Chapter 8 The First World War

Report
1914-1920
Starter #2: Tuesday 11/2
 One day after school, you see two groups of
schoolmates involved in a fight. Both sides yell to you
to join in and help their side. What are the advantages
and disadvantages of remaining neutral and staying
out of the fight?
 What are the advantages and disadvantages of getting
involved?
 If you do get involved, how do you decide which group
to join?
 What do you think we are studying today??
Starter #1: Monday 11/1
 QUARTER 2 WEEK 1
 Read The Inside Story on page 230
 Why did Gavrilo Princip join a terrorist organization?
 What happened within a few weeks of the
assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand?
Chapter 8 Section 1
A World Crisis
 Causes of WWI
 Assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand spark that
started the fire
 Need wood & starter fuel to start fire
Causes of World War I
M ilitarism
A
I
lliances
mperialism
N ationalism
Militarism
 Policy of military preparedness and building up of
weapons
 Germany began building up army, navy, and creating
military plans
 Worried others, so they began building up as well
Alliances
 Partnerships
 Enacted to maintain peace, but they’re the reason the
war started
 Alliances before the war
 Triple Alliance: Germany, Austria-Hungary, Italy
 Triple Entente: Britain, France, Russia
Alliances continued…
 Balance of Power: each nation or alliance had equal
strength
 Thought would decrease chances of war
Imperialism
 Growing nationalism caused countries to compete for
colonies overseas
 More colonies = stronger country
 Kaiser Wilhelm II – German leader wanted colonies
for Germany to build up army
Nationalism
 Extreme pride and devotion for one’s country
 Caused the formation of new nations
 Austria Hungary began to expand and push into the
region of Bosnia and others
War Breaks Out
 Arrested Princip –found out Serbia provided the
weapons/bombs
 Austria Hungary blamed Serbia for murder
 Russia vowed to back Serbia, so began mobilizing
 Germany took this as war was imminent, so they
declared war on Russia and France (Russia’s ally)
The Germans take Belgium
 Utilized Schlieffen Plan by attacking Belgium
 Great Britain vowed to protect Belgium – so they
declared war on Germany
 2 sides emerged
 Central Powers: Germany, Austria-Hungary, Ottoman
Empire
 Allied Powers: Great Britain, France, Russia, Italy
A new kind of warfare
 France had not changed fighting style since 1800s
 Bright red uniforms, close combat
 Met with machine gun fire
 Quick setup, 600 bullets per minute
 Germany prepared, expected quick victory
 Troops would be home “before the leaves had fallen”
The War Reaches a Stalemate
 Trench Warfare
 Both sides dug trenches
 400 miles along the Western Front
 Switzerland to the North Sea
Trench Warfare
 Lived in trenches, surrounded by machine fire,
grenades, artillery shells
 No man’s land – land separating enemy trenches
 Created deadlock between two sides
New Weapons
 Gas attacks: not always effective because of the change
in winds
 Made canisters of gas to shoot into enemies trenches
which would destroy soldiers lungs
 Traditionalists did not agree with gas – unethical
 Gas masks lowered risks with gas
 Tanks and Airplanes
 Red Baron
Starter #3: Wednesday 11/3
 PLEASE GRAB YOUR CLICKER FROM BEHIND MY
DESK!
 Read the Inside Story on page 238.
 What assurances were passengers given about taking
the Luistania into a war zone?
 What was the first sign of trouble? What did it
indicate?
Chapter 8 Section 2
The United States in World War I
 The United States stays Neutral
 Isolationism: policy of not being involved in the
affairs of other nations
 Long standing history of it
 Precedent
Which of the following doesn’t
belong?
A. Isolated
0%
B. Neutral
0%
C. Involved
0%
D. Stay out
0%
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Who was the first President to
encourage Isolationism?
A. Teddy Roosevelt
B. George
Washington
C. William McKinley
D. Abe Lincoln
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Leaning toward the Allies
 Germany made Wilson nervous
 Greater ties to Great Britain and France
 Great Britain bought $75 million war goods from US
each week
German Submarine Warfare
 Great Britain had strong blockade on Germans ports –
blocking on goods and trading
 U-Boats – undersea boats to attack ships
 Unrestricted Submarine Warfare
 All waters surrounding Great Britain was a war zone,
all ships could be fired upon
 Wilson said this policy violated the laws of neutrality
Which countries’ waters did Germany claim
that would fire upon if they were entered?
A. Italy
0%
B. France
0%
C. Spain
0%
D. Great Britain
0%
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What type of boat was a UBoat?
A. Submarine
B. Ski Boat
C. Cruise Liner
D. Barge
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Heading Toward War
 Sinking of Lusitania – demand end to policy
 Sussex Pledge: promise not to sink merchant vessels
“without warning and without saving human lives”
What was found at the bottom
of the Lusitania?
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A. Dead people
0%
B. War Weapons
0%
C. Illegal immigrants
0%
D. Secret battle plans
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Wilson’s Re-election
 Wilson vowed not to send troops over to Europe
 Opponent was pro-war
 Wilson won by only 3%
 Tried to work out peace in Europe, neither side would
admit fault
 Ended when Germany resumed Unrestricted
Submarine Warfare
The Zimmerman Note
 Promised alliance between Germany and Mexico
 Claimed that after the war, Germany would help
reclaim Mexican territory that US took
 British intercepted note
 Changed many Americans views of the war – wanted
to get in it
What was the final straw that
caused the US to enter WWI?
0%
A. Sinking of the USS Maine
0%
B. Sinking of the Lusitania
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C. De Lome Letter
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D. Zimmerman Telegraph
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US Declares War
 Germany sank 3 US merchant ships
 April 6, 1917 US joined war on the side of the allies
Americans in Europe
Raising an Army
 Selective Service Act: required men between ages of 21
and 30 to register to be drafted into the armed forces
 Not prepared for soldiers – needed training, needed
bases
Arriving in Europe
 Convoy System: troop-transport ships were
surrounded by destroyers or cruisers for protection
 General Pershing lead troops
 Felt they needed more training
 Wanted US to fight as one, not separate out among
allies
Allied Setbacks
 Bolsheviks took over Russia
 Set up communism: seek equal distribution of wealth,
not private property
 Withdrew Russian troops, signed peaces agreement
with Central Powers
Why did Russia drop out of the
war?
A. They were losing
B. Bolshevik
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US
m
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Ge
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Revolution
C. Germans made
them
D. US made them
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The Armistice
 War crippling Germany – food shortages, economy
suffered
 Lacking will to fight, Germans Central Powers began
to surrender
 Allied Demanded:
 German leave all territories it had occupied
 Surrendered weapons/tanks/U-Boats
 Hoped this was the War to End all Wars
 8.5 million causalities
Which of the following was not
a cause of WWI?
0%
A. Imperialism
0%
B. Alliances
0%
C. Militarism
0%
D. Industrialization
0%
E. Nationalism
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Starter #4: Thursday 11/4
 GRAB YOUR CLICKERS!
 Read the Inside Story on page 246
 What were Liberty Bonds?
 Describe some of the campaigns that were used to help
sell Liberty Bonds.
The Home Front
 Mobilizing the Economy
 Wars are expensive
 Passed high taxes – wealthiest Americans paid 77%
 Borrowed $20 million from Americans who bought
Liberty Bonds
 Loan from the American people to the federal
government (propaganda)
Why did the government launch
a Propaganda movement?
A. Build support for
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To
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Bu
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Bu
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the war
B. To approve taxes
C. Build resentment
towards the
Germans
D. Build support for
our leaders
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Regulating Industry
 Regulate Industrial & Agricultural production and
distribution
 War Industries Board (WIB)
 “No steel, copper, cement, rubber, or other basic
materials could be used without our approval.”
 Increased production by 20%
 Military had first “dibs”
 Remaining goods for civilians
Which 2 sectors did the
government take over?
A. Schools & Military
B. Cities & Countries
C. Industry &
Agriculture
D. Agriculture &
Schools
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Regulating Food
 Lever Food & Fuel Control Act
 Government had the power to set prices and establish
production controls for food and the fuels needed to run
military machines
 Herbert Hoover (Vice President)
 “Food can win the war”
 Pay farmers higher prices for crops if produce more
 Victory Gardens – Meatless Mondays – Wheatless Wednesdays
 1918 exported 3 times more food than before war
 1919 passage 18th Amendment (Prohibition)
 Conserve Wheat
 Anti-German sentiment
What was the
Amendment?
th
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A. Women’s Suffrage
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B. Elect Senators
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C. Repeal Prohibition
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D. Enacted Prohibition
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Regulating Fuel
 Fuel Administration – goal to conserve fuel
 Daylight Savings Time
 Extended daylight hours for those who worked long
shifts in factories
 Gasless Sundays – Heatless Mondays
Why was Daylight Savings
created?
A. To help the troops fight in daylight
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B. To allow factories to stay open later to
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produce more goods
C. To allow schools to keep students longer
D. To help the government conserve energy
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Mobilizing Workers
 Profits skyrocketed for industrial corporations because
government paid top dollar for goods to support war
effort
 Wages increased, yet cost of living also increased
 Working long hours, dangerous conditions, fast pace
to make largest profit
 Union membership increased by 60%
 6000 strikes held during the war
National Labor Board
 Judged disputes between workers and management
 Government afraid labor strikes would disrupt the
making of supplies needed for the war effort
 Promoted 8 hour work day, recognization of labor
unions, equal pay for equal work
Did Unions gain or lose support
from the government during WWI?
A. GAIN
B. LOSE
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Women’s war efforts
 1 million women entered workforce during WWI
 Took jobs traditionally held by men
 Forced out once men returned from war
 Used this experience as an argument for suffrage
 “This war could not have been fought… if it had not
been for the services of women rendered in every
sphere.” -President Wilson
Which Amendment gave
women the right to vote?
0%
A. 16th
0%
B. 17th
0%
C. 18th
0%
D. 19th
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Influenza epidemic on the
home front
 Both Europe & US
 ½ of soldiers who died in WWI died from influenza
(flu)
 October 1918 killed 200,000 Americans
 Not normal flu, killed healthy people within days
 By time it passed 675,000 American died – deadliest
epidemic in history
Influencing Public Opinion
 “It is not an army that we must shape for war… it is a
nation.”
 Committee on Public Information
 Created 2 weeks after declaring war
 Propaganda – posters, newspaper stories, speeches
and other materials designed to influence people’s
opinions
 Americans began to distrust all things German
 Stop teaching German, playing German music, renamed
food
Limiting Anti-War Speech
 Espionage Act
 punished people for aiding the enemy or refusing military
duty
 Sedition Act
 made it illegal for Americans to “utter, print, write, or publish
any disloyal.. Or abusive language” criticizing the
government, flag, or military
 Read examples page 252
 Violate the 1st amendment?
 Schenck v. United States
 Some limits need to be placed on individual free speech rights
during wartime to ensure the countries overall safety
Starter #5: Friday 11/5
 What is propaganda? Where do you see this on a
daily basis?
 Try to describe the following common Wartime
Propaganda tools:
 Demonization
 Emotional Appeals
 Name Calling
 Patriotic Appeals
 Half-Truths or lies
 Catchy Slogans
 Evocative Visual Symbols
 Humor or Caricatures
Starter #6: Tuesday 11/9
 Read The Inside Story: Will the Treaty pass? On page
254
 What part of the Treaty of Versailles was the most
important to President Wilson?
 What was the purpose of the strenuous trip that
proceeded President Wilson’s stroke?
Chapter 8 Section 4
Peace Without Victory
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Wilson’s 14 Points: Plan for Peace
#1 Open Diplomacy
#2 Freedom of the seas
#3 Removal of trade barriers
#4 Reduction of military arms
#5 Fair system to resolve disputes over colonies
#6-13 Self-determination
Right of people to decide own political status
14 Points continued…
 #14 Establishment of the League of Nations
 Settle disputes, protect democracy, prevent future wars
 New philosophy to US foreign policy
 Applied principles of Progressivism
Paris Peace Conference
 Wilson attended – dream of international peace
 January 1919: 32 nations
 Big 4 Dominated – Victorious Allied Powers
 Wilson, US
 David Lloyd George, British
 George Clemenceau, France
 Vittoria Orlando, Italy
 Germany & other central powers not invited to join
Conflicting Views
 Wilson: wanted better world
 Allied Powers: punish Germany
 Others wanted Independence
The Treaty of Versailles
 Harsher than Wilson wanted
 Germany had to:
 Disarm
 Reparations: payments for damages caused by war
 Accept sole responsibility for starting war
 Wilson’s ideas:
 League of Nations, Self-Determination of several
nations
 Forced Germany to sign June 1919
Fight over the Treaty
 Needed to ratify in Congress – 3 groups emerged
 Democrats who supported – Outright rejection of US
in League of Nations – Reservationists who would
ratify if changes were made
 Wilson’s campaigned – health suffered
 Did not ratify treaty, not a member of League of
Nations
Impact of WWI
 Political Impact
 Economic Impact
 Social Impact
 Impact in Europe
Starter #7: Wednesday 11/10
 To ensure that war does not break out again, which of
the following should be the priority after a war has
ended:
 Punish the losers of the war?
or
 Address issues that caused the war?
 Explain why!
1919-1928
Starter #8: Monday 11/15
 Read A Deadly Epidemic on page 270
 How do you think influenza spread around the world
following WWI?
 Why would a flu epidemic cause lasting fear and
unease?
Chapter 9 Section 1
Postwar Havoc
 The First Red Scare
 BACKGROUND
 Influenza Epidemic
 Demand for products fell
 Economic and Political Turmoil
 100% Americanism: Movement celebrated all things
American while attacking other ideas
The Rise of the Bolsheviks
 Worried about new foreign enemy
 Red Army of the Bolsheviks: Believed in Communism
 No economic classes or private property: Everyone
should share equally in society’s wealth
American Reaction
 Frightened, Baffled: Embraced ideals of capitalism
 Threat of workers to rise up and crush capitalism
 Public anxiety became fixed on the Reds
 Red Scare: widespread fear of communism gripped
the nation
Palmer Raids
 A. Mitchell Palmer
 became targeted during communist bombing plot,
started the Palmer Raids
 Palmer Raids
 Used wartime laws to exercise broad powers against
suspected radicals
 Aliens
 Citizens of other countries living in the US – could be
deported for belonging to radical groups
Palmer Raids continued…
 Deportation
 Removal of alien from one country and sending them to
another
 “I believe we should place them all in ships of stone,
with sails of lead”
 Fear died down with failures within the movement
Labor Strife Grows
 POSTWAR DIFFICULTIES
 During the war laborers won many rights: shorter
hours and higher wages
 Postwar labor leaders tried to build on what they had
achieved, yet failed
 Wilson focused efforts on Peace Planning
 Soldiers came back with no jobs
Labor’s Losses
 Showdown between labor and management
devastated organized labor
 Take another national crisis to restore organized
labor’s status
Limiting Immigration
 IMMIGRATION CONTROL
 Competition for scarce jobs combined with the Red
Scare, created backlash and distrust of immigrants
 1921 Law: Established a quota, set number, of
immigrants to be allowed in the US from various
nations
 National Origins Act of 1924: Said each country could
have 2% of its population living in the US – wanted to
reduce immigration to US from certain countries
 Nativisim: Distrust of Foreigners, produced revival of
the Klu Klux Klan - “Native White, Protestant
Supremacy”
Sacco and Vanzetti
 Italian immigrants arrested for armed robbery and
murder
 Claimed they were anarchist: radicals who sought
destruction of government
 Evidence was weak, on trial for political beliefs
 Great protests and publicity saw them convicted and
executed
 High Controversial Case
Section 2: A New Economic Era
 Ford Revolutionizes Industry
 1920s Ford Model T
 Fixture of American life
 Automobiles were a toy for the rich before 1900
 1908 Henry Ford quote page 277
The Assembly Line
 Production system in which the item being built
moves along a conveyor belt to various workstations
 Fast production led to lower prices
 “The man who puts on a bolt does not put on a nut. The
man who puts on the nut does not tighten it.”
 1st year 1 car every 1 ½ hours - $500
 1920 produced a car every minute and price dropped
 Paid workers $5 a day – much higher than average
 Ford did not allow unions
Effect on Industry
 Create competition with General Motors & Chrysler
 Model T design didn’t change until 1927
 Used assembly line technique for all goods
 Productivity
 Measure of output per unit of input such as labor
 Rose 60% - workers producing more in less time
 Welfare Capitalism
 System in which companies provide benefits to
employees in an effort to promote worker satisfaction
and loyalty
Industry Changes Society
 Car travel led to the development of all kinds of
businesses
 Detroit MA car capital of world
 Akron OH center of rubber and tire industry
 Suburbs
 Smaller towns located outside urban areas
 Allowed workers to live further from work and leave
overcrowded cities
The New Consumer
 Buying habits increased
 Refrigerators, vacuums, radios
 End of 1920 4 in 10 homes at a radio
 Gather around to listed to drama & comedy shows
 First passenger planes
 Companies began to use various mediums to advertise
New ways to Pay
 Early 1900s borrowing money was not respectable
 Installment Buying
 Set the stage for today’s credit card society, paying for an
item over time in small payments
 Credit
 Borrowing money (buy on credit)
 90% of goods by the end of the 1920s were bought on
credit
 “get what they want now”
Weaknesses in the Economy
 Gave impression of The Roaring 20s
 Not everyone prospered
 Farmers struggled the most
 Prices were high during wartime
 Income and value of farmland declined
Starter #9: Tuesday 11/16
 Read The Inside Story “How did a department store
create an American Tradition?” on page 276
 How might the Macy’s parade help bring consumers
into the store to shop?
 In you opinion, is the Macy’s parade a holiday tradition
or just an advertising gimmick? Explain your answer.
Assembly Lines
 Read the article Assembly Lines
 What is an assembly line?
 How did they make products more efficiently?
 On the blank piece of paper:
 You are a craftsperson. You have 5 minutes to draw a full
frontal view of a man. After the time, the class will
choose the best drawing to use in the next part of the
activity.
Assembly Line Organization
 Worker 1: Head
 2: Hair
 3: Eyes
 4: Eyebrows
 5: Nose
 6: Mouth
 7: Ears
 8: Neck
 9: Shirt
 10: Arms
 11: Hands
 12: Slacks
 13: Shoes
Starter #10: Wednesday 11/17
 Read Inside Story on page 282
 Why would people want to return to the way things
were before the war instead of moving forward?
 What is normalcy?
The Lingering Effects of World War I
 The Question of War Debt
 European nations borrowed $10 million from US
 High Fordeny-McCumber Tariff made it hard to make
money, so demanded Germany pay high Reparations
 Germany had to borrow money from US, made the US
assume the role of banker to Europe
The Washington Naval Conference
 Arms Race: Competing nations build more and more
weapons in an effort to avoid one nation getting an
advantage
 1921: Conference, all naval powers invited
 Parties agreed to cut back – stop fighting for China
 Seemed like success
Billy Mitchell argues for Airpower
 Wanted to build up
 Plane could sink battleships
 Military not convinced
The Kellogg-Briand Pact
 Since did not join League – wanted something to
prevent wars
 Included several countries outlawing war
 60 Nations signed – no enforcement, just their word
1920-1929
Chapter 10 Section 1
American Life Changes
 New Roles for Women
 New Opportunities
 Roaring Twenties: Speedy social change
 19th Amendment: women got the right to vote (yet voted
same way as husband/father)
 Women hold Public Offices
 Join work place and get college education
New Roles for Women
 New Family Roles
 More equality in roles at home
 The Flapper
 Young woman of the era who defied traditional ideas of
proper dress and behavior
 Cut hair, rose hemline, make-up, smoked, drank, danced
 Certain lifestyle, independence/freedom
 Did not represent all women
Effects of Urbanization
 Divide nation’s booming cities and countryside
 Farmers suffered, ¾ workers in city
 Cars allowed for less isolation
 Public School became mandatory
Conflicts over Values
 BACKGROUND
 Values differed from rural to city
 Rural: hard-working, self-reliant, religious,
independent
 Cities threatened those values
 Klan grew in rural populations
 Targeted African Americans and Immigrants
The Rise of Fundamentalism
 Billy Sunday
 Fundamentalism: literal interpretation of Bible
 The Scopes Trial
 Charles Darwin
 Evolution
 Clarence Darrow: Defense
 William Jennings Bryan: Prosecution
Prohibition




Outlawing alcohol would promote family stability
City Problem
Bias gained with Immigration
Eighteenth Amendment
 Illegal to manufacture, transport, or sell alcohol in US
 Volstead Act
 Law of the Land in 1920
Prohibition in Practice








Felt have positive effects on society
Enforcement was impossible
Making-Transporting-Selling Illegal
Drinking it was legal
Rise to smuggling operations
Bootleggers: liquor smugglers
Al Capone
Speakeasies
Starter #11: Thursday 11/18
 Read the Inside Story on page 302
 What odds do you think Zora Neale Hurston had to
overcome to accomplish what she did?
 Why was Hurston considered a leading figure in the
Harlem Renaissance?
The Great Migration
 Life in south for African Americans was very hard
 Little choice but to be a sharecropper
 Segregation laws created a separate and unequal world
 Racial violence constant threat
 Looked to North for freedom and economic
opportunities
 Outbreak of WWI came a demand for labor to work in
the factories
 By the 1,000s African Americans streamed into Northern
Cities
 Chicago, St. Louis, Detroit, DC, Philly, New York
African Americans after WWI
 After war tensions rose between white and African
American workers due to job shortages
 Racism still very present in the North even though
African Americans aided during the war effort
Harlem Renaissance
 200,000 African Americans moved here during the
Great Migration
 Unofficial capital of African American culture and
activism in the US
 African American Activists
 WEB Du Bois - NAACP
 Marcus Garvey – UNIA (no help from whites)
 African American writers and poets
 Langston Hughes, Bessie Smith, Louis Armstrong….
Starter #12: Friday 11/19
 Read the Inside Story on page 308
 Why would people have been so amazed at hearing
words during a movie?
 Recall what you read in Section 1. What other new
sound-related technology appeared in the 1920s?
A New Popular Culture is Born
 Mass Entertainment in the 1920s
 Radio (309)
 Music, news, broadcasts of religious services, & sports
 Broke down barriers, shared culture
 Movies (310)
 Longer and more of an Art form
 “Birth of a Nation”
 Disney’s “Steamboat Willie” with Mickey Mouse
An Era of Heroes
 Film Stars
 New hero in the movie star
 Charlie Chaplin
 Lucky Lindy
 Charles A Lindbergh & Transatlantic Flight
 Amelia Earhart
 Sports Heroes
 Babe Ruth (312)
 Art of the 1920s
 F. Scott Fitzgerald & George Gershwin
Starter #13: Monday 11/22
 Review Chapters 8-10
 Chapter #8
 List and explain the 4 causes of World War I.
 Chapter #9
 Describe the significance of the following terms:
assembly line, welfare capitalism, installment buying
 Chapter #10
 Define the Great Migration and explain it’s
significance.

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