Book work for Ch. 1 Earth as a System 1.1 A New View of Earth answer # 1-5 (pg. 7) 1.2 The Earth System's Four Spheres answer # 1-6 (pg. 12) 1.3 Cycles and the Earth answer # 1-5 (pg. 18) Chapter review questions answer # 9, 10, 11, 12, 15, 18, 19-23 (pgs. 22-23) 1.1 A New View of Earth answer # 1-5 (pg. 7) 1. What technological advances led to the rise of Earth system science? – Satellites, deep-diving submersibles, computers, computer programs 2. What is a system? – – A kind of model A part of the universe that can be studied separately 3. Compare and contrast an open system and a closed system. Use a Venn diagram. – – – Open system: matter is exchanged Both open & closed systems: energy is exchanged Closed system: no matter is exchanged 1.1 A New View of Earth answer # 1-5 (pg. 7) 1. Why do scientists consider Earth an essentially closed system? – b/c very little matter is exchanged 2. As the human population expands, what might be some of the important issues policymakers face? – Answers will vary. • Ex. include: overcrowding, insufficient resources, disease, pollution…. 1.2 The Earth System's Four Spheres answer # 1-6 (pg. 12) 1. What is the atmosphere? – The gaseous envelope surrounding Earth 2. Is the geosphere static and unchanging? Explain your answer. – No, the geosphere changes due to volcanic eruptions, uplifting (mountain building), erosion, plate movement…. 3. Which features on Earth make up the hydrosphere? – Oceans, lakes, rivers, groundwater, ice, snow, glaciers, water vapor… 1.2 The Earth System's Four Spheres answer # 1-6 (pg. 12) 4. Name two ways in which human beings affect the atmosphere, geosphere, or hydrosphere. – Answers will vary. • Ex. Include: drink water, pollute rivers, pollute air, mining, landfills, etc. 5. How might an increase in rainfall in an area affect the geosphere and the biosphere? – Answers will vary. • Ex. Include: an increase in rainfall might affect plant growth (biosphere) and cause flooding that erodes the land (geosphere)…. 1.2 The Earth System's Four Spheres answer # 1-6 (pg. 12) 6. Describe the interactions among the spheres that would occur during a spring rainstorm in your area. – Answers will vary. • Ex. Include: rain (hydrosphere) would fall from the sky (atmosphere). Strong winds (atmosphere) might knock down tree branches (biosphere). Plants (biosphere) would take up water (hydrosphere) through roots. The soil (geosphere) would absorb some rain. 1.3 Cycles and the Earth answer # 1-5 (pg. 18) 1. Describe the water cycle. – Water evaporates from the ocean to form water vapor, which rises & cools. As it cools, it condenses and forms clouds. As the clouds cool, precipitation falls to Earth’s surface, where it runs off or seeps into the ground & eventually makes its way back to the ocean. 2. Summarize the carbon cycle, starting and ending with carbon dioxide in the atmosphere. – Plants remove carbon dioxide from the atmosphere during photosynthesis. They store the carbon in their tissues as carbohydrates. When animals eat plants, the carbon in the plant tissues passes to the animals. When plants & animals die, bacteria decompose their tissues, producing carbon dioxide in the process. 3. Why is the energy budget more appropriately described as a balance, while the water and carbon cycles are more accurately described as circles? – The total amounts of water & carbon in the Earth system do not change, so their movement can be pictured as circular. Since the total amount of energy can change, it is described as a balance of incoming & outgoing energy. 1.3 Cycles and the Earth answer # 1-5 (pg. 18) 4. Draw a model showing how one of the cycles interacts with living things. Show relationships not mentioned in the text. – Answers will vary, but models should be labeled with explanations. 5. Humans cut down a large tract of forest, burn the cut trees, and turn the land into a city. Predict what changes are going to result, based on what you’ve learned about the carbon cycle, energy budget, and albedo. – With fewer trees, more energy will be reflected to the atmosphere, so the albedo will increase. More carbon dioxide will enter the atmosphere due to the increased use of fossil fuels in the city and the decrease in plant growth. Chapter review questions answer # 9, 10, 11, 12, 15, 18, 19-23 (pgs. 22-23) 9. What role do plants play in the carbon cycle? – Plants take in CO2 from the atmosphere during the process of photosynthesis, making carbohydrates (sugar/glucose) & releasing oxygen. The carbon-based carbohydrates (sugar/glucose) serve as a food source for animals. 10. Describe the factors that have led to the rise of Earth system science. – Advances in technology allow scientists to study many aspects of Earth, integrating information about the atmosphere, biosphere, geosphere, & hydrosphere into a systems model. 11. What is included in the geosphere? – All of the physical features of Earth & the rock materials they are made of … mountains, beaches, Earth’s layers, volcanoes, etc. Chapter review questions answer # 9, 10, 11, 12, 15, 18, 19-23 (pgs. 22-23) 12. Explain how water vapor could be considered part of the atmosphere as well as part of the hydrosphere. – Water vapor comes from evaporation of bodies of water, thus, it is part of the hydrosphere. However, it is located in the atmosphere, thus, it can be seen as part of the atmosphere. 15. What would happen to a planet if the amount of energy coming into its system was less than the energy that was leaving its system? – Earth would probably cool. 18. Sometimes, human beings are considered the fifth sphere of Earth, the “androsphere.” Do you agree with this separate classification? Why or why not? – Answers will vary Chapter review questions answer # 9, 10, 11, 12, 15, 18, 19-23 (pgs. 22-23) • 19. What is the average precipitation for the year? – approx. 3.5 inches • 20. When does the groundwater table begin to rise? Why do you think this occurs? – Feb. b/c that is when precipitation is at its highest • 21. What relationship exists between precipitation and the groundwater table? – They seem to “parallel” one another… as precipitation increases/decreases, the groundwater table also tends to increase/decrease. Chapter review questions answer # 9, 10, 11, 12, 15, 18, 19-23 (pgs. 22-23) • 22. Why does the groundwater table begin to decline in May? – Evaporation increases & precipitation decreases • 23. Why do you think the groundwater table does not rise quickly in February, even though there is a significant amount of precipitation? – Due to Maine’s cold winters, much of the precipitation is probably in the form of snow (which remains on the surface. Also, the ground itself may be frozen (so little water can infiltrate into the soil & become part of the groundwater.