ch 3 Pwr Pt

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Book work for Ch. 1 Earth as a System
1.1 A New View of Earth
answer # 1-5 (pg. 7)
1.2 The Earth System's Four Spheres
answer # 1-6 (pg. 12)
1.3 Cycles and the Earth
answer # 1-5 (pg. 18)
Chapter review questions
answer # 9, 10, 11, 12, 15, 18, 19-23 (pgs. 22-23)
1.1 A New View of Earth
answer # 1-5 (pg. 7)
1. What technological advances led to the rise of Earth
system science?
–
Satellites, deep-diving submersibles, computers, computer
programs
2. What is a system?
–
–
A kind of model
A part of the universe that can be studied separately
3. Compare and contrast an open system and a closed
system. Use a Venn diagram.
–
–
–
Open system: matter is exchanged
Both open & closed systems: energy is exchanged
Closed system: no matter is exchanged
1.1 A New View of Earth
answer # 1-5 (pg. 7)
1. Why do scientists consider Earth an
essentially closed system?
– b/c very little matter is exchanged
2. As the human population expands, what
might be some of the important issues
policymakers face?
– Answers will vary.
•
Ex. include: overcrowding, insufficient resources,
disease, pollution….
1.2 The Earth System's Four Spheres
answer # 1-6 (pg. 12)
1. What is the atmosphere?
– The gaseous envelope surrounding Earth
2. Is the geosphere static and unchanging? Explain
your answer.
– No, the geosphere changes due to volcanic eruptions,
uplifting (mountain building), erosion, plate
movement….
3. Which features on Earth make up the
hydrosphere?
– Oceans, lakes, rivers, groundwater, ice, snow, glaciers,
water vapor…
1.2 The Earth System's Four Spheres
answer # 1-6 (pg. 12)
4. Name two ways in which human beings affect the
atmosphere, geosphere, or hydrosphere.
– Answers will vary.
•
Ex. Include: drink water, pollute rivers, pollute air, mining,
landfills, etc.
5. How might an increase in rainfall in an area affect
the geosphere and the biosphere?
– Answers will vary.
•
Ex. Include: an increase in rainfall might affect plant growth
(biosphere) and cause flooding that erodes the land
(geosphere)….
1.2 The Earth System's Four Spheres
answer # 1-6 (pg. 12)
6. Describe the interactions among the spheres
that would occur during a spring rainstorm in
your area.
– Answers will vary.
•
Ex. Include: rain (hydrosphere) would fall from the
sky (atmosphere). Strong winds (atmosphere) might
knock down tree branches (biosphere). Plants
(biosphere) would take up water (hydrosphere)
through roots. The soil (geosphere) would absorb
some rain.
1.3 Cycles and the Earth
answer # 1-5 (pg. 18)
1. Describe the water cycle.
–
Water evaporates from the ocean to form water vapor, which rises &
cools. As it cools, it condenses and forms clouds. As the clouds cool,
precipitation falls to Earth’s surface, where it runs off or seeps into the
ground & eventually makes its way back to the ocean.
2. Summarize the carbon cycle, starting and ending with carbon
dioxide in the atmosphere.
–
Plants remove carbon dioxide from the atmosphere during
photosynthesis. They store the carbon in their tissues as
carbohydrates. When animals eat plants, the carbon in the plant
tissues passes to the animals. When plants & animals die, bacteria
decompose their tissues, producing carbon dioxide in the process.
3. Why is the energy budget more appropriately described as a
balance, while the water and carbon cycles are more accurately
described as circles?
–
The total amounts of water & carbon in the Earth system do not
change, so their movement can be pictured as circular. Since the total
amount of energy can change, it is described as a balance of incoming
& outgoing energy.
1.3 Cycles and the Earth
answer # 1-5 (pg. 18)
4. Draw a model showing how one of the cycles interacts
with living things. Show relationships not mentioned
in the text.
– Answers will vary, but models should be labeled with
explanations.
5. Humans cut down a large tract of forest, burn the cut
trees, and turn the land into a city. Predict what
changes are going to result, based on what you’ve
learned about the carbon cycle, energy budget, and
albedo.
– With fewer trees, more energy will be reflected to the
atmosphere, so the albedo will increase. More carbon
dioxide will enter the atmosphere due to the increased use
of fossil fuels in the city and the decrease in plant growth.
Chapter review questions
answer # 9, 10, 11, 12, 15, 18, 19-23 (pgs. 22-23)
9. What role do plants play in the carbon cycle?
– Plants take in CO2 from the atmosphere during the process of
photosynthesis, making carbohydrates (sugar/glucose) &
releasing oxygen. The carbon-based carbohydrates
(sugar/glucose) serve as a food source for animals.
10. Describe the factors that have led to the rise of Earth
system science.
– Advances in technology allow scientists to study many
aspects of Earth, integrating information about the
atmosphere, biosphere, geosphere, & hydrosphere into a
systems model.
11. What is included in the geosphere?
– All of the physical features of Earth & the rock materials they
are made of … mountains, beaches, Earth’s layers, volcanoes,
etc.
Chapter review questions
answer # 9, 10, 11, 12, 15, 18, 19-23 (pgs. 22-23)
12. Explain how water vapor could be considered part of
the atmosphere as well as part of the hydrosphere.
– Water vapor comes from evaporation of bodies of water,
thus, it is part of the hydrosphere. However, it is located in
the atmosphere, thus, it can be seen as part of the
atmosphere.
15. What would happen to a planet if the amount of
energy coming into its system was less than the energy
that was leaving its system?
– Earth would probably cool.
18. Sometimes, human beings are considered the fifth
sphere of Earth, the “androsphere.” Do you agree with
this separate classification? Why or why not?
– Answers will vary
Chapter review questions
answer # 9, 10, 11, 12, 15, 18, 19-23 (pgs. 22-23)
• 19. What is the average
precipitation for the year?
– approx. 3.5 inches
• 20. When does the groundwater
table begin to rise? Why do you
think this occurs?
– Feb. b/c that is when precipitation
is at its highest
• 21. What relationship exists
between precipitation and the
groundwater table?
– They seem to “parallel” one
another… as precipitation
increases/decreases, the
groundwater table also tends to
increase/decrease.
Chapter review questions
answer # 9, 10, 11, 12, 15, 18, 19-23 (pgs. 22-23)
• 22. Why does the groundwater table
begin to decline in May?
– Evaporation increases & precipitation
decreases
• 23. Why do you think the groundwater
table does not rise quickly in February,
even though there is a significant
amount of precipitation?
– Due to Maine’s cold winters, much of the
precipitation is probably in the form of
snow (which remains on the surface. Also,
the ground itself may be frozen (so little
water can infiltrate into the soil & become
part of the groundwater.

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