Universal Design - Smarter Balanced Assessment Consortium

Report
English Language Arts Content
Specifications, Item Specifications,
and Depth of Knowledge
Purpose of Training Module
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Introduce primary source materials
– Common Core State Standards for English Language
Arts and Literacy
– Smarter Balanced Content Specifications
– Smarter Balanced Item and Task Specifications
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Describe how these documents will be used
for item writing
Define Depth of Knowledge
Foundation for Item and Task Development
Items and
Performance Tasks
Smarter Balanced Item
and Task Specifications
Smarter Balanced
Content Specifications
Common Core
State Standards
Structure of the Common Core State Standards
for English Language Arts and Literacy
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Standards for English Language Arts &
Literacy in History/Social Studies, Science,
and Technical Subjects K–5
Standards for English Language Arts 6–12
Standards for Literacy in History/Social
Studies, Science, and Technical Subjects
Structure of the Common Core State Standards
•
Strands
– College and career readiness anchor standards
• Grade-specific standards
Reading
Writing
Language
Anchor Standards
1.
…
Anchor Standards
1.
…
Anchor Standards
1.
…
Grade 9
Grade 9
Grade 9
10.
10.
Grade 6
Grade 3
10.
Grade 6
Grade 3
Speaking/Listening
Anchor Standards
1.
…
Grade 9
10.
Grade 6
Grade 3
Grade 6
Grade 3
Structure of the Content Specifications
The Smarter Balanced Assessment Consortium Content Specifications for English
Language Arts and Literacy is a bridge document linking the Common Core State
Standards to the Smarter Balanced assessment claims and targets.
Item Development Guidelines for all Selected Response and Constructed
Response Items and Performance Tasks
Guidelines for Developing Stems in SR Items
• Each SR and CR item should be written to focus primarily on one assessment
target. Secondary targets are acceptable for some Claim 1 targets and should
be listed in the item forms.
• Stems should present a complete problem so that students know what to do
before looking at the options; students should not need to read all options
before knowing what is expected.
• Each PT should be written to multiple claims and targets.
• Grades 3–5 stems should be in the form of a question. An open stem,
however, may be used if doing so will reduce wordiness and repetition.
• Items/tasks should be clearly written to elicit the desired evidence of a
student’s knowledge, skills, and abilities.
• Items/tasks should avoid measurement of a student’s feelings or values.
• Items/tasks should not provide an advantage or disadvantage to a particular
group of students. Items should not exhibit or reflect disrespect to any
segment of the population in regard to age, gender, race, ethnicity, language,
religion, socioeconomic status, disability, or geographic region.
• Grades 6–11 permit open-ended stems, and there should be a variety of stem
types. The decision for choosing open or closed stems should be based on
ease of reading and clarity.
Guidelines for Developing Options in SR Items
• All options should be plausible and there must be a correct or best answer.
• Universal design principles must be followed. Universal design, as applied to
assessments, is a concept that allows the widest possible range of students to
participate in assessments and may even reduce the need for
accommodations and alternative assessments by expanding access to the
tests themselves.
• All items/tasks must be coded to the Smarter Balanced cognitive levels as
indicated on page 68 of this document.
• Vocabulary items should follow the Common Core State Standards 3-tier
words and academic vocabulary as described on pages 69-70 of this
document.
• All options, including the correct response, should be similar in length and
syntax. Students should not be able to rule out a wrong answer or identify a
correct response solely because it looks or sounds different from the other
options.
• All options should be arranged according to a logical order (e.g., vocabulary
words, details, or quotations from the passage should follow the order used
in the text).
• All options must be followed by distractor analyses which help item writers
think through students’ common misunderstandings of a concept.
Structure of the Content Specifications
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Part I: Introduction and Background
– Development Process for the Major Claims and Assessment Target
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•
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Part II: Content Specifications: Mapping Assessment Targets
to Standards
Part III: Claims, Rationale, Evidence, Assessment Targets,
Proposed Reporting
Categories
References & Appendices
– Appendix A: Cognitive Rigor Matrix/Depth of Knowledge
– Appendix B: Grade Level Tables for Reading Assessment Targets
– Appendix C: Tools for Examining Text Complexity
Cognitive Rigor and Depth of Knowledge
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The level of complexity of the cognitive demand.
– Level 1: Recall and Reproduction
• Requires eliciting information such as a fact, definition, term,
or a simple procedure, as well as performing a simple algorithm
or applying a formula.
– Level 2: Basic Skills and Concepts
• Requires the engagement of some mental processing beyond
a recall of information.
– Level 3: Strategic Thinking and Reasoning
• Requires reasoning, planning, using evidence, and explanations
of thinking.
– Level 4: Extended Thinking
• Requires complex reasoning, planning, developing, and
thinking most likely over an extended period of time.
Cognitive Rigor Matrix
This matrix from the Smarter Balanced Content Specifications for ELA draws from both Bloom’s
(revised) Taxonomy of Educational Objectives and Webb’s Depth-of-Knowledge Levels below.
Structure of the Smarter Balanced Assessment
Consortium English Language Arts Item Specifications
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•
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Evidence Statements
Task Models
Sample Items
Structure of Item Specification Table
The Smarter Balanced Assessment Consortium
English Language Arts Content Specifications
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•
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Claim 1: Students can read closely and analytically to
comprehend a range of increasingly complex literary and
informational texts. Reading, literary and informational text.
Claim 2: Students can produce effective and well grounded
writing for a range of purpose and audiences.
Claim 3: Students can employ effective speaking and
listening skills for a range of purposes and audiences.
Claim 4: Students can engage in research/inquiry
to investigate topics, and to analyze, integrate, and
present information.
Claim 1
•
Students can read closely and analytically to
comprehend a range of increasingly complex
literary and informational texts.
1. Targets 1–7 correspond with literary texts
2. Targets 8–14 correspond with informational texts
3. The assessment targets incorporate the content
clusters from the Common Core State Standards
Grade 5 Claim 1 Target 4
4. REASONING & EVIDENCE: Use supporting evidence to justify interpretations
(theme, events, conflicts/challenges, setting, character development/ interactions,
point of view)
Standards: RL-2, RL-3, RL-6
(DOK 3)
RL-2 Determine a theme of a story, drama, or poem from details in the text,
including how characters in a story or drama respond to challenges or how the
speaker in a poem reflects upon a topic; summarize the text.
RL-3 Compare and contrast two or more characters, settings, or events in a story
or drama, drawing on specific details in the text (e.g., how characters interact).
RL-6 Describe how a narrator’s or speaker’s point of view influences how
events are described.
Claim 2
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Students can produce effective and well
grounded writing for a range of purpose and
audiences.
– Targets 1, 3, & 6: Revise/Write Brief Texts
– Targets 2, 4, & 7: Compose Full Texts including essays and narratives
– Target 5: Use of text features, e.g., headings, subheadings, etc.
– Target 8: Language & Vocabulary Use
– Target 9: Edit/Clarify
Grade 7 Claim 2 Target 1
1. WRITE/REVISE BRIEF TEXTS: Apply narrative strategies (e.g., dialogue, description,) and appropriate text
structures and transitional strategies for coherence when writing or revising one or more paragraphs of
narrative text (e.g. closure, introduce narrator or use dialogue when describing an event)
Standards: W-3a, W-3b, W-3c, W-3d, and/or W-3e
(DOK 2)
W-3
a. Engage and orient the reader by establishing a context and point of view and introducing a narrator and/or
characters; organize an event sequence that unfolds naturally and logically.
b. Use narrative techniques, such as dialogue, pacing, and description to develop experiences, events, and/or
characters.
c. Use a variety of transition words, phrases, and clauses to convey sequence, signal shifts from one time
frame or setting to another, and show the relationships among experiences and events.
d. Use precise words and phrases, relevant descriptive details, and sensory language to capture the action
and convey experiences and events.
e. Provide a conclusion that follows from and reflects on the narrated experiences or events.
Claim 3
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Students can employ effective speaking
and listening skills for a range of purposes
and audiences.
1. Language & Vocabulary Use
2. Clarify Message
3. Plan/Speak/Present
4. Listen/Interpret
Grade 11 Claim 3 Target 3
3. PLAN/SPEAK/PRESENT: Gather and organize information compose and orally deliver short (e.g., summaries)
and longer (presentations) for different purposes and audiences drawing from a range of digital media to
enhance the message or intent
Standards: SL-1 SL-4 SL-5 SL-6
(DOK 3 DOK 4)
SL-1 Initiate and participate effectively in a range of collaborative discussions (one-on-one in groups and
teacher-led) with diverse partners on grades 11–12 topics texts and issues building on others’ ideas and
expressing their own clearly and persuasively.
SL-4 Present information findings and supporting evidence conveying a clear and distinct perspective such that
listeners can follow the line of reasoning alternative or opposing perspectives are addressed and the
organization development substance and style are appropriate to purpose audience and a range of formal and
informal tasks.
SL-5 Make strategic use of digital media (e.g. textual graphical audio visual and interactive elements) in
presentations to enhance understanding of findings reasoning and evidence and to add interest.
SL-6 Adapt speech to a variety of contexts and tasks demonstrating a command of formal English when
indicated or appropriate.
Claim 4
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Students can engage in research / inquiry to
investigate topics, and to analyze, integrate,
and present information.
1. Plan/Research
2. Interpret & Integrate Information
3. Analyze Information/Sources
4. Use Evidence
Grade 4 Claim 4 Target 3
3. ANALYZE INFORMATION/SOURCES: Distinguish relevantirrelevant information (e.g., fact/opinion)
Standards: W-8, W-9
(DOK 2)
W-8 Recall relevant information from experiences or gather
relevant information from print and digital sources; take notes
and categorize information, and provide a list of sources.
W-9 Draw evidence from literary or informational texts to
support analysis, reflection, and research.
Evidence Statements
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Define the information or products elicited
from students
Task models designed to elicit evidence
Sample items provide concrete examples of
the characteristics specified in a task model
Grade 5 Evidence Statement for
Grade 5 Claim 1 Target 4
Evidence Required:
When reading literary texts, students
1. Determine the theme of a story and justify their interpretation by pointing
to textual evidence from such elements as the story’s events, conflicts and
resolutions, and the interactions between characters.
Or
2. Compare and contrast characters, settings, or critical events from different parts
of a story to form an interpretation justifying that interpretation through specific
textual evidence.
Or
3. Justify interpretations of how the author’s choice of narrator affects the theme,
tone, or perspective on events of a text using textual evidence.
Alignment to Claims and Assessment Targets,
Primary Claims & Secondary Claims
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Claim 1: Students can read closely and analytically to
comprehend a range of increasingly complex literary and
informational texts.
Target 4: REASONING & EVALUATION: Use supporting
evidence to justify interpretations of such story elements as
theme, events, conflicts/challenges, setting, character
development/interactions, or point of view.
Secondary Target(s): Target 1. KEY DETAILS: Use explicit
details and implicit information from the text to support
answers or make inferences about information presented
Task Models
Model 1: 2-pt CR (DOK 3) – prompts students to make an
inference or draw a conclusion about how the author develops
the theme. Response uses relevant text evidence as support.
SR: Selected Response
CR: Constructed Response
ER: Extended Response
TE: Technology-Enhanced
PT: Performance Task
Task Models
Grade 11 Claim 1 Target 4
Task Models:
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Model 1: 2-pt CR (DOK 3) – prompts students to make an inference
or draw a conclusion about how the author develops the theme.
Response uses relevant text evidence as support.
Model 2: 2-pt CR (DOK 3) – prompts students to analyze how point
of view impacts the development of the plot. Response uses
relevant text evidence as support.
Model 3: 3-pt CR (DOK 3) – prompts students to analyze the
author’s choices regarding character development. Response uses
relevant text evidence as support.
Model 4: 3-pt CR (DOK 3) – prompts students to analyze how the
author uses irony in a text.
Alignment to Claims and Assessment Targets,
Primary Claims & Secondary Claims
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Common Core State Standards: foundation for
claims and assessment targets
Smarter Balanced Content Specifications: define
claims and assessment targets
– Depth of Knowledge: Level of cognitive processes
applied by students
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Smarter Balanced Item and Task Specifications:
define evidence required and describe task models

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