Teaching materials for the communicative

Report
Teaching materials
and techniques
for the communicative translation class
{
Dr. Constanza Gerding Salas
Universität Leipzig – Universidad de Concepción, May 2012
General
teaching
technique
s
Leipzig – Concepción, 2012
Brainstorming
Leipzig – Concepción, 2012
Brainstorming
 A process for generating new ideas
 Useful for finding solutions for specific translation
problems by gathering ideas spontaneously
without prior judgment or comment
 A good starting point for bridging the gap between
students’ current knowledge and desired results
(Shreve, 1997)
 It fosters relaxation, a state of mind linked to the
incubation stage of problem solving (Kussmaul, 1995)
Leipzig – Concepción, 2012
Relaxed discussion atmosphere
Leipzig – Concepción, 2012
Relaxed discussion atmosphere
 Facilitates the creative process
 Lowers affective filters that may inhibit and
feedback
 Affective filters are impediments to learning or
acquisition caused by negative emotional
("affective") responses to one's environment
Leipzig – Concepción, 2012
Discussions in the SL/TL?
Leipzig – Concepción, 2012
Discussions in the TL (Colina, 2003)
 Foster students’ self-confidence
 Encourage paraphrasing
 Facilitate the association of words
Leipzig – Concepción, 2012
Discussions in the TL (Colina, 2003)
 Foster students’ self-confidence
 Encourage paraphrasing
 Facilitate the association of words
Leipzig – Concepción, 2012
The translation brief
Leipzig – Concepción, 2012
The translation brief
 It may be a complete set of parameters for
translators to follow up to the word
 It may consist of an incomplete list of requirements
 There may not be an explicit translation
commission; so translators should have to find out
missing information, determine key situational
elements, etc.
Leipzig – Concepción, 2012
Basic translation activities
(Colina, 2003)
Basic translation activities
(Colina, 2003)
1. Pre-translation activities
2. Reading comprehension
3. Focus on language
4. Post-translation activities
Leipzig – Concepción, 2012
1. Pre-translation activities
 They should allow for consideration of pragmatic
factors for the ST and TT
 They must include a transition brief to help
determine contextual factors for the TT
 They should encourage sense translating and
discourage word-for-word translation
 They should deal with all sorts of transfer issues
 Source text analysis (text type & genre, function,
format, style, readers, situation...) brief in mind
 Research and documentation; expert advice;
glossary creation; parallel text analysis;
terminological searches.
Leipzig – Concepción, 2012
2. Reading comprehension
Leipzig – Concepción, 2012
2. Reading comprehension
 Completion of incomplete schemas
 Understanding unclear/new terminology
 Following cohesion clues
 Use of context
 Understanding text formats and non-textual clues
 Identifying main points and secondary ideas
 Telling facts from opinions
 Predicting
 Paraphrasing and summarizing
 Answering the journalist's questions
Leipzig – Concepción, 2012
3. Focus on language
 Focus on smaller units of translation
 Focus on language use
 Negative transfer: lexical or structural calque, false
friends, inadequate register, etc.
 Comments on relevant language issues
 Avoiding unjustified transfer
 Reminding students of the importance of accuracy
(grammar, spelling, format, etc.)
Leipzig – Concepción, 2012
4. Post-translation activities
 Developing the translator’s self-concept and selfconfidence
 Fostering professional awareness and behavior
Examples
 A new brief can be set up to discuss its implications
on the new TT.
 Discussion on the constraints of dictionary use
 Sharing ways of solving problems
 Sharing resources
 Analysis of textual organization differences
Leipzig – Concepción, 2012
Outside of class
 Pre-translation activities should be assigned one or
two class periods before the date scheduled for the
start of the discussion.
 Pre-translation and translation activities themselves
should be done outside of class.
 Pre-translation activities are given more emphasis
at initial stages of learning.
 Post-translation production of clean versions for
portfolio
Leipzig – Concepción, 2012
The importance of analysis
Robinson (2006) proposes the following:
 Never assume perfect understanding of ST
 Always pay close attention to translation commission
 Always find out who the TT readership will be
 Always analyze for text type, genre, register, rhetorical
functions, non-linguistic clues
 Always analyze the syntactic, semantic and pragmatic
relationship between ST and TT
Leipzig – Concepción, 2012
In class
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Oral introductory summary reported by students.
Gradual reading aloud of TT (text/s on screen)
Contrast with various other versions
Discussion of problems and comments on solutions
Analysis of pragmatic changes
Comments on special difficulties
Correction of errors
Analyzing translation decisions
Sharing new information sources
Sharing tools employed
Leipzig – Concepción, 2012
Useful translation techniques
 Vocabulary building exercises (L2 learning):
multiple choice, open cloze, roots and affixes, inand out-of- context synonyms, opposites, etc. (Colina,
2003)
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L1 intra-linguistic translation (other ways to say it)
Re-organizing paragraphs for text coherence
Paraphrasing in the SL (Nord, 1996: 332)
Summarizing orally in the TL
Précis writing in the SL / TL
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Leipzig – Concepción, 2012
Useful translation techniques
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Comparing translated text based on different briefs
Changing register or function
Peer proof-reading and editing
MT editing
Contextual equivalents (Hurtado Albir, 1996)
Peer translation correction according to a rubric
(Hurtado Albir, 1996: 49-50)
Leipzig – Concepción, 2012
Constructivism in translation
Summing up, according to Lazo & Zachary (2008: 180)
constructivist learning theories point at:
 creating adequate learning environments for collaborative
work and communication
 activating previous knowledge
 encouraging active learning
 contextualizing learning
 developing autonomy (learning to learn)
 fostering the development of communicative competence
 performing tasks based on professional reality
 promoting learning diversity
 fostering intercultural understanding
Leipzig – Concepción, 2012
Leipzig – Concepción, 2012

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