El Colegio de México, AC - Instituto Politécnico Nacional

Report
WATER TREATMENT AND REUSE IN
MÉXICO.
JORGE ALBERTO MENDOZA PÉREZ
ESCUELA NACIONAL DE CIENCIAS BIOLÓGICAS DEL
INSTITUTO POLITÉCNICO NACIONAL.
Index
1.
2.
General Information
Overview of Water supply in México
and collected wastewater.
3.
Wastewater treatment in México and
reuse.
4.
5.
Mexican regulatory framework.
Case of study: Wastewater treatment
plant from El Colegio de México A.C.:
a successful but realistic story
Puente de Dios, San Luis Potosí. Image taken from Mexican National Water Program 2014.-2018
1. General Information.
•
In 2013 México had a population near 118 million people
(117,053,750) Source: CONAPO 2010-2030 .
•
For 2015, at least a 94% of the population in Mexico will have
potable water.*
•
In the same year (2015) we hope that 91% of our population will
have access to sewer service and more than 72% of rural dwellers
will have water service.*
•
But, if México still following the current trend of consumption and
population growth, in 15 years (2030) the country will face a critical
situation of water shortage.*
•
* Source: FEA and CEMDA, 2006. www.agua.org.mx and CONAGUA , Water statistics in México, 2013.
Average natural water availability per capita in
some countries (m3 /capita · year)
Source: FAO 2013 : Aquastat data base
Mexican XIII Administrative-Hydrologic Regions (AHR).
Source: CONAGUA.Water Atlas in México, 2013.
Demographic, socioeconomic and renewable
water data in AHR, 2013.
Source: CONAGUA , Water statistics in México, 2013.
Water availability in México by type of source.
Water in
México
Continental
surface of
AHR
(km2)
Renewable
water
(Hm3/year)
Surface
water :
Rivers,
Lakes and
Ponds.
(Hm3/year)
Groundwater
(Hm3/year)
Available
resource
2012-2013
1, 959, 248.00
471,498.00
378,873.00
92,625.00
Source: FEA and CEMDA, 2006. www.agua.org.mx; CONAGUA, Water statistics in México, 2013; Mexican National
Water Program 2014.-2018.
México holds approximately 0.1% of
total freshwater available globally, which
determines that a significant percentage
of the territory is classified as semidesert area. It is the reason why water is
considered a strategic factor for the
overall development of the country.
In the world rankings, México is
considered a country with low water
availability. Across the country it rains
approximately 1,488,819 Hm3 of water
each year, with a normal rainfall annual
average of 760 mm.
•
In México our Federal Constitution recognize and protect the
human right for water so the Mexican government is required to
guarantee this right and through the laws define just and fair ways
for access, provision and proper use.
•
México has faced in recent years unprecedented problems of water
security related to water supply, lack of technology development,
shortage in several zones of the country and even privatization
policies that have generated a high cost in social and human terms.
2. Overview of Water supply in México and
collected wastewater.
Cascada Apatlaco, Puebla. Image taken from Mexican National Water Program 2014.-2018
Improvement of Water supply and Sewer service in
México
%
potable water coverage
Source: Mexican National Water Program, 2014.-2018
year
Sewer service coverage
Water use in México.
Water use
Surface
water
(Hm3/year)
Groundwater
(Hm3/year)
(Hm3/year)
Extraction
Percentage
(%)
Irrigation
41,200.00
22,200.00
63,400.00
76.6
Public water
supply
4,700.00
7,300.00
12,000.00
14.5
Selfsupplying
industry
1,400.00
1,900.00
3,300.00
4.0
Electric
energy
excluding
hydroelectric
power
3,600.00
400.00
4,000.00
4.9
Total
50,900.00
31,800.00
82,700.00
100
Source: CONAGUA , Water statistics in México, 2013.
Total
volume
Water Stress Index = 100 x
  (3)
   (3)
Consumptive water
volume
Highest stress
Without stress
Source: IADB, Wastewater treatment in México, 2013.
Renewable water
volume
Collected Wastewater.
Type of
discharge
Source: CONAGUA.Water Atlas in México, 2013.
Discharge
flow = Q
(m3/s)
Municipal
Nonmunicipal
(including
industrial
discharges)
Volume for
Irrigation use
Total Collected
as raw*
Wastewater
(Hm3/year)
229.7
7,240.00
6,610.00
3,435.58
Treated volume
(Hm3/year)
99.8
3,150.00
1,910.00
279.65**
BOD5 generated
(millions of
tonnes per year)
---
1.96
9.92
---
BOD5 removal
by wastewater
treatment plants
(millions of
tonnes per year)
---
0.7
1.30
---
*without any kind of partial treatment.. **Only primary treatment
In México almost a 40% of the collected wastewater is treated but no
more than a 15% reach the expected quality for reuse or returning to
water resources.
Sistema Cutzamala. Image taken from the Mexican National Water Program, 2014-2018.
The pollution caused by discharges of wastewater and poor quality
treated wastewater in our aquifer resources, has damaged at least the
24% of our water bodies of immediate use.
3. Wastewater treatment in México and reuse.
Source: Wastewater treatment plant San Francisco de los Romo Aguascalientes, México, 2008
Wastewater treatment coverage in México
Reported as 100%
Higher than 60%
Above the 40%
Lower than 40%
Source: IADB, Wastewater treatment in México, 2013.
Statistics of wastewater treatment plants
operating in México
Type of
Discharge
Total plants in
operation
Installed
capacity
( m3/s)
Treated flow
(Q = m3/s)
Treatment
Efficiency
(%)
Municipal
2,342
140.14
99.80
15 - 16
Non-municipal
(including
industry)
2,500
91.2
60.5
30-60
Source: CONAGUA. General Division of Drinking Water, Sewerage and Sanitation. 2013.
Wastewater Treatment level
(Data from non municipal systems mainly industries)
Level
Aim
Plants in
operation
(m3/s)
Operation
flow
(m3/s)
Percentage
(%)
Adjust pH
and remove
particles
796
21.7
31.46
Remove
organic
material
(BOD)
1518
34.7
60.00
Remove
gases, ions
and bacterias
74
1.18
2.92
Not specific
---
142
2.93
5.91
Total
---
2,530
60.51
100
Primary
Secundary
Tertiary
Source: IADB, Wastewater treatment in México, 2013 and CONAGUA , Water statistics in México, 2013.
Municipal wastewater treatment technology
Treatment
process
Treated flow
(m3/s)
Treatment
Percentage
(%)
Available
Plants in
México
Activated sludge
40.6
46.2
550
Stabilization
lagoons and
ponds
15.6
17.5
700
Advanced
primary
9.1
10.2
25
Source: Lahera Ramón, V. 2010
Water (wastewater) reuse in México
•
40-45% of wastewater treated or not is
used for irrigation.
•
30-35% is available
for returning up to
water resources and since 2010 at least 510% is used to recharge groundwater
aquifers.
•
10-15% is diluted with storm tank water for
different uses mainly as primary service
water.
•
Also is used for co-mingled effluent in
rivers and in natural runoff.
•
No more than 10% is treated with the
required quality for industrial and domestic
reuse, without human contact as primary
service water.
Source: Bunge, V. 2012; Lahera Ramón, V. 2010 and CONAGUA. General Division of Drinking Water, Sewerage
and Sanitation. 2013.
Causes
•
•
•
LACK OF MONEY
LACK OF TECHNOLOGY and TRANSDISCIPLINARITY
BAD COORDINATION and ORGANIZATION BETWEEN SOCIETY
COMPONENTS (GOVERNMENT, INDUSTRIES, RESEARCH
CENTERS, NGOs and CITIZENS)
•
•
•
•
ABSENCE OF REGULATIONS and LAWS
POOR SUSTAINABILITY IN THE PROCESSES
LACK OF EDUCATION and TRAINING
CORRUPTION
4. Mexican regulatory framework.
The National Water Commission (CONAGUA) is the responsible for integrating
and developing the National Water Program under the terms thereof and of the
Planning Act, as well as updating and monitor its
implementation, proposing criteria and guidelines
that allow for unit and coherence to the actions of the
Mexican government in reference to water as a national
resource and their inherent public assets.
Source: Mexican National Water Program 2014.-2018
National Water Program
2014-2018
The National Water Program (NWP) from 2014 to 2018 shows the
essential value of water as a strategic element for attendance the basic
needs of mexican population and promote the development of
economic activities of the country in a framework that puts the care
and preservation of the environment for future generations. This
program is directly related with the National Development Plan 20132018.
SEMARNAT
The Mexican Ministry of Environment and Natural
Resources (SEMARNAT) is responsible for reviewing
the maximum permissible limits of pollutants
currently included in the schedule for particular
conditions of discharge into water bodies in the
permits issued for that purpose.
Source: Mexican National Water Program 2014.-2018
Current regulations
México has established a regulatory framework that regulates wastewater
discharges to receiving bodies through the following rules:
NOM 001.- Establishes the maximum permissible limits of
pollutants in wastewater discharges into national waters or
assets.
NOM 002.-Establishes the maximum permissible limits of
pollutants in the wastewater discharge into the urban or
municipal sewer systems .
NOM 003.- Establishes the maximum permissible limits for
contaminants in treated wastewater reused in public services.
NOM 004.-Establishes specifications and maximum permissible
limits of pollutants in sludge and biosolids for its use and
disposal.
Source: SEMARNAT, Envioronmental regulatory framework, 2013.
Reuse program for treated
wastewater.
Basic points:
Source: Mexican National Water Program 2014.-2018
I.- Reuse treated wastewater for irrigation.
II.- Reuse of treated wastewater in industries promoting exchanging water
for primary services with treated water.
III.- Construction and expansion of networks of treated wastewater to
incorporate effluents from municipal wastewater treatment plants in order
to reuse water in industrial parks and for recharging groundwater aquifers.
This action will be encouraged, once they comply with the relevant
environmental quality provisions
Current and Future Strategies.
To better the current situation of our infrastructure for wastewater treatment
and to achieve future plans on the reuse of treated wastewater, a series of
strategies shall be followed:
•
Wastewater Collectors and treatment plants will be built with a holistic approach
to watershed and aquifer.
•
It will be given a strong impulse to the reuse of treated wastewater, particularly
for agricultural irrigation and industrial processes.
•
It has to be promoted with the states and municipalities, the proper functioning
of the existing wastewater treatment plants, which means operating them
efficiently and continuously.
•
Also It must be promoted that the industries treat their wastewater and improve
the effectiveness of systems.
Source: Mexican National Water Program 2014.-2018
Immediate actions.
•
•
•
•
•
Improve current systems
Build new systems with better technology
Search for new clean energy sources
Reach the 100% reuse of treated wastewater.
Design and apply new regulations to improve and better the
management of water resources
•
Include more pollutants to be monitored and decrease the maximum
permissible limits of them in those discharges which go directly to water
resources
•
Increase the sustainability of our water management proceedings
Source: Mexican National Water Program 2014.-2018
Requirements.
•
•
•
MONEY
TECHNOLOGY and TRANSDISCIPLINARITY
PERMANENT ASSOCIATION and BACKFEED BETWEEN SOCIETY
COMPONENTS (GOVERNMENT, INDUSTRIES, RESEARCH CENTERS, NGOs
and CITIZENS)
•
•
•
•
REGULATIONS and LAWS
DEVELOPMENT OF SUSTAINABILITY IN THE PROCESSES
EDUCATION and TRAINING
ETHICS (VANISHING OF CORRUPTION)
5. Case of study: Wastewater treatment plant from El
Colegio de México A.C.: a successful but realistic story.
•
El
Colegio
de
México,
A.C. (commonly known as Colmex,
English: The College of Mexico) is a
prestigious Mexican institute of higher
education, specializing in teaching and
research
in
social
sciences
and
humanities. he college was founded in
1940
by
the
Mexican
Federal
Government, the Bank of México (Banco
de México), the National Autonomous
University of México (UNAM), and
the Fondo de Cultura Económica.
Environmental certification.
•
In 2011 El Colegio de México as part of its planning to obtain the
environmental certification from the government of the Federal
District (D.F.) started a project for the construction, operation and
control of its own wastewater plant.
Colegio de México WWTP Line Diagram
System parameters
Process
(Dual)
EA /MBRNF
Treatment
Flow
(m3/day)
Installed
Capacity
(m3/day)
Water reuse
volume
(m3)
Settling
solids
(%)
Mean BOD
influent
(mg O2/L)
Mean BOD
effluent
(mg O2/L)
Extended
Aeration
(activated
sludge)
50
75
40
95 - 98
1,650.00
60-90
MBR-NF
50
75
40
95- 98
2, 500.00
20-30
Costs
Plant cost (USD)
493,600.50
Elimination efficiency (%)
as MBR-NF
98.80-99.00
Specific Regulation
Annual Maintenance cost
(USD)
$/m3 (pesos/cents of dollar)
Operators (six days per week)
NOM 003
35,000
3.6 /0.28
2
Water (wastewater) reuse
Water reuse
Volume
(m3 per day)
Garden
Irrigation
8
Groundwater
recharge
11
Sanitary
services
18
Almost 40% of maintenance is used for membranes,
irrigation system and sanitary water supply (bombs)
Conclusions
•
An efficiently wastewater treatment plant will have at the beginning
a large inversion recovery cost and it will be necessary invest in
training the personal in charge.
• Water reuse of course will
bring saving money but the
initial inversion recovery and
the annual maintenance cost
will avoid for a time period get
benefits.
• New technology is expensive
but it is necessary in order to
keep, take care and recover
our water resources
THANKS A LOT !!!!
ANY QUESTION ?????
REFERENCES.
•
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Cantor, J.; Sutton, P.M.; Steinheber, R.; Novachis, L. (2000) Industrial Biotreatment Plant
Capacity Expansion and Upgrading Through Application of Membrane Biomass-Effluent
Separation. Proceedings of the WEF 73rd Annual Conference & Exposition, Anaheim, CA.
Hall, E.R.; Bérubé, P.R.; Sutton, P.M. (2006) Membrane Bioreactors for Anaerobic Treatment of
Wastewaters. Project 02-CTS-4, Water Environment Research Foundation.
Knoblock, M.D.; Sutton, P.M.; Mishra, P.N.; Gupta, K.; Janson, A. (1994) Membrane Biological
Reactor System for Treatment of Oily Wastewaters. Water Environment Research, 66 (2),
pp.133-139.
Le-Clech, P.; Fane, A.; Leslie, G. (2005) MBR Focus: The Operators Perspective. Filtration &
Separation, June pp. 20-23.
Lei, E.; Bérubé, P.R. (2004) Impact of Membrane Configuration and Hydrodynamic Conditions
on the Permeate Flux in Submerged Membrane Systems for Drinking Water Treatment.
Proceedings AWWA Water Quality Technology Conference, San Antonio, TX.
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•
•
•
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Conagua (2012a), “Situación del Subsector de Agua Potable, Alcantarillado y Saneamiento”,
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Conagua (2012b), “Agenda del Agua 2030”, 2011.
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Infraestructura Hidráulica 2012.
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de Infraestructura 2007-2012, 20 de septiembre 2012.
Conagua, “Planta de tratamiento de aguas residuales Atotonilco”, 2012.
Conagua, “Experiencias en la Instrumentación de Acciones de Saneamiento. Situación actual y
principales proyectos de infraestructura en México”, Octubre 2010.
Conagua, Aneas, CMIC, “IV Reunión Nacional de Infraestructura Hidráulica 2012”, Agosto 2012.
IMTA, “El reúso del agua residual tratada en México”, Seminario Internacional sobre Métodos
Naturales para el Tratamiento de Aguas Residuales. 2008.
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