.” Cultural Dimensions of Behavior Individualism Ties between individuals are loose Everyone is expected to look after themselves Collectivism From birth onwards people are integrated into strong, cohesive in-groups, often extended families which provide support and protection. “The nail that stands out gets pounded down” Japanese proverb. Uncertainty vs. Avoidance Uncertainty vs. avoidance: to what extent does a culture program its members to feel comfortable or uncomfortable in unstructured situations. Confucian work dynamism “Saving Face” Instead of focusing on truth, some cultures focus on virtue. Asian countries value persistence, loyalty and trustworthiness, relationships are based on status. There is a need to protect the collective identity and respect tradition. HIGH CONFUCIAN VALUES (longterm orientation) 1. reflects a dynamic, future-oriented mentality 2.emphasizes persistence (perseverance) 3.emphasizes ordering of relationships based upon status and observing this order 4.emphasizes thrift 5.emphasizes having a sense of shame 6.supports interrelatedness through sensitivity to social contacts 7.positively associated with economic growth (Hofstede & Bond, 1988 - 22 countries) Low Confucian Values Countries with short-term orientation: France, Finland, Germany, and the US These cultures value personal steadiness and stability, focus on future instead of past, innovation is highly valued. LOW CONFUCIAN VALUES (short-term orientation) 1.oriented toward present and past, 2.reflects a relatively static, tradition-oriented mentality 3.emphasizes personal steadiness 4.emphasizes stability 5.emphasizes protecting face 6.emphasizes respect for tradition 7.emphasizes reciprocation of greetings, favors and gifts 8.negatively associated with economic growth (Hofstede & Bond, 1988 - 22 countries) Research: Individualist vs. collectivism Whiting (1979). Case study of Americans on Japanese baseball teams. Found that Americans who tried to “do their best” were often ostracized by the team. Those who put the team above individual progress were seen as more valuable players. Research: Individualist vs. collectivism Domino & Hannah (1987) Studied Chinese and American children ages 11 - 13. Children were given a series of story plots to complete - for example: John and Bill are playing ball and break a neighbor’s window, but no one sees them do it. Content analysis of 700 stories. Chinese children emphasized family dishonor or embarrassment, something that never occurred with the American children. The Chinese children emphasized good behavior, cooperation, and obedience. Research: Individualist vs. collectivism Gabrenya, Wang & Latané (1985) found that social loafing is not a universal phenomenon. In Chinese groups they found what they called “social striving.” On group performance tasks, Chinese students exerted a greater effort than did American children. Research: Individualist vs. collectivism Hamilton et al (1991) compared teaching styles of Japanese and American teachers in elementary classrooms. American teachers directed their instruction to individual children during both full class instruction and private time; Japanese teachers consistently addressed the group as a collective. Even when working with a student individually, the Japanese teachers would check to make sure that all children were working on the same task. Research: Individualist vs. collectivism Oyserman et al. (2002) conducted a meta-analysis of 83 studies. Found that IC had moderate effects on self-concept and rationality, and large effects on attributions and cognitive styles. Individualist cultures tend to overemphasize dispositional factors, whereas collectivist cultures tend to overemphasize situational factors. Evaluations on cultural dimensions Hoefsted & Hoefstede (2001) have cited over 400 correlations of the IBM dimension scores with other studies, claiming that the results obtained in the 1970’s are consistent with scores obtained 30 years later. However, Hoefstede’s study was originally meant to describe organizational cultures and not national cultures. Inductive content analysis depends on the trends that are identified by the researcher. Researcher bias can play a significant role in which trends are noticed. Evaluations on cultural dimensions We have to avoid the ecological fallacy - that is, when assessing two different cultures, we cannot assume that the characteristics of the individuals must be different because of the different cultures. There is some concern that the dimensions are simply a stereotypical view of culture. Triandis argues that these labels may be more helpful at an individual level than at a cultural level (Triandis) Much of the research is correlational and does not establish a cause-and-effect relationship Hall’s time consciousness Monochromatic cultures Focus on one task at a time There is a high degree of scheduling Punctuality and meeting deadlines are highly valued. Polychromatic cultures Many thins happen at once. Focus is more relationships and interactions Interruptions are expected and there is little frustration when things are postponed or late.