Unit 8 LEARING A FOREIGN LANGUAGE TWICE AS HARD? Learning a language is obviously ___________ （显 more than 然） ____________（不仅仅） just memorising words, phrases and structures. tongue When we learn ourmother _____________（母语） we did not _________ receive （受到）much formal instruction. We learnt or acquired our mother tongue by communicating with the people ___________________________________ __________（通过同周围的人交流）. And around us. perhaps most puzzling of all, how were we make sense of able to _________________（弄明白） distinguish the what we heard and _____________ mistakes and errors from _____（区分）“good” language ? Main idea of para 1: The environmental factor of learning mother tongue. Main idea of para 2 : Different opinions of language experts. are Some believe that we ____ _____________ equipped with （具备）a special ability to learn language and that to （适应） our brain adjusts ______ itself __ the language we hear around us. Others think that we learn the same way（以同 language In ______________ 样的方式）we learn other things, such as walking or solving what we are problems, and that ____________ _________ born with （天生具有的）is a general ability to learn and adapt. _____________ Regardless of （不管）their theories, these language Learning a foreign language is different from learning one’s mother tongue. （学习一门外语不 同于学习一个人的母语）The place（发生） learning often takes _________ in school and there are often few opportunities ____________ （机会）to communicate with the native As a consequence speakers. _________________ （结果）some students think that Learning a foreign language is slow and difficult. However, we actually learn a foreign language faster than we do our much _______ 5 mother tongue. We spent ____ years learning our native language while we only spend a few hours a week and in a few’s years’ time we can speak a foreign language. That means we can be much more efficient.（那就意味着我们 学的更有效率） Main idea of para3 : The difference between learning mother and learning a foreign language. Main idea of para 4 : The characteristics of successful language learners. Then why are some people better at learning a foreign language than others ?（那么，为什么一些 人比其他人在语言学习方面做的更 好呢？Research has shown that （研究表明）successful language learners do share quite a few characteristics（的确有许多共同点） The data suggests that what successful language learners have in common （共同所拥有的） ______________ among other things （除了其 is, _________________ 他方面）that they are interested in _____________________ understanding their own thinking（独立思考）_________ curious about _____________ the world（对世界充满好奇） Willing to take chances and ____________________________ confident in their ability. （愿意去 _____________________ 抓住机会并且对自己的能力充满信 心）Successful learners also use different ways of learning and plan their studies（编制学习计划） _______________ in order to ___________________ deal with academic challenges. __________（应对学习挑战） Successful students gain confidence and are able to relax and enjoy the learning because evaluate they plan ____（计划）and ________ （评估）their learning. with ___ (由于) greater control and a___________ strong sense of achievement (强烈的成就感) , active learners are able to acquire ______ put what new skills faster and ____ better use they know to ___________(充分利用). The less anxious and more relaxed the learner, the better their language acquisition. （学习者焦虑程度越轻，情绪越放 松，他们就会学的越好） Self-confident, secure (自信且有 __________________________ 把握的) students are more successful language learners risks who are more willing to take _______ (冒险) and place themselves in a new learning situations. If they were not, they would not be experiment with ready to ______________(进行实 验) new forms and to make mistakes, both of which contribute to (作出贡献) their increased ability to learn. Different learning ways of successful language learners Main idea of para 6 :the importance of the purpose of learning. Not __________ all of us (并不是所有人) want to be translators or interpreters. It takes patience to learn a ____________________________ language. ________ (学习一门语言需要耐心) If we want to become successful language learners, we should try to adopt some of the study habits and characteristics described above. If we develop our study skills, we many find that learning a foreign language does not have to be twice as hard as learning our mother tongue, but can in fact be twice as easy and a lot of fun. If we want to become a successful language learner, we should do the following : Be interested in understanding your own thinking Be curious about the world Be willing to take chances Be confident in your ability With greater control and a strong sense of achievement Do plan and evaluate your learning Take patience to learn a language Language Points : 1. acquire: 学到；获得 gain, get 1) How I wish I could acquire a good knowledge of English. 2) Active learners are able to acquire new skills faster. 2. order vt. 命令，嘱咐，定购（做） 叫（饭菜） If a girl orders the most expensive food for her first dinner date, she is probably rich or greedy. in order of importance / age / position in order---- out of order/ in disorder That is a peaceful society, and everything there is in good order. 3. get stuck / be stuck 被困住 stick to 坚持 My car was stuck in the mud. He stuck his fork into a big piece of meat. Don’t stick your head out of the widow of the train. # Stick to the plan and you’ll succeed. 4. make sense of弄懂的意思；理 解 understand Can you make sense of the theory? I can’t make sense of what the author says. Talking after the accident makes no sense. What he said is reasonable in a ~. The sentence doesn’t make sense. make sense有意义，有道理； 讲的通 make no sense 没道理;没意义 in a sense多少有点；就某种 意义（某方面）来说 a sense of humor\fairness common sense 常识 5. adjust adjust / adapt… to 1) Will you please adjust the clock? It’s slow. 2) When you go to a new country, you must adapt / adjust yourself to new circumstances. 3) She soon adjusted /adapted (herself) to his way of life. 6.regardness of : paying no attention to Regardless of danger, he climbed the tower. 7. in other words in a word with the ( these ) words in words in word (1 ) ______________, With the words he walked away with a smile. ( 2 )It’s no use to promise _________, in word but in deed. In a word you are a very good (3 ) ____________, boy. (4 )I don’t know how to explain this _______. in words (5)I can’t make sense of it; in ____________, other words I can’t understand it. 8.case 事例; 实情; 病例; 情况 1) Is this the case that you have lost your money ? (= Is it true) 2) If that is the case,you’ll have to work harder. 5) It may rain---- you’d better take an umbrella in case. 6) In case of fire, ring the alarm bell. 7) In this/ that case, none can escape. instruct = teach ,educate 教；指导； 指示 9. 1) Mr. Zhang instructed a maths lesson. 2) The captain instructed his men to fight bravely. 3) He often instructs me in English. instructor instruction instructive (有教育意义的 ) 10. take a risk / take risks冒险 take the risk of doing sth冒着…的危险 at the risk of冒着…的危险 at risk冒险 He took the risk of losing his life to save the drowning boy. He saved the boy at the ~ of losing his life. New things may be at ~ at the beginning. 11. adopt 采纳；接受；收养 1) He adopted my suggestion, which made me very happy. 2) Mr. Kern adopted the orphan as his own son. 3) He is not my real father; I’m adopted. 12. secure adj. 确定的, 可靠的, 安心的 • His success is secure. • Our house is secure from flood. (certain) • They feel secure about their ( free from anxiety) future.