WATER TREATMENT AND REUSE IN MÉXICO. JORGE ALBERTO MENDOZA PÉREZ ESCUELA NACIONAL DE CIENCIAS BIOLÓGICAS DEL INSTITUTO POLITÉCNICO NACIONAL. Index 1. 2. General Information Overview of Water supply in México and collected wastewater. 3. Wastewater treatment in México and reuse. 4. 5. Mexican regulatory framework. Case of study: Wastewater treatment plant from El Colegio de México A.C.: a successful but realistic story Puente de Dios, San Luis Potosí. Image taken from Mexican National Water Program 2014.-2018 1. General Information. • In 2013 México had a population near 118 million people (117,053,750) Source: CONAPO 2010-2030 . • For 2015, at least a 94% of the population in Mexico will have potable water.* • In the same year (2015) we hope that 91% of our population will have access to sewer service and more than 72% of rural dwellers will have water service.* • But, if México still following the current trend of consumption and population growth, in 15 years (2030) the country will face a critical situation of water shortage.* • * Source: FEA and CEMDA, 2006. www.agua.org.mx and CONAGUA , Water statistics in México, 2013. Average natural water availability per capita in some countries (m3 /capita · year) Source: FAO 2013 : Aquastat data base Mexican XIII Administrative-Hydrologic Regions (AHR). Source: CONAGUA.Water Atlas in México, 2013. Demographic, socioeconomic and renewable water data in AHR, 2013. Source: CONAGUA , Water statistics in México, 2013. Water availability in México by type of source. Water in México Continental surface of AHR (km2) Renewable water (Hm3/year) Surface water : Rivers, Lakes and Ponds. (Hm3/year) Groundwater (Hm3/year) Available resource 2012-2013 1, 959, 248.00 471,498.00 378,873.00 92,625.00 Source: FEA and CEMDA, 2006. www.agua.org.mx; CONAGUA, Water statistics in México, 2013; Mexican National Water Program 2014.-2018. México holds approximately 0.1% of total freshwater available globally, which determines that a significant percentage of the territory is classified as semidesert area. It is the reason why water is considered a strategic factor for the overall development of the country. In the world rankings, México is considered a country with low water availability. Across the country it rains approximately 1,488,819 Hm3 of water each year, with a normal rainfall annual average of 760 mm. • In México our Federal Constitution recognize and protect the human right for water so the Mexican government is required to guarantee this right and through the laws define just and fair ways for access, provision and proper use. • México has faced in recent years unprecedented problems of water security related to water supply, lack of technology development, shortage in several zones of the country and even privatization policies that have generated a high cost in social and human terms. 2. Overview of Water supply in México and collected wastewater. Cascada Apatlaco, Puebla. Image taken from Mexican National Water Program 2014.-2018 Improvement of Water supply and Sewer service in México % potable water coverage Source: Mexican National Water Program, 2014.-2018 year Sewer service coverage Water use in México. Water use Surface water (Hm3/year) Groundwater (Hm3/year) (Hm3/year) Extraction Percentage (%) Irrigation 41,200.00 22,200.00 63,400.00 76.6 Public water supply 4,700.00 7,300.00 12,000.00 14.5 Selfsupplying industry 1,400.00 1,900.00 3,300.00 4.0 Electric energy excluding hydroelectric power 3,600.00 400.00 4,000.00 4.9 Total 50,900.00 31,800.00 82,700.00 100 Source: CONAGUA , Water statistics in México, 2013. Total volume Water Stress Index = 100 x (3) (3) Consumptive water volume Highest stress Without stress Source: IADB, Wastewater treatment in México, 2013. Renewable water volume Collected Wastewater. Type of discharge Source: CONAGUA.Water Atlas in México, 2013. Discharge flow = Q (m3/s) Municipal Nonmunicipal (including industrial discharges) Volume for Irrigation use Total Collected as raw* Wastewater (Hm3/year) 229.7 7,240.00 6,610.00 3,435.58 Treated volume (Hm3/year) 99.8 3,150.00 1,910.00 279.65** BOD5 generated (millions of tonnes per year) --- 1.96 9.92 --- BOD5 removal by wastewater treatment plants (millions of tonnes per year) --- 0.7 1.30 --- *without any kind of partial treatment.. **Only primary treatment In México almost a 40% of the collected wastewater is treated but no more than a 15% reach the expected quality for reuse or returning to water resources. Sistema Cutzamala. Image taken from the Mexican National Water Program, 2014-2018. The pollution caused by discharges of wastewater and poor quality treated wastewater in our aquifer resources, has damaged at least the 24% of our water bodies of immediate use. 3. Wastewater treatment in México and reuse. Source: Wastewater treatment plant San Francisco de los Romo Aguascalientes, México, 2008 Wastewater treatment coverage in México Reported as 100% Higher than 60% Above the 40% Lower than 40% Source: IADB, Wastewater treatment in México, 2013. Statistics of wastewater treatment plants operating in México Type of Discharge Total plants in operation Installed capacity ( m3/s) Treated flow (Q = m3/s) Treatment Efficiency (%) Municipal 2,342 140.14 99.80 15 - 16 Non-municipal (including industry) 2,500 91.2 60.5 30-60 Source: CONAGUA. General Division of Drinking Water, Sewerage and Sanitation. 2013. Wastewater Treatment level (Data from non municipal systems mainly industries) Level Aim Plants in operation (m3/s) Operation flow (m3/s) Percentage (%) Adjust pH and remove particles 796 21.7 31.46 Remove organic material (BOD) 1518 34.7 60.00 Remove gases, ions and bacterias 74 1.18 2.92 Not specific --- 142 2.93 5.91 Total --- 2,530 60.51 100 Primary Secundary Tertiary Source: IADB, Wastewater treatment in México, 2013 and CONAGUA , Water statistics in México, 2013. Municipal wastewater treatment technology Treatment process Treated flow (m3/s) Treatment Percentage (%) Available Plants in México Activated sludge 40.6 46.2 550 Stabilization lagoons and ponds 15.6 17.5 700 Advanced primary 9.1 10.2 25 Source: Lahera Ramón, V. 2010 Water (wastewater) reuse in México • 40-45% of wastewater treated or not is used for irrigation. • 30-35% is available for returning up to water resources and since 2010 at least 510% is used to recharge groundwater aquifers. • 10-15% is diluted with storm tank water for different uses mainly as primary service water. • Also is used for co-mingled effluent in rivers and in natural runoff. • No more than 10% is treated with the required quality for industrial and domestic reuse, without human contact as primary service water. Source: Bunge, V. 2012; Lahera Ramón, V. 2010 and CONAGUA. General Division of Drinking Water, Sewerage and Sanitation. 2013. Causes • • • LACK OF MONEY LACK OF TECHNOLOGY and TRANSDISCIPLINARITY BAD COORDINATION and ORGANIZATION BETWEEN SOCIETY COMPONENTS (GOVERNMENT, INDUSTRIES, RESEARCH CENTERS, NGOs and CITIZENS) • • • • ABSENCE OF REGULATIONS and LAWS POOR SUSTAINABILITY IN THE PROCESSES LACK OF EDUCATION and TRAINING CORRUPTION 4. Mexican regulatory framework. The National Water Commission (CONAGUA) is the responsible for integrating and developing the National Water Program under the terms thereof and of the Planning Act, as well as updating and monitor its implementation, proposing criteria and guidelines that allow for unit and coherence to the actions of the Mexican government in reference to water as a national resource and their inherent public assets. Source: Mexican National Water Program 2014.-2018 National Water Program 2014-2018 The National Water Program (NWP) from 2014 to 2018 shows the essential value of water as a strategic element for attendance the basic needs of mexican population and promote the development of economic activities of the country in a framework that puts the care and preservation of the environment for future generations. This program is directly related with the National Development Plan 20132018. SEMARNAT The Mexican Ministry of Environment and Natural Resources (SEMARNAT) is responsible for reviewing the maximum permissible limits of pollutants currently included in the schedule for particular conditions of discharge into water bodies in the permits issued for that purpose. Source: Mexican National Water Program 2014.-2018 Current regulations México has established a regulatory framework that regulates wastewater discharges to receiving bodies through the following rules: NOM 001.- Establishes the maximum permissible limits of pollutants in wastewater discharges into national waters or assets. NOM 002.-Establishes the maximum permissible limits of pollutants in the wastewater discharge into the urban or municipal sewer systems . NOM 003.- Establishes the maximum permissible limits for contaminants in treated wastewater reused in public services. NOM 004.-Establishes specifications and maximum permissible limits of pollutants in sludge and biosolids for its use and disposal. Source: SEMARNAT, Envioronmental regulatory framework, 2013. Reuse program for treated wastewater. Basic points: Source: Mexican National Water Program 2014.-2018 I.- Reuse treated wastewater for irrigation. II.- Reuse of treated wastewater in industries promoting exchanging water for primary services with treated water. III.- Construction and expansion of networks of treated wastewater to incorporate effluents from municipal wastewater treatment plants in order to reuse water in industrial parks and for recharging groundwater aquifers. This action will be encouraged, once they comply with the relevant environmental quality provisions Current and Future Strategies. To better the current situation of our infrastructure for wastewater treatment and to achieve future plans on the reuse of treated wastewater, a series of strategies shall be followed: • Wastewater Collectors and treatment plants will be built with a holistic approach to watershed and aquifer. • It will be given a strong impulse to the reuse of treated wastewater, particularly for agricultural irrigation and industrial processes. • It has to be promoted with the states and municipalities, the proper functioning of the existing wastewater treatment plants, which means operating them efficiently and continuously. • Also It must be promoted that the industries treat their wastewater and improve the effectiveness of systems. Source: Mexican National Water Program 2014.-2018 Immediate actions. • • • • • Improve current systems Build new systems with better technology Search for new clean energy sources Reach the 100% reuse of treated wastewater. Design and apply new regulations to improve and better the management of water resources • Include more pollutants to be monitored and decrease the maximum permissible limits of them in those discharges which go directly to water resources • Increase the sustainability of our water management proceedings Source: Mexican National Water Program 2014.-2018 Requirements. • • • MONEY TECHNOLOGY and TRANSDISCIPLINARITY PERMANENT ASSOCIATION and BACKFEED BETWEEN SOCIETY COMPONENTS (GOVERNMENT, INDUSTRIES, RESEARCH CENTERS, NGOs and CITIZENS) • • • • REGULATIONS and LAWS DEVELOPMENT OF SUSTAINABILITY IN THE PROCESSES EDUCATION and TRAINING ETHICS (VANISHING OF CORRUPTION) 5. Case of study: Wastewater treatment plant from El Colegio de México A.C.: a successful but realistic story. • El Colegio de México, A.C. (commonly known as Colmex, English: The College of Mexico) is a prestigious Mexican institute of higher education, specializing in teaching and research in social sciences and humanities. he college was founded in 1940 by the Mexican Federal Government, the Bank of México (Banco de México), the National Autonomous University of México (UNAM), and the Fondo de Cultura Económica. Environmental certification. • In 2011 El Colegio de México as part of its planning to obtain the environmental certification from the government of the Federal District (D.F.) started a project for the construction, operation and control of its own wastewater plant. Colegio de México WWTP Line Diagram System parameters Process (Dual) EA /MBRNF Treatment Flow (m3/day) Installed Capacity (m3/day) Water reuse volume (m3) Settling solids (%) Mean BOD influent (mg O2/L) Mean BOD effluent (mg O2/L) Extended Aeration (activated sludge) 50 75 40 95 - 98 1,650.00 60-90 MBR-NF 50 75 40 95- 98 2, 500.00 20-30 Costs Plant cost (USD) 493,600.50 Elimination efficiency (%) as MBR-NF 98.80-99.00 Specific Regulation Annual Maintenance cost (USD) $/m3 (pesos/cents of dollar) Operators (six days per week) NOM 003 35,000 3.6 /0.28 2 Water (wastewater) reuse Water reuse Volume (m3 per day) Garden Irrigation 8 Groundwater recharge 11 Sanitary services 18 Almost 40% of maintenance is used for membranes, irrigation system and sanitary water supply (bombs) Conclusions • An efficiently wastewater treatment plant will have at the beginning a large inversion recovery cost and it will be necessary invest in training the personal in charge. • Water reuse of course will bring saving money but the initial inversion recovery and the annual maintenance cost will avoid for a time period get benefits. • New technology is expensive but it is necessary in order to keep, take care and recover our water resources THANKS A LOT !!!! ANY QUESTION ????? REFERENCES. • • • • • • • • • • • • • Cantor, J.; Sutton, P.M.; Steinheber, R.; Novachis, L. (2000) Industrial Biotreatment Plant Capacity Expansion and Upgrading Through Application of Membrane Biomass-Effluent Separation. Proceedings of the WEF 73rd Annual Conference & Exposition, Anaheim, CA. Hall, E.R.; Bérubé, P.R.; Sutton, P.M. (2006) Membrane Bioreactors for Anaerobic Treatment of Wastewaters. Project 02-CTS-4, Water Environment Research Foundation. Knoblock, M.D.; Sutton, P.M.; Mishra, P.N.; Gupta, K.; Janson, A. (1994) Membrane Biological Reactor System for Treatment of Oily Wastewaters. Water Environment Research, 66 (2), pp.133-139. Le-Clech, P.; Fane, A.; Leslie, G. (2005) MBR Focus: The Operators Perspective. Filtration & Separation, June pp. 20-23. Lei, E.; Bérubé, P.R. (2004) Impact of Membrane Configuration and Hydrodynamic Conditions on the Permeate Flux in Submerged Membrane Systems for Drinking Water Treatment. 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