Information Management

Information Management
Lecture 6
Knowledge Management Strategy
 [1] Dave Chaffey, Steve Wood - Business Information
Management : Improving Performance Using Infomation
Systems, 2005, Prentice Hall/Financial Times, (734
 [2] Benson V., Tribe K. – Business Information
Management, 2008, Ventus Publishing (83 pages)
 [3] G. Somasundaram, Alok Shrivastava, Eds. Information Storage and Management: Storing,
Managing and Protecting Digital Information, 2009,
Wiley Publishing, Inc (478 pages)
 [4] Wikipedia
 [5]
 [6]
Knowledge management strategy
Strategy selection
Strategy options
Roles and competencies
Creating a knowledge sharing culture
 Nonaka et al. (1995) introduce two
definitions of knowledge: tacit
knowledge (subjective) and explicit
knowledge (objective).
 Tacit knowledge is knowledge of experience
– simultaneously knowledge and practice.
 Explicit knowledge is about rationality and
sequential knowledge [1, pg. 216].
 The processes through which knowledge is
created and transferred, identified by Nonaka
et al. [1, pg. 225], are:
tacit to
tacit to
tacit through a process of socialization;
explicit through a process of externalization;
to tacit through a process of internalization;
to explicit through a process of combination.
 We can also define knowledge by type in
terms of function (Zak, 2002) [1, pg.
Declarative knowledge (knowledge about)
Procedural knowledge (know-how)
Causal (know why)
Conditional (know when)
Relational (know with).
 Spender highlights four different
types of knowledge [1, pg. 226]:
Individual/explicit (conscious)
Individual/implicit (automatic)
Social/explicit (objectivified)
Social/implicit (collective).
 Frank Blackler (1995) has developed ‘five images’ of
knowledge which draw together views of knowledge from
different writers. [1, pg. 227]:
Embrained knowledge is dependent on conceptual skills
and cognitive abilities
Embodied knowledge is action-oriented and is likely to
be only partly explicit
Encultured knowledge refers to the process of achieving
shared understandings
Embedded knowledge is knowledge which resides in
systemic routines
Encoded knowledge is information conveyed by signs
and symbols.
 Understanding and applying these three
different views of knowledge from Nonaka,
Spender and Blackler in the context of their
own organization is vital for managers devising
a knowledge management programm.
 These views of knowledge should be used to
interpret the results of knowledge audits and
assessment techniques such as the ASHEN
model and will then inform strategy choices [1,
pg. 227].
The five core processes developed in the European Framework have
been developed from analysis of more than 100 knowledge
management frameworks [1, pg. 228]:
Identify knowledge: people need to think about what they want to
achieve and the knowledge required to make it happen. If knowledge is
lacking a knowledge gap has been identified.
Create knowledge: new knowledge is created by training, learning by
doing and problem solving – creating new knowledge for products and
services. Innovation is vital to this process.
Store knowledge: knowledge assets form the knowledge base of an
organization. These assets may be stored in documents or databases or
memorized as tacit knowledge
Share knowledge: distribution to the right people at the right time. The
stock approach is when knowledge is shared via documents and databases;
a flow approach is when knowledge is shared person-to-person.
Use knowledge: applying what we know, used in the business processes.
 Knowledge management tends to be treated
mainly as an issue for information systems
 The schemes they produce are predominantly
on the supply side, focusing on data and
communications systems and processes for
making people’s tacit knowledge explicit and
available for the rest of the organization.
 As a result, knowledge is treated as a
commodity and often confused with data [1,
pg. 229].
 The distinction between IM and KM could be attended
using one of the three approaches [1, pg. 229]:
Knowledge management is information management by
another name. A conflation of knowledge management with
the organization of knowledge, the traditional label for the
coding and classification of recorded material (content).
Knowledge management is the management of know-how:
processes and ontologies. The emphasis is on the
discovery and extraction of value when existing processes
and resources are anatomized and recompiled.
Knowledge management optimizes the conditions for
adaptive co-evolution. The key is the interplay of tacit and
explicit knowledge.
 PricewaterhouseCoopers (2003) identifies the following
best practices to enable knowledge management [1, pg.
Build executive-level enthusiasm for leveraging
organizational knowledge to foster innovation and learning;
Eliminate organizational barriers that inhibit knowledge
Demonstrate organizational commitment to learning and
leveraging knowledge;
Develop a process for identifying organizational knowledge;
Connect employees through technology and opportunities
for personal interaction;
Make knowledge quickly and easily accessible across the
enterprise to support value creation.
KM strategy
 The European Framework for KM can
be used in developing a strategy,
focusing on three layers [1, pg. 231]:
 Value-adding business process
 Core knowledge-processing activities
 Critical success factors.
The British Standards Guide to Good Practice (Kelleher and
Levene, 2001) suggests the following topics that an
organization should include in a simple knowledge
management strategy [1, pg. 231]:
Organizational priorities for KM
KM mission and vision
KM operating plan (including objectives and perceived benefits)
KM budget
Plan for KM technical infrastructure
Plans for KM communities of practice
Proposed KM metrics and proposed knowledge-sharing incentives and
■ Plans for KM training
■ Plan for communication of KM strategy to all internal and external
■ Plan for integrating KM and organizational strategy.
The start of the knowledge management strategy process will
make use of traditional strategy tools such as SWOT
(Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities, Threats) analysis and
PEST (Political, Economic, Social and Technology) analysis to
assess the general business environment [1, pg. 232].
A knowledge-based SWOT analysis can be used to map
knowledge resources available against the four headings. This
type of SWOT will ask the following types of questions:
What areas of our business benefit from applied, valued knowledge?
What areas of our business lack knowledge?
Are there opportunities to exploit knowledge?
What (competitive) threats are there to knowledge being lost or
losing value?
The knowledge audit
 Before defining a KM strategy a
company must asses the capabilities
and knowledge process in relation to
core business activities.
 This is done through the knowledge
audit (KA).
 KA is a systematic process of identifying
knowledge assets and their relationship
across an organization [1, pg. 233].
A team will be created to carry out the audit. Their skills are
[1, pg. 233]:
Senior manager – Vision – linking knowledge management
objectives to business objectives
Business strategist – Planning and goal setting
Human resource manager Assessment of employee skills and
Corporate information manager/Librarian – Organization of
internal and external information assets
Information systems/IT analyst – Development of information
systems to support business processes and IT platform
Chief knowledge officer/ Knowledge manager – Organizationally
independent analysts, understands how KM works across the
 The knowledge audit process has the
following stages [1, pg. 234]:
Define audit objectives
Identify ideal state
Define audit sample
Select audit assessment tools
Identify knowledge assets
Build employee knowledge profiles
Develop knowledge map
KA8) Develop a knowledge value chain to
represent core knowledge processes
KA9) Identify key issues and conclusions
KA10) Use discussion and focus groups to
test conclusions
KA11) Highlight good practices: examples
of KM in practice
KA12) Develop goals, priorities and
objectives for the KM strategy
KA1) Define audit objectives
 Stages in reaching the objectives could include
[1, pg. 234]:
■ Assess factors that inhibit knowledge sharing
■ Assess factors that encourage or promote knowledge
■ Identify knowledge bottlenecks
■ Identify sources of knowledge creation and innovation
■ Map informal networks and patterns of knowledge
sharing across the organizations
■ Map knowledge flows from external sources and
■ Assess the impact of customer or supplier knowledge
KA2) Identify ideal state
Business objectives should be mapped against relevant
categories of knowledge as an indication of desired knowledge
An example is in the table below [1, pg. 235]
KA3) Define audit sample
 Ideally knowledge audits should be organization-wide,
otherwise many key relationships and knowledge
processes can be overlooked.
 The sample will need to reflect all levels of the
organization where employees apply knowledge to
business processes; in most modern organizations this
means that all employees should be considered for
 After a knowledge audit has been undertaken,
knowledge managers now experienced in the process
may be able to undertake local small-scale knowledge
audits on a regular basis; for example, after a major
product or service launch [1, pg. 235].
KA4) Select audit assessment
 It is likely that a knowledge audit will need to
use a mix of tools to develop a balanced view
of the organization. Audit tools will include:
■ Questionnaires to capture large volumes of data
■ Interviews to explore issues in greater depth
■ Focus groups to explore issues in greater depth and
understand relationships
■ Narrative techniques to explore knowledge that is
context-dependent, to overcome the problem of
people only knowing what they need to know when
they need to know it (techniques include narrative
databases, storytelling and post-implementation
KA5) Identify knowledge
assets. The ASHEN model
 Was devised by IBM (Snowden, 2003) and offers a
holistic view of knowledge assessment in order to make
sense of the data and information gained from using the
above tools [1, pg. 237].
 The ASHEN model focuses on what Snowden describes
as ‘knowledge disclosure points’.
 These are any events or activities that reveal knowledge
through use [idem]:
Problem resolution
Solution creation
Learning points.
For example, a knowledge ‘disclosure point’ would be when the
manager takes the decision about the cost of the tickets in a
low-cost airline company.
ASHEN breaks down into these categories [1, pg. 237]:
■ Artefacts. Anything made by people, processes, documents, tools in
which knowledge is embedded
■ Skills. Abilities that can be trained and measured without ambiguity –
but remember the time issue
■ Heuristics. Rules of thumb, the outcome of experience, the main
repository of knowledge, mostly unarticulated
■ Experience. Accumulated experience of failure and success which
allows the right pattern to be triggered in the right context
■ Natural talent. Some people are just better at doing things than
other people – and they are often not the people you expect.
KA6) Build employee knowledge
 From the information gathered at the knowledge audit
employee knowledge profiles can be built.
 For that we can use, for example, the questionnaire tool,
with the following questions [1, pg. 237]:
What are your core areas of expertise?
Which projects have you worked on?
Have you authored any documentation in the last year?
Where have you previously worked?
What training courses have you attended in the last year?
What areas are you interested in but not currently working on?
Would you grade yourself as an expert in any of the organizational IT
 The profile could also include a Belbin
(2003) team profile, generated from a
self-diagnostic questionnaire. Belbin
roles can be categorized as [1, pg. 238]:
■ action-oriented roles – shaper, implementer
and completer finisher
■ people-oriented roles – coordinator, team
worker and resource investigator
■ cerebral roles – plant, monitor evaluator and
 Learning styles can also be categorized using a
self-diagnostic test developed by Honey and
Mumford (1986). The following categories of
learner are used:
■ Activists: people who learn by doing
■ Reflectors: people who learn by observing and thinking
what happened
■ Pragmatists: people who like to understand theories
behind actions. Require models, concepts and facts
■ Theorists: people who need to understand how to put
learning into practice.
KA7) Develop knowledge map
 A Knowledge Map (KM) is a visual
representation of organizational knowledge
assets, flows and relationships [1, pg. 238].
 If we think of an organization as a knowledge
market, the knowledge map enables the
matching of knowledge buyers to knowledge
sellers; this process also involves
intermediaries as knowledge brokers.
 Knowledge maps are then developed into
usable IT-based tools, often hosted on
organizational intranets.
 Also, to derive greater insight, social
networks are built at this phase.
 Social network analysis (SNA) has
been developed by social scientists in
order to understand and visually
represent social relationships in terms
of information and knowledge flow [1,
pg. 238].
The “kite network” map
The “kite map” key
 The previous page illustrates a simple social network,
the “kite network”.
 The network indicates three popular measures [1, pg.
Degrees: number of direct connections a node has. In the
previous Figure John has the most direct connections.
Betweenness: how nodes are located between the
important constituencies. Nodes acts in broker roles. In the
previous Figure, Sue takes this role.
Closeness: access to all the nodes on the network. In the
previous Figure Simon and Claire are the closest to
everyone else, directly and indirectly.
 A more complicated SNA will include
(see the case study from [1] page
240 for more details):
 Marks for different answers to the
 A social network map
 Different distance metrics for the map
 Group density tables
KA8) Develop a knowledge
value chain
 From the audit process an inventory will
be produced, mapping knowledge assets
against knowledge categories and valueadding activities against business
 Using a model of knowledge, a value
chain will be used to explain the
different ways that knowledge can be
used to add value to business processes
[1, pg. 242].
Knowledge value chain [1, pg. 243]
KA9) Identify key issues and
 As with an information audit, analysis will be
undertaken to assess the audit findings against
the desired state [1, pg. 244].
KA10) Use discussion and focus
groups to test conclusions
 To test the validity of the
conclusions, focus groups can be
used to assess and validate the
findings of the knowledge audit.
KA11) Highlight good practices
 A good starting point for knowledge
management programs is to share and
highlight the examples of good practice.
KA12) Develop goals, priorities and
objectives for the KM strategy
 In common with all successful business
strategies, knowledge management strategy
requires a mission to describe why the
organization wants to undertake a knowledge
management program and vision to make clear
what it wants to do.
 The KM vision and mission will set out why
knowledge is important to organizational
business objectives and what is the overall goal
of a knowledge management strategy.
 The KPMG knowledge management survey (Kok, 2003)
highlights key knowledge management objectives [1, pg.
1 Realizing synergies between units (83 per cent)
2 Achieving higher added value for customers (74 per cent)
3 Improving quality in operational and functional processes (70
per cent)
4 Reducing costs (67 per cent)
5 Accelerating innovation (63 per cent)
6 Boosting revenues for new market development (37 per
7 Reducing exposure to specific business risks (26 per cent).
 Two gaps will have been identified:
■ Knowledge gap: what the organization
must know and what the organization
■ Strategic gap: what the organization
must do and what the organization can
Strategy selection
 There are different approaches to
develop KM strategies:
S1) Codification versus (vs.)
S2) Explorer vs. exploiter
S3) Aggressive vs. conservative
S4) Technocratic vs. economic vs.
S1) Codification vs. personalization
 In a codification strategy knowledge is carefully
organized and stored in databases, where it can be
easily used by anyone in the organization.
 In a personalization strategy the focus is upon
the person who developed the knowledge and
sharing through person-to-person contacts.
 An organization will not wholly follow one of the
strategies but will place a strong degree of
emphasis. Hansen et al. (1999) suggest the mix
should be 80 per cent to 20 per cent (either way)
[1, pg. 246].
S2) Explorer vs. exploiter
 Explorers – creators or acquirers of the
knowledge needed to become and remain
 When for the organization there is evidence
that knowledge resources and capabilities
significantly exceed the requirements of the
competitive position, then the company needs
to exploit the current knowledge platform. In
this situation the company will take the
strategic position of an exploiter [1, pg. 247].
 The two approaches should be combined.
S3) Aggressive vs. conservative
 Zak (2002) builds upon the explorerversus-exploiter equation. Firms that
are oriented towards exploiting
internal knowledge exhibit the most
conservative strategy while
unbounded innovators (exploring and
exploiting beyond organizational
boundaries) represent the most
aggressive strategy [1, pg. 247].
S4) Technocratic vs. economic
vs. behavioral
 Earl (2001) has developed further definitions of
schools of knowledge management, developing
a taxonomy of knowledge management.
 The schools draw on many of the aspects
introduced, but use a
technocratic/economic/behavioural broad
categorization, with further splits [1, pg. 248].
 For examples see [1], table 5.6, page 248.
Communnities of practice
 Communities of practice are vital to an
organizational knowledge management
strategy that sees learning processes beyond
the limits of formalized training.
 A group (often interdisciplinary) linked by
shared interest in a subject area; the group will
organically evolve over time in terms of
membership and scope. The purpose will be to
learn and share [1, pg. 250].
Communities of practice [1, pg. 251]
 The previous Figure illustrates how communities of
practice differ from other forms of organizational
structures; it illustrates [1, pg. 251]:
■ Formal departments: clear defined boundaries, permanent,
structured around organizational goals
■ Operational units: clear defined boundaries, permanent,
structured around ongoing operations and processes
■ Project teams: clear boundaries, though may work across
departments and operational units, limited lifespan,
structured around project goals
■ Communities of practice: fuzzy boundaries, delineated across
the organization. Organic evolution.
 We can use a model developed by Wegner et
al. (2002) for the development of communities
of practice. Balance must be developed
between these three elements [1, pg. 251]:
■ Domain. What issues do we care about? How will the
community relate to the organizational overall strategy and
knowledge management strategy?
■ Community. What roles will people play? How will people
meet and connect? What activities will take place?
■ Practice. What knowledge will be shared? What leaning
activities will take place? What can be standardized?
 The following categories can be used to classify
communities of practice (American Productivity
and Quality Center, 2000) [1, pg. 252]:
■ Helping communities: employees help each other to solve
■ Best-practice communities: developing, validating and
disseminating best practice
■ Knowledge-stewarding communities: organize, upgrade and
distribute the knowledge
■ Innovation communities: foster unexpected ideas and
practices. Intentionally mix boundaries to gain new
 Several strategies can be developed
to implement communities of practice
[1, PG. 253]:
Support communities that already exist
Start with a large number of communities
Pilot, then roll out on large scale
Pilot, then gradually roll out.
Competitive intelligence
 Competitive intelligence can be seen as
a tactic used by organizations to
improve the knowledge of issues
relating to competition in the company’s
operating environment.
 Competitive intelligence focuses upon
competitive threats and the transferring
of market share from the competitors’
bottom line [1, pg. 253].
 Miller (2001) has identified four phases
of the competitive intelligence cycle [1,
pg. 253]:
1 Identification of key decision makers and
their intelligence needs
2 Collection of information
3 Analysis of information and upgrading it to
4 Dissemination of intelligence to decision
 The relation between IM, CI and KM is [1, pg.
 Information management helps us understand what
has happened
 Competitive intelligence helps us understand what is
likely to happen externally and what our options are
 Knowledge management helps us change what is
likely to happen, internally and externally, through
innovation, reinvention and repositioning.
Story and narrative management
 Focusing upon the use of stories and narrative as a tactic
for sharing knowledge and experience is a recent
innovation that has become a formal knowledge
management disciple [1, pg. 254].
 The European Guide to Good Practice defines narrative
as [1, pg. 255]:
Techniques employed in KM environments to describe complicated
issues, explain events, communicate lessons learned, or bring
about cultural change.
The techniques can involve story telling, narrative databases, or
after action reviews (retrospective accounts of significant events in
an organization’s recent past, described in the voices of people
who took part in them). (Mekhilef et al., 2003)
Figure 54. Storytelling and narrative process
 A narrative database uses only
original material and searches this
material based on questions.
 The database will be indexed and
then searched on a free text basis.
 Observing the patterns of use can
determine where investment in best
practice might be best focused [1, pg.
 Storytelling and use of narrative
techniques will not be applicable to
every organization because of
different organizational cultures.
 An understanding of the culture of the
organization from the knowledge
audit and evaluation of strategy
approaches will be used to assess the
value of storytelling [1, pg. 256].
6.5 Using ICT to enable KM
Information and communications technologies (ICT) covers any
product that will store, retrieve, manipulate, transmit or
receive information electronically in a digital form [5].
The strategy selection of a codification or personalization
approach will heavily influence the amount an organization
invests in ICT to support knowledge management [1, pg. 257].
The information gathered from the knowledge audit and use of
the ASHEN model will inform the choice of ICT applications and
infrastructure required [idem].
An assessment can be made as to where ICT can be deployed
to enable knowledge processes [idem].
The ICT solution should have a positive impact in reducing the
information overload, not add to it.
6.5.1 Intranets
 Developing a corporate intranet has been the aim of the
ICT element of knowledge strategy.
 Intranets are important because they offer a central
point of access for a wide range of knowledge.
 There are 3 stages in developing a intranet:
Static – based on static web pages
Interaction – adding interaction to the server with bloggs,
discussion boards, bulletin boards
Collaborative electronic work space – all employees are
encouraged to share knowledge via collaborative tools and
publishing mechanisms
6.5.2 Extranets
 Are extensions of the intranets to create secure
electronic networks.
 They will be used by organizations to share
information and knowledge with customers,
suppliers and partners.
 Extranets will be vital for organizations that
need to focus on external knowledge and
create communities of practice beyond normal
organizational boundaries;
 they can be used in sharing knowledge across
a supply chain [1, pg. 258].
6.5.3 Expertise database and
corporate yellow pages
 In order to gain value from the employee profiles
gathered from the knowledge audit, organizations need
to use this information to enable expertise location
across the organization.
 This is done by creating a searchable and browsable
database system based around the profiles, called
expertise database.
 The objective of an expertise database is to enable the
internal knowledge markets, matching knowledge buyers
to knowledge sellers.
 The systems are often known as ‘corporate yellow
pages’ [1, pg. 258]
 An expertise profile could include the following
elements (White, 2000) [1, pg. 259]:
Educational courses
Professional accreditation
Previous employers
Work undertaken
Membership of networks
Areas of interests
External interests.
6.5.4 Collaborative tools
 Collaborative tools can be used to support
communities of practice. They can be divided
into two categories [1, pg. 259]
1 Synchronous collaborative tools: remote sharing,
presentation, chat, electronic whiteboarding, voting,
video and audio.
2 Asynchronous collaborative tools or groupware:
allow users to deposit, comment upon, and act upon
information provided by others. Discussion software
and message boards
6.5.5 Corporate portals
 Portals offer a customized gateway to organizational
information systems, aggregating content that is already
available, displaying it in personalized layers [1, pg.
 They reduce information overload because they allow the
employees to present the information in ways relevant to
 Key components of corporate portals can include the
following (Claudio and Gordon, 2003) [idem]:
■ Presentation layer – allows the user to personalize
■ Taxonomy (browsable classified hierarchical structure, e.g. Yahoo
■ Search engine
■ Selected external information from the web;
and connections to:
■ Collaboration tools
■ Intranet applications or intranet web pages
■ Content management systems (publishing)
■ Document management systems
■ CRM systems
■ ERP systems
■ Financial systems
■ HR systems
■ Data warehouses.
6.5.6 Customer relationship
management (CRM) systems
 CRM is an term for methodologies, software, and usually
Internet capabilities that help an enterprise manage
customer relationships in an organized way.
 CRM tools used in e-business offer new perspectives on
customer relationships.
 Knowledge can be gained of [1, pg. 261]:
Customer behavior
Product use
Quality of service
Customer preference and brand loyalty
How business processes relate and their design
Skills and competencies of staff related to delivering products
and services
 A knowledge management strategy can
link with CRM in terms of [1, pg 261]
■ linking to other forms of explicit knowledge
in the organization (e.g. in document
managements systems
■ expertise location and management –
successful resolution of a customer problem
■ collaboration and learning – working in
communities to gain new insights into
customer relationships
2.5.7 Document management / Content
management systems (CMS)
 Organizational knowledge will be codified in many forms
of documents, such as
 manuals, e-mails, reports, memos, correspondence and
minutes of meetings.
 Documents may differ in format and structure.
 Document management systems are software-based
systems that control the lifecycle of a document:
capture, storage, distribution and collaboration [1, pg
 Document management systems will have the
documents stored in structured file systems, with
versions of the documents, so that the evolution in time
of the document will be visible.
2.5.8 E-learning
 E-learning can be integrated with other
organizational processes to create a
‘just-in-time’ learning environment;
 Learning can take place during the
business processes
 Employees are empowered to learn on
their own
 Experts on certain subjects can offer
feedback and advice online.
6.5.8 Roles and competencies
 Chief knowledge officer - The organizational
knowledge management champion, who will provide the
KM vision and strategy [1, pg. 263].
 The CKO position having originated from the chief
information officer (CIO), which is primarily technologydriven.
 Knowledge manager - Manager who will implement
the knowledge management strategy [idem].
 Knowledge worker - An employee who spends a
significant amount of their time in creating, using and
distributing information and applying knowledge for
decision making [1, pg. 49]
 A knowledge manager will be closely involved in
planning and coordinating the core knowledge processes
 (identification, generation, storage, distribution and
 ensuring they are related to business processes and
 A knowledge manager will also assess and oversee the
development of individual capabilities, setting the
conditions for interaction between employees.
 A knowledge manager will also focus on using and
applying ICT to enable knowledge management [1, pg.
Knowledge has become a crucial element in the competitive business environment.
The key stages of developing a knowledge management strategy are: definitions, audit, objectives, strategy
approaches, implementation and quality measures.
There are a number of ways to define knowledge: a distinction between tacit and explicit knowledge can be
made. Developing a working definition of knowledge is vital to the success of a knowledge management
Knowledge management can be broken down into five processes: store, identify, share, create and use can
be applied to business processes. Individual and organizational capabilities will impact upon how knowledge
is managed in organizations.
All organizations must develop a working definition of knowledge management before developing a
knowledge management strategy.
A knowledge audit enables an organization to understand knowledge assets, processes and flows. The audit
data can be matched against an ideal state so that a knowledge gap analysis can be undertaken. An
inventory of knowledge assets, knowledge maps and profiles of employees is the tangible output.
Using evidence from a knowledge audit, organizations take different approaches to knowledge management
depending on relationship between knowledge and key business processes.
The main approaches are codification versus personalization, exploiter versus explorer, aggressive versus
conservative and technocratic versus behavioural.
Communities of practice are ways employees share knowledge and learn across organizational boundaries.
Competitive intelligence relates closely to knowledge management and develops a link to developing
knowledge about the external competitive environment.
Identifying and developing the right skills for the different roles in knowledge management will have an
important impact on the success of a knowledge management strategy.

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