Chapter 8: Vitamins and Minerals

Chapter 8: Vitamins and
Define the Following Terms:
• 1. antioxidants—substances that protect
body cells and the immune system from
damage by harmful chemicals in air and
• 2. electrolyte minerals—sodium, chloride,
and potassium, which control and balance
fluid flow in and out of cells.
• 3. fat-soluble vitamins—vitamins
absorbed and transported by fat.
• 4. free-radicals—harmful by-product
excreted when cells burn oxygen to
produce energy.
• 5. hypertension—high-blood pressure
linked to high salt intake.
• 6. iron-deficiency anemia—lack of enough
iron in the body, resulting in fatigue,
weakness, and shortness of breath.
• 7. major minerals—macrominerals with
special duties in the body; calcium,
phosphorus, magnesium, sodium,
chloride, and potassium.
• 8. osteomalacia—a disease caused by a
lack of vitamin D in adults.
• 9. osteoporosis—condition caused by
calcium deficiency; bones become porous,
weak, fragile.
• 10. pica—Condition linked to iron
deficiency; causes unusual appetite for
ice, clay, and other nonfood items.
• 11. toxicity—excessive amount of
substance that reacts as poison in the
• 12. trace minerals—minerals needed in
only small amounts but serving vital body
• 13. water-soluble vitamins—vitamins
dissolve in water and pass easily into the
bloodstream during digestion.
Answer the following questions:
• 1. Why are vitamins and minerals called
• They are needed in smaller amounts than
other nutrients.
2. Why are some vitamins
considered to be antioxidants?
• They protect body cells and the immune
system by either transforming harmful free
radicals into less damaging compounds or
repairing damaged cells.
3. Compare water-soluble and fatsoluble vitamins.
• Water-soluble vitamins dissolve in water
and are carried in the bloodstream; they
are not stored, and excess amounts are
eliminated with waste products. Fatsoluble vitamins are absorbed and
transported by fat; excess amounts are
stored by the body for later use.
4. What does vitamin C do for
• Helps maintain healthy capillaries, bones,
skin, and teeth. Helps your body heal
wounds and resist infections. Aids in the
absorption of iron and works as an
antioxidant. Plays a role in caring for
collagen that gives structure to bones,
cartilage, muscle, and blood vessels.
5. One family stored milk in small,
clear containers. What do you think of
this practice?
• Not good because light through the
containers will destroy riboflavin in the
6. What function in the body do riboflavin,
niacin, vitamin B6, vitamin B12, vitamin B5,
and biotin have in common?
• They are all involved in using
carbohydrates, proteins, and fats.
7. Why is folate a very important
• It helps the body use proteins, builds red
blood cells, and forms genetic material. It
prevents birth defects that damage the
brain and spinal cord.
8. What can occur with vitamin A
• Rough, scaly skin and infections in the
respiratory tract and other areas of the
body; causes night blindness and total
blindness in many children in developing
9. What is toxicity?
• An excessive amount of a substance that
is poisonous in the body.
10. What are two ways to get
vitamin D?
• Through exposure to sunlight and in
fortified milk.
11. Why do cooks need to pay
particular attention to the ways that
foods are prepared?
• Some cooking techniques can destroy
certain vitamins.
12. Compare major and trace
• The amount of trace minerals the body
needs is much smaller than the amount of
major minerals needed.
13. Why do teens need to think
about osteoporosis?
• Bone mass builds u p during childhood,
the teen years, and young adulthood, so
care taken to consume calcium during
early life can prevent the disease from
developing later.
14. Why are sodium, chloride, and
potassium called electrolyte minerals?
• They form chemical particles called
electrolytes, which attract fluids. Cells
move electrolytes through cell walls as
needed to balance fluids and keep cells
from collapsing or bursting.
15. What can help reduce
• Lowering intake of table salt.
16. What are some signs of irondeficiency anemia?
• Being tired, weak, short of breath, pale,
and cold.
17. One teen chewed on ice to the point
that her friends noticed and commented on
the frequency. What might be wrong?
• She might have pica, an unusual appetite
for ice, clay, or other nonfood items,
indicating an iron deficiency.
18. Why is fluoride needed in the
• To prevent tooth decay and strengthen
19. What do you think about the trend
to fortify many food products with
vitamins and minerals?
• Might help some people, but also has the
potential to cause toxic excesses
How does your diet rate?
Balanced Diet = Good Health
The End

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